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Presented by: Azni Zulaikha Intan Syamimi Nur Aimi Nur Syaza







/ aıd / .I + had = I‟d .CONTRACTION  Contraction is shortening of a word.I + would = I‟d . Examples: „had‟ „would‟: spelt „d ./ aıd / .ELISION.

pronounced ə after vowels.„have‟: spelt „ve .„you‟ / ju: / + are = you‟re / jʊə / or / jɔː / . usually with some change in the proceeding vowel.I + have = I‟ve / aıv /  are : spelt „re . -eg: .

Contractions „are‟ is also pronounced as /ə/ or /ər/ when following consonants.Example: they + are = they‟re / ðeə / „not‟ : spelt n‟t . .Example: could + not = couldn‟t / kʊdnt / .

LINKING • Link words together in special ways. .

LIAISON Smooth linking or joining together of words in connected speech .

.But when a word spell with final r and a word beginning with a vowel follows. the usual pronunciation is to pronounce with / r / .LINKING /r/ Linking / r / .Phoneme / r / is not pronounce in syllable-final position.

Linking /r/ • In the words far and four. the r-sounds suggested by the spelling are not normally pronounced • The r-sounds are pronounced only when followed by words beginning with a vowel as in the sequences : • far away /fɑr əˈweɪ/ • four eggs /fɔr ɛgz/ .

/hɪər ə / Four ./fɔːr eɡz/ Care about – /keər əbaʊt/ Care ./fɔː/ Four eggs ./keə/ ./hɪə/ Here are .OTHER EXAMPLES OF LINKING /r/ Here .

Examples : -Formula A .Intrusive /r/ • BBC speakers often join the words with the letter ‘r’ even when it does not occur in the written form. • It appears between two words when the first word ends with /ə/ or /ɔː/./fɔːmjələr eɪ/ -Media event ./miːdiər ɪˈvent/ . • This sound is just inserted and pronounced by the speaker.

INTRUSIVE /w/ • The intrusive /w/ sound occur when face a „vowel-vowel‟ word junction./gəʊ wɒf/ ./ju: wa:/ • Go off . • The lesser of two evils – / tuːw iːvl/ • You are .

then /j/ sound is added between the two words. • Example : i) That was me on the phone.INTRUSIVE /j/ • When the word before also ends with a vowel sound. /bɔɪj eɪt/ iii) She must be out./miːjɒn/ ii) The boy ate all his dinner. /biːj aʊt/ .

.JUNCTURE • “Intrusive r” and other forms of linking are related to the linguistic phenomenon of juncture. • Juncture is defined as the relationship between one sound and the sounds that immediately precede and follow it.

• 2 types of internal juncture .INTERNAL JUNCTURE • Identify a type of juncture that occurs within a phrase.

INTERNAL CLOSE JUNCTURE • The normal transition from one phoneme to the next within an utterance. • Example : TRAIN (the close juncture is determined by the manner of transition /t/ to /r/ .

• Examples : A NAME AN AIM NIGHT RATE NITRATE . This is a manner of transition from one phoneme to the next in 2 utterances.INTERNAL OPEN JUNCTURE • It is a manner of transition which contrast with close juncture. It keeps meaning apart.

DOUBLE BAR JUNCTURE • This is a terminal juncture that means arise in pitch. • Example : Are you ok? a: + ju: + ke: .

This pause determines a change in the sense or meaning of the expression.Single bar juncture • This is a terminal juncture that is marked by a sustention of the voice. • Example : I can tell Mary  ai + kaen + tel meri: I can tell . Mary  a: + kaen + tel | meri: .