Link-State Routing Protocols

© 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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0.2/8 14.0. Each router will discover its neighbors (direct connected +operate with link state protocols) using the “hello protocol“ (layer-3 protocol).1/8 11.0.0.0. Link 10.0. 2.Link-State Routing Protocols 14.0. State Up Up up Metric 10 Metric 10 Metric 10 Advertiser Router ID C 3 .0.2/8 11.0.2/8 Operation : At Startup 1. Inc.0.0. All rights reserved.1/8 12.1/8 12.1/8 © 2004.0.1/8 13.0.0.0. Cisco Systems.0. Each router will form a packet called link state advertisement (LSA) describing itself.0.0.2/8 13.0.0.0.1/8 11.0.0.1/8 10.1/8 12.0.0.1/8 15.0.

.0. Each router will flood its LSA to all its neighbors on special multicast address .1/8 Metric 10 Up 12.1/8 15.1/8 14.0.1/8 Metric 10 Metric 10 Metric 10 Metric 10 Metric 10 Metric 10 Metric 10 Up up Up up Up Up up 4 B D A © 2004.0. Then sends it as it is to all its neighbors.0.0. Each neighbor that receives a LSA will do the following: a.0.2/8 14.0.0.0.0. Inc. b. so LSA of each router will be flooded in the AS. Cisco Systems.2/8 13.1/8 Metric 10 Up 11. C Link State Data Base (LSDB) 10.0.0. All rights reserved. 4.0.0.0.0.0.1/8 Metric 10 up 11.0. take a copy of it in its LSDB (Link state Data Base).0.2/8 13.0.Link-State Routing Protocols 3.2/8 12.

0.0. Cisco Systems.0.2/8 13. Inc. Each router will apply Dijekstra algorithm (SPF Algorithm) on the LSDB tree to get “SPF (Shortest Path First) Tree.2/8 D 13.0.0.0.0.0.0.2/8 A 14.1/8 .2/8 B 14.0.0.1/8 SPF Tree 7. All rights reserved. LSDB Tree Dijekstra Algorithm ”SPF Algorithm” 10.0.0.1/8 © 2004.0. 6.0.1/8 11.0.0. 12.1/8 LSDB Tree 5 15.0.1/8 c 12. The SPF Tree will then be translated to a routing table.0. 11.0. Every router will draw the LSDB Tree that describe the actual connection of the network topology.Link-State Routing Protocols 5.

All rights reserved. 6 . to make LSDB refreshment. • At change: The router that feels a change will send triggered partial update containing the effected entry only to its neighbors and the process is repeated all over again. © 2004. Cisco Systems. Inc.Link-State Routing Protocols • At convergence: Each router will only send periodic LSA every 30 min.

All rights reserved.Link-State Routing Protocols © 2004. 7 . Cisco Systems. Inc.

© 2004. Cisco Systems. 8 . All rights reserved.No periodic updates.Link-state packets are sequenced and acknowledged (reliable protocol).Routers know the topology. Inc. •Lower bandwidth waste: .Advantages of Link-State Routing •Fast convergence: .Changes are reported immediately by the source affected (partial triggered updates) •Robustness against routing loops: . . •Classless.

Inc. so it requires very strict network design (multiple areas) • Complex configuration - © 2004. Cisco Systems.disadvantages of Link-State Routing • Significant demands for resources: Memory (three tables: adjacency. forwarding) CPU (Dijkstra’s algorithm can be intensive.) Network instability will affect the entire AS. 9 . topology. especially when a lot of instabilities are present. All rights reserved.

• Administrative Distance = 110 (R=120. © 2004. • Classless routing protocol • Supports hierarchical multiple area design.I=100) • Metric called cost = 10^8 / BWi • Hop-count is unlimited • Symbol in routing table is “O” • Loop free protocol (each router knows the topology). Cisco Systems. 10 . All rights reserved.OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) • Open standard • Link-state routing protocol • Use Dijkstra’s algorithm “SPF Algorithm”. Inc.

