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THE GROSS

APPEARANCE OF
SPINAL CORD

Lecturer: Emmaruth B.
Bautista, PTRP
EXTERNAL
ANATOMY
External Anatomy
 Length: 42-45 cm
 Roughly cylindrical
 Superiorly: foramen magnum
 Inferiorly: adult- lower border of 1st
vertebra
 Young child: upper border of 3rd
lumbar vertebra
 Occupies upper 2/3 of vertebral canal
 Covered by 3 meninges ( PAD )
Enlargements
 Fusiformly enlarged:
 Cervical enlargement
– BRACHIAL PLEXUS

 Lumbar enlargement
– LUMBOSACRAL PLEXUS
 CSF- further protects SC
 Subarachnoid space
 CONUS MEDULLARIS- tapered end of
SC
 FILUM TERMINALE- prolongation of
pia mater
– Descends to attach to the posterior
surface of coccyx
Segments
 Cervical
 Thoracic
 Lumbar
 Sacral
 Coccygeal
Longitudinal Divisions
 Anterior median fissure
 Posterior median sulcus
 Ventrolateral sulcus
 Dorsal lateral sulcus
Spinal roots and Nerves
 31 pairs of spinal nerves.

– Ventral root: MOTOR ROOTS


– Dorsal root: SENSORY ROOTS
 DORSAL ROOT GANGLION
 Gives rise to peripheral & central nerve
fibers
Ventral Root
 Biceps - C5/6
 Brachioradialis - C5/6
 Triceps - C7 (C6-8)
 Finger flexors - C8 (C7-T1)
 Knee - L3 (L2-L4)
 Ankle - S1 (L5-S2)
Dorsal Root
 Clinically important dermatomes
 C2 and C3 - Posterior head and neck
 C4 and T2 - Adjacent to each other in the
upper thorax
 Nipple - T4 or T5
 Umbilicus - T10
 Upper extremity
– C5 - Anterior shoulder
– C6 - Thumb
– C7 - Index and middle fingers
– C 7/8 - Ring finger
– C8 - Little finger
– T1 - Inner forearm
– T2 - Upper inner arm
– T2/3 - Axilla
Dorsal Root
 Lower extremity
– L1 - Anterior upper-inner thigh
– L2 - Anterior upper thigh
– L3 - Knee
– L4 - Medial malleolus
– L5 - Dorsum of foot
– L5 - Toes 1-3
– S1 - Toes 4,5; lateral malleolus
 S3/C1 - Anus
Branches of Spinal Nerves
 Posterior primary division.
 Anterior primary division.
 Rami communicantes.
 Recurrent meningeal branches.
INTERNAL
ANATOMY
Gray Matter
 H-shaped pillar
 HORN-each arm of the H
 resulting in two anterior horns and
two posterior horns.
 gray commissure- The connecting
middle portion is called
 Related to the amount of muscle
innervated at the level.
 The gray matter can be divided into
10 laminae/layers or into 4 parts:
 anterior or ventral horn (ie, motor
neurons; laminae VIII, IX, and part of
VII),
 posterior or dorsal horn (ie, sensory
part; laminae I-VI), intermediate
zones (ie, associate neurons; lamina
VII), and lateral horns (ie, part of the
intermediate zone, present in the
thoracic and lumbar segments,
where sympathetic neurons are
located).
White Matter
 Divisions:
– Anterior column
– Posterior column
– Lateral column

 Consistsof a mixture of nerves,


neuroglia, and blood vessels.
Anterior Column
 Contains alpha and gamma motor
neurons.
 3 groups:
GROUP INNERVATION
Medial Mm of trunk, neck,
abdomen & intercostals
Central Phrenic, accessory, &
lumbosacral
Lateral
Mm of the limbs
Posterior Column
 Reaches almost to the posterolateral
sulcus.
 Nerve cell groups
– Substantia gelatinosa groups
– Nucleus proprius
– Nucleus dorsalis ( Clarkes’s Column )
– Visceral afferent nucleus
Substantia Gelatinosa
 Located at apex of posterior gray
column
 Pain & temperature
 Great amount of Substance P
Nucleus Proprius
 Anteriorto the substantia gelatinosa.
 Main bulk of posterior column.
 Receives from posterior WHITE
column.
 PROPRIOCEPTION, 2 PT.
DISCRIMINATION, VIBRATION
Nucleus Dorsalis
 Clark’sColumn
 Base of the posterior gray column
 From C8-L4 segment
 Propioceptive endings
 ( mm spindle & tendon spindle )
Visceral Afferent Nucleus
 Lateralto the nucleus dorsalis.
 From T1-L3 segments.
 Receives visual afferent information.
Laminae
Lamin Description
a
I Responds to noxious stimuli

II SG; High concentrations of Substance


P.
III & IV Nucleus Proprius

V Responds to noxious stimuli


Laminae
VI Deepest layer of the dorsal horn;
responds to mechanical signals from
joints & skin
VII Anterior & posterior column;
intermediolateral nucleus in the
thoracic & upper lumbar regions
VIII & Medial & lateral nuclei of the anterior
IX column

X Around the central canal