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► Special - purpose algorithm used in linear programming. Objective : To find assignment : Which job should be assigned to which worker (machine) so that cost for performing all the jobs should be minimized OR profit after performing the jobs should be maximize.

Basic Characteristics

1. Number of jobs should be equal to number of workers (machines). 2. One job should be assigned to one worker (machine) OR One worker (machine) should be assigned with one job. 3. Every worker is able to do every kind of jobs.

Assignment Method

Assignment Method is also known as Flood’s technique or the Hungarian method, provides much more efficient method of solving assignment problems.

**Steps in the assignment Method
**

Step I. Determine the opportunity-cost table.

a. Subtract the lowest entry in each row of the given cost table from all entries in the row. b. Subtract the lowest entry in each column of the obtained in part a from all entries in the column.

**Assignment Model (Example)
**

To From

Machine X 25(cost)

Machine Y 31

Machine Z 35

Job A

Job B

Job C

15

22

20

19

24

17

**Job Opportunity cost
**

TO From

Machine X 0 0

Machine Y 6 5

Machine Z 10 9

Job A Job B

Job C

5

2

0

**Assignment Model (Example Contd.)
**

Machine Opportunity Cost

TO From

Machine X

Machine Y

Machine Z

Job A

Job B Job C

0

0 5

4

3 0

10

9 0

**Assign The Jobs To Machines
**

To From

Machine X

Machine Y

Machine Z

Job A

Job B Job C

0 0

5

4

3 0

10

9 0

**Assignment Method (Contd.)
**

Step II. Determine whether an optimal assignment can be made.

The Procedure is to cover all the zeroes by minimum number of lines. So, to cover the zeroes, we use Hungarian Method.

**Steps in Hungarian Method
**

1. 2. 3. 4. Mark the row with no assignment. Mark column with zeroes in the marked rows. Mark rows with assignment in the marked columns. Repeat this process for the row scanning and column scanning. Draw straight lines through unmarked rows and marked columns.

**Assignment Model (Example Contd.)
**

To From

Machine X 0 0 5

Machine Y 4

Machine Z 10

Job A

Job B

Job C

3

0

9

0

To

From

Machine X

0 0 5

Machine Y

4 3

Machine Z

10 9 0

Job A Job B Job C

0

Minimum value is 3

**Assignment Method (Contd.) (with example)
**

Step III. Revise the total opportunity – cost table.

a. Select the smallest number in the table not covered by the straight lines and subtract this number from all number not covered by a straight line. b. Add this numbers to the numbers lying at the intersection of any two lines.

To

From

Machine X Machine Y Machine Z 0 0 8 1 0 0 7 6 0

Job A Job B Job C

Now, Again assign the jobs to the machines, as done in step I.

**Assignment Model (Example Contd.)
**

To From

Machine X

0

Machine Y 1

0

Machine Z 7 6

0

Job A Job B Job C

0 8

0

Now, we see that, Job A assigned to Machine X with cost 25 Job B assigned to Machine Y with cost 20 Job C assigned to Machine Z with cost 17 Total cost is (25+20+17 = 62) to assign jobs to different machines.

**Maximization Problem In Assignment Method
**

Problem : Heidi Kurtweiler manages the Jamesville Car Rental Agency. This year, she plans to purchase five new automobiles to replace five older vehicles. The older vehicles are to be sold at auction. Heidi has solicited bids from five individuals, each of whom wishes to purchase only one vehicle but has agreed to make a sealed bid on each of the five. The bids are as follows :

Automobile Buyer’s name Ford Dodge Bulck Volkswagen Toyota

A

B C D E

$3,000

3,500 2,800 3,300 2,800

$2,500

3,000 2,900 3,100 3,500

$3,300

2,800 3,900 3,400 3,600

$2,600

2,800 2,300 2,900 2,900

$3,100

3,300 3,600 3,500 3,000

Heidi wishes to determine which bid to accept from each of the five bidders so that each of them can purchase one vehicle while the total of the five Accepted bids is a maximum.

