CