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Sonar

History
• Sound Navigation And Ranging (SONAR) developed during WW II
– Sound pulses emitted reflected off metal objects with characteristic ping – Like radar and lidar time of flight is measured to determine distance – Early sonar gave only distance and direction to target – Modern sonar used for mapping

History • GIS-compatible bathymetric data now available for many regions – Used for geologic mapping of seafloor – Search and recovery operations – Environmental monitoring .

water. earth) • Measured by frequency instead of wavelength (λ) – How is frequency related to λ? .Principles of SONAR • Sound waves are a mechanical vibration – Can only travel through an elastic medium (air.

sound travels about 1.Principles • f = vw / λ – Vw is the speed and f is frequency • Usually give as cycles/second or hertz (Hz) • Human hearing in the rage of 20 – 20.000 Hz • Sound waves are much slower than EM radiation – In water.500 m/s – Speed of light is about 3 x 108 m/s .

Principles • Ultrasound is used in medicine and sometimes in engineering – Uses frequencies of 1-15 MHz .

200 kHz – Multibeam – to 6.Principles • In environmental work there are three kinds of sonar – Side-scan • Usually in the range of 100 kHz .200 kHz • Lower frequency = longer range and reduced spatial resolution .000 m deep • Usually at 12 kHz .400 kHz – Single beam • Usually at 12 kHz .

shape and texture of features – Can determine length. width and height • The sonar is usually mounted on a sled or towfish and dragged close to the bottom – About 10% of the maximum acoustic range – Low angle to emphasize surface relief .Side-Scan Sonar • Has been used to detect objects and map bottom characteristics – Shows size.

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• Image swaths about 100-500 m wide • Usually do 200% coverage to eliminate gaps – Especially the track underneath the vessel since that is not imaged – Far field image is degraded .

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Side Scan • Strong returns are brighter – Influenced by slope and surface roughness – Smooth surface is darker • Objects sticking up will create shadows much like radar .

Container ship .

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Acoustic Lens Sonar • Provides high resolution at close range in turbid water – Developed in the 1990s • Frequencies between 1-2 MHz • Range of 1-30 m • Uses plastic lenses instead of electronics to focus the beams onto a linear array of acoustic transducers (like imaging scanners) – Produces the image .

• Acoustic beamforming modifies the propagation of sound by introducing spatially dependent delays into a wavefront. – This focuses incoming sound from a single source or direction into a small volume of space so that it can be detected by a single transducer. – Acoustic beamforming can be implemented using electronic circuitry or an acoustic lens .

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Acoustic Lens Sonar • Used to produce video at a rate of 6-20 frames per second • Used primarily by military to see in dark .

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because only a single point for each pulse under the transducer .Single Beam Sonar • Used primarily for mapping channels and for engineering applications • Uses only a single source • Does not produce much data.

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Delaware. The points are classified as algae (green) or no algae (light blue). . The points were processed and used to derive a coarse map of the algae distribution (dark green squares).Acoustic data points collected along intertwining transects in Rehoboth Bay.

Multibeam Sonar • Sensor uses an array of sources and receivers – Energy focused on a narrow strip beneath the ship – Multiple echoes give a profile of depths along a strip perpendicular to ship track • Swath width depends on depth – Usually 2-4x water depth .