**Solution Part of Maximization Problem
**

Automobile Buyer’ s name Ford Dodge Bulck Volkswagen Toyota

A

B C D

$900

400 1100 600

$1400

900 1000 800

$600

1100 0 500

$1300

1100 1600 1000

$800

600 300 400

E

1100

400

300

1000

900

Now, the above problem is Minimization Problem, which can be Solved as the earlier method.

Restrictions On Assignment

Problem Type I

Problem : In the modification of a plant layout of a factory four new machines M1, M2, M3 & M4 are to be installed in a machine shop. There are five vacant places A, B, C, D & E available. Because of limited space, machine M2 cannot be placed at C and M3 cannot be placed at A. The cost of locating of machine I to place j in rupees is shown below. Find the optimal assignment schedule. A 9 12 14 B 11 9 11 8 C 15 14 12 D 10 10 11 7 E 11 9 7 8

M1 M2 M3 M4

**Problem Type I (Contd.)
**

A M1 M2 M3 M4 Dummy Step I M1 M2 M3 M4 Dummy 9 12 M 14 0 A 0 3 M 7 0 B 11 9 11 8 0 B 2 0 4 1 0 C 15 M 14 12 0 C 6 M 7 5 0 D 10 10 11 7 0 D 1 1 4 0 0 E 11 9 7 8 0 E 2 0 0 1 0

**Problem Type I (Contd.)
**

A M1 M2 M3 M4 Dummy

0

B 2

0

C 6 M 7 5

0

D 1 1 4

0

E 2 0

0

3 M 7 0

4 1 0

0

1 0

Machine M1 will be placed at A with cost of 9 Machine M2 will be placed at B with cost of 9 Machine M3 will be placed at E with cost of 7 Machine M4 will be placed at D with cost of 7 Dummy machine will be placed at C with cost 0

Total Cost = 9+9+7+7+0 = 32

Problem Type II

Problem : A salesman has to visit five cities A, B, C, D and E. The intercity distances are tabulated below : From/To A B C D E A 12 24 25 15 B 6 16 18 7 C 10 11 18 12 D 14 17 22 16 E 12 13 23 25 Note that the distance (in km.) between two cities need not be same both ways. If the salesman starts from city A and has to come back to city A, which route would you advise him to take so that total distance travelled by him is minimized?

**Problem Type II (Contd.)
**

To From

A 6 10 14 12

B 12 11 17 13 B 0 M 1 3 1

C 24 16 22 23 C 12 10 M 8 11

D 25 18 18 25 D 13 12 8 M 13

E 15 7 12 16 E 3 1 2 2 M

A B C D E Step I (a)

From To

A M 0 0 0 0

A B C D E

**Problem Type II (Contd.)
**

Step I (a)

From To

A M 0 0 0 0

B 0 M 1 3 1 B

0

C 4 2 M 0 3 C 4 2 M

0

D 5 4 0 M 5 D 5 4

0

E 2 0 1 1 M E 2

0

A B C D E Step II

To From

A M 0 0 0

0

A B C D E

M 1 3 1

1 1 M

M 5

3

**Problem Type II (Contd.)
**

The optimal assignments are : (A to B) + (B to E) + (E to A) + (C to D) + (D to C) = 12+7+18+22+12 = 71 km. In above problem we see that the salesman travelled from A to B then B to E and after that he comes back to A from E. Which is not allowed in such kind of problems. Now, we have to move at next best solution.

To From

A M 0 0

B

0

C 4

2

D 5 4

0

E 2 0 1

1

A B C

M 1

M

D

E

0

0

3

1

0

3

M

5

M

The next minimum (non zero) element in the matrix is 1. So, we try into the solution. Another schedule can be : A→B, B →E, E →C, C→D, D→A involving distance of 12+7+23+18+14 = 74 km.

Earlier routing was involving 71 km. is the shortest, but it does not satisfy the restrictions.

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