 The

salivary glands are exocrine glands that produce salvia.

 Surgically the Facial nerve divide the gland into superficial and deep lobes. external carotid artery where it gives the maxillary and temporal arteries traverse the gland  . found around the mandibular ramus anterior and inferior to the external ear  It secretes saliva through Stensens duct into the oral cavity. to facilitate mastication and swallowing. inferior aspect of the gland to supply the muscles of facial expression .  Facial nerve where it comes from the skull through stylomastoid foramen and enter the posterior aspect of the gland and divided in 2 trunks and gives terminal branches and emerge from upper .  Also the posterior facial vein .It is the largest of the gland. anterior .

 Two parts the first part ( superficial ) is present beneath the deep fascia in the digastric triangle between the body of mandible and the mylohyoid  It opens in the mouth floor through right and left ducts on either sides of the frenum .

 They are drained by 8-20 excretory ducts called the ducts of Rivinus. beneath the mucous membrane of the floor of the mouth. They lie anterior to the submandibular gland under the tongue. .

 Mumps is the commonest cause of salivary gland swelling.  Bilateral or unilateral painful parotid gland swelling with fever  The disease is self-limiting .

 Obstruction of the Stensons duct by a stone is another cause of infection. The patient complains of pain and swelling in the side of the face.Bacterial parotitis is common in the elderly postoperative patients. tender . with fever The gland is diffusely enlarged. Gentle pressure on the gland can produce a bead of pus at the duct opening. It becomes throbbing if an abscess forms. or evidence of abscess formation( throbbing pain){don’t weit for fluctation } needs surgical drainage  .  The commonest organism is Staphylococcus aureus. because of poor oral hygiene and dehydration. firm with red skin A stone may sometimes be felt in the duct by bimanual examination.  Antibiotics and hot fomentation is used initially  Failure of 48 hour conservative treatment.

as well as the its dependant duct .  The stone either resides in the gland or in the duct. causing either localized or generalized painful gland swelling while eating  A calculus may also cause acute or recurrent attacks of sialadenitis  .  The saliva of the submandibular gland is more viscous with high calcium concentration.Stones sometimes form from the constituents of saliva or as result of chronic and recurrent sialadenitis. Salivary mud or stones can block the minor or major ducts. so the submandibular stone incidence is higher than the parotid and the sublingual glands.

 Plain radiograph  stone in the submandibular gland is radioopaque in 80%  parotid stones are radiolucent. They shows as filling defects in Sialography .

A stone that is palpable within a duct can be removed through the mouth but a stone within the gland substance must be removed with the whole submandibular or gland .

 In some rare cases an internal fistula results from ulceration of a duct stone the the mouth cavity.  Less commonly it complicates surgery on the gland.A fistula that discharges saliva to the skin of the cheek may result from accidental trauma injuring the parotid gland or duct. which is a harmless condition that deserves no treatment .

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 Surgical treatment is usually necessary.A fistula arising from the gland substance usually heals spontaneously. .  That arises from the duct is unlikely to heal because of the high rate of salivary flow.

Sjogrens disease common in women .  Treatment artificial tears from methylcellulose helps to combat eye dryness oral hygiene  Steroids    . Its manifestations include dryness of the mouth (xerostomia). dryness of the eye .rheumatoid arthritis.  Some patients complain of salivary gland discomfort or have sialomegaly  Patients are 44 times prone to the development of lymphoma than the general population.

or thyroid insufficiency . and ovarian. malnutrition. and contraceptive pills. iodide containing compounds. phenylbutazone. diabetes. pancreatic.  Metabolic and endocrine causes include liver cirrhosis. alcoholism. hypotensive drugs. Drug-induced enlargement of the salivary glands found with sulfisoxazole. thiouracils.

and in 70% of neoplasms of the sublingual and minor salivary glands. The majority of these neoplasms are benign and arise in the parotid gland.  The incidence of malignancy varies inversely with the size of the gland. in 40% of submandibular neoplasms. . thus it occurs in 25% of parotid neoplasms.

The commonest salivary neoplasm is pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid.  This tumor is characterized by an incomplete capsule that allows extension of the Neoplastic epithelium into the surrounding tissues  It is slowly growing without infiltrating the facial nerve  Long-standing (more than 10 years) pleomorphic adenomas rarely turn into carcinoma     Adenolymphoma called also the warthins tumor Soft and cystic Affect older people .

 Three grades are described.grade tumours.  Adenoid cystic carcinoma is the commonest malignancy  Its has slow rate of growth. infiltrates for a long distance in the perineural tissues of adjacent nerves. Poor prognosis for high-grade tumors. low. intermediate. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma arises from the duct epithelium  It usually affects the parotid. This tumor is not encapsulated . . or high.

or has stopped growing  The mass is nontender. and has a smooth surface. the masseter nor the mandible  No facial nerve affection. firm in consistency (feels soft or cystic).  It does not infiltrate the skin. . The patient complains of a painless swelling on the side of the face for months or years and slowly growing.

there is evident weakness or paralysis of the facial muscles  The cervical lymph nodes are sometimes involved.  It may be adherent either to the skin or masseter or the mandible  If the tumour infiltrates the facial nerve.  .The patient commonly complains of a gradually enlarging swelling on the side of the face  Salivary malignancies do not usually grow as fast as other cancers in the body  The swelling is sometimes painful and pain may radiate to the ear.  It is firm or hard and has an irregular surface.

 CT scan and MRI for tumors arising from the deep part of the parotid  Surgery is the only reliable form of treatment of salivary neoplasms. In most cases clinical diagnosis is enough to proceed to treatment. .

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