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Prepared by: Darrel Nogodula Rey Millama

What is radar?
 RADAR was coined in 1940 by the United States Navy as an acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging.  Remote detection system used to locate and identify objects.

 A radar system sends out radio waves.  When the waves strike an airplane or other object, some of the waves bounce back.  The waves that come back provide information to the radar operator.

W. • During the war. • The British and US Military used radar to locate ships and airplanes. radar operators found annoying blips continually appearing on the radar screen. II. • Scientists had not known that radar would be sensitive enough to detect precipitations. .History of Radar • Radar was developed for military purposes during W.

How Radar Works? • • • • Transmitter system Reception elements Radar frequencies Clutter .

.Transmitter system  Oscillator is a device that produces a pure electrical signal at the desired frequency. it sends the signal. or modulates the signal from the oscillator.  Transmitter increases the power of the oscillator signal.  Antenna is responsible after the transmitter amplifies the radar signal to the required level.  Modulator is the stage which rapidly varies.

 Receiver radar systems need analog-to-digital converters to change the received signal from an analog form to a digital form. Often the receiver uses the same antenna as the transmitter. .  Display of received signal amplitude.Reception elements  Antenna The receiver uses an antenna to gather the reflected radar signal. or strength. Duplexer enables a radar system to transmit powerful signals and still receive very weak radar echoes.

. • Tracking radar. needs higher resolution and so uses higher frequencies. which precisely locates objects and tracks their movement.Radar frequencies • Operating frequencies ranging from 150 MHz – 95 GHz. • The frequency of the radar system is related to the resolution of the system. VHF to EHF • Specific ranges of frequencies work well for certain applications.

Clutter • Clutter is what radar users call radar signals that do not come from actual targets. which subtracts out every other radar return from the total signal. • a moving target indicator (MTI). . • Engineers have developed several systems to take advantage of the difference in Doppler shifts between clutter and moving targets. • Such echoes can produce signals that the radar system may mistake for actual targets.

Two Basic Radar Types • Pulse Transmission • Continuous Wave .

Pulse Diagram PRF Resting Time PW Carrier Wave .

Display Unit Antenna Control Receiver .Pulse Radar Components Synchronizer Transmitter Power Supply Duplexer ANT.

Pulse Transmission • Pulse Repetition Time (PRT=1/PRF) • Pulse Width (PW) – Length or duration of a given pulse – PRT is time from beginning of one pulse to the beginning of the next – PRF is frequency at which consecutive pulses are transmitted. . • PRF can determine the radar’s maximum detection range. • PW can determine the radar’s minimum range resolution.

Continuous Wave Radar • Employs continual RADAR transmission • Relies on the “DOPPLER EFFECT” .

Continuous Wave Radar Components CW RF Oscillator OUT Discriminator AMP Mixer IN Antenna Indicator .

Continuous Wave • Requires 2 Antennae • No Range or Alt. Info • High SNR • More Difficult to Jam But Easily Deceived • Amp can be tuned to look for expected frequencies .Pulse Vs. Continuous Wave Pulse Echo • Single Antenna • Gives Range & Alt. • Susceptible To Jamming • Physical Range Determined By PW and PRF.

Civilian aircraft and maritime industries use radar to avoid collisions and to keep track of aircraft and ship positions. who use it to track weather patterns. Radar also has many other scientific applications.  Radar is important to meteorologists.Radar application Many industries depend on radar to carry out their work. as well as for tracking military targets. . Military craft also use radar for collision avoidance.

Radar application • • • • • • Air.traffic control Maritime navigation Military defense attack Traffic safety Meteorology Scientific applications .

5 feet in diameter with 2677 element positions. The two building faces supporting the arrays. Each system has two array faces 72. . will monitor 240 degrees of azimuth.AN/FPS-115 PAVE PAWS Early Warning Radar Array Antenna • PAWS stands for Phased Array Warning System. • To provide surveillance across the horizon. The radar is used primarily to detect and track sea-launched and intercontinental ballistic missiles. the building is constructed in the shape of a triangle. • It can search over long distance(to 5000 km or more). each covering 120 degrees.

control and communications needed by commanders of U. . command. it is the premier air battle command and control aircraft in the world today. and NATO air defense forces.S.Edgewall Slot Array-AN/APY-2 on E3D Aircraft • The E-3 Sentry is an airborne warning and control system (AWACS) aircraft that provides all-weather surveillance. As proven in Desert Storm.

low frequency antennas are larger than high frequency. • Transmitter In general. because of the larger effective area associated with a given gain. . more radio frequency power can be produced at low frequency than at high. Low frequency are favored for long-range search applications.Radar Performance and Frequency Bands • Bandwidth The bandwidth determines the range resolution and frequency agility capabilities of the radar. allowing more effective capture of echoes. • Antenna For a given gain.

. and have small. A given raindrop has over three orders of magnitude more scattering crosssection at X-band(10 GHz) than at Lband(1. Targets If the wavelength is long compared to the target extent. targets are Rayleigh scatterers. Propagation The attenuation at high frequency is dramatic. non-fluctuating RCS. producing far more clutter and signal at the higher frequency.3 GHz).Receiver There is no clear choice between high and low frequencies.

arigatou gozaimasu Sayonara!!!!!! .