11 . • Less CPU usage. Inc.OSPF Hierarchical Design • Each router must know full details about its area & knows only summary about other areas. © 2004. • Less memory utility. Cisco Systems. • Area 0 is the backbone area and all other areas must be connected to area 0 • Network instability affect the area only .& not the entire network. All rights reserved.

X. Network Topologies Point-to-Point topology Broadcast Multiple Access (BMA) Ex: Ethernet Non Broadcast Multiple Access (NBMA) Ex: FR.ATM. All rights reserved.OSPF Topologies • The operation of the ospf depend on the network topology it’s working in. Cisco Systems. Inc. 12 .25 © 2004.

Router having highest priority per interface. -the routers that are not DR or BDR called drothers © 2004. 2. DR & BDR Election: -Q: How to elect a DR? 1.Router having highest router ID.same authentication password. 13 .5 (all ospf routers address) every 10 sec for BMA & every 30 sec for NBMA For OSPF routers to be neighbors they must have: .BMA & NBMA Operation 1. .0.1. .Neighbor Discovery : • • By sending hello messages periodically on multicast 224.same dead interval = 4 hello timer. Cisco Systems. Inc. The first router to boot up.0. . 2.same hello interval.the same area ID. All rights reserved. 3.

Cisco Systems. © 2004. • Router with priority=0 can’t be the DR or BDR. • If a new router with highest priority added . 14 .it won’t be the DR directly. All rights reserved.Priority • Priority is a number from (0-255) • By default all interfaces have priority=1 & we can change it by configuration. Inc.

Cisco Systems.255 2. © 2004.If no loopback interfaces the RID will take the highest IP configured on an active physical interface when the OSPF process get started.255.255. it is selected to be : 1-The highest IP address of loopback interface if exist (logical interface that is always up) to configure loopback interface : (config)# interface loopback no. All rights reserved.(0-4 billions) (config-if)# ip address ip mask 255. 15 . Inc.Router ID • Every router in OSPF environment is identified by RID • RID is 32 bit value.

2. Full adjacency (Full state): • Network reach full adjacency when all routers have date base of each others=full convergence 3.BMA & NBMA Operation 2.0.0.5 & receive ACK from them.0. Route Selection: • Apply Dijestra Algorithm on SPF tree to form the RTG table © 2004. Inc. 16 . All rights reserved.0.6 then DR & BDR send ACK to it • DR send the update to drothers on 224. Cisco Systems. Route Discovery: Exchange state • Each router sends its LSA or LSU to DR & BDR on 224.

Route discovery : .Same authentication password 2. . Route selection : . All rights reserved.0.Exchange LSA’s on 224.point to point operation 1. Neighbor discovery : . 17 .By sending hello messages periodically on multicast 224. Inc.Same dead interval = 4 hello timer.Same hello interval.5 (all ospf routers address) every 10 sec.Form the routing table © 2004.5 so as each router has the same LSDB 3. . Cisco Systems.The same area ID . .0.For OSPF routers to be neighbors they must have: .0.0.

18 .Configuring Single-Area OSPF Router(config)#router ospf process-id(1-65535) • Defines OSPF as the IP routing protocol Router(config-router)#network network wildcard-mask area area-id • Assigns networks to a specific OSPF area © 2004. Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.

19 . All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.OSPF Configuration Example 0 0 255 area 0 255 area 0 © 2004. Inc.

Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. 20 .OSPF Configuration Example © 2004.

Cisco Systems. Inc. 21 .Verifying the OSPF Configuration Router#show ip protocols • Verifies that OSPF is configured Router#show ip route • Displays all the routes learned by the router Router#show ip ospf interface • Displays area ID and adjacency information Router#show ip ospf neighbor • Displays OSPF neighbor information on a per-interface basis © 2004. All rights reserved.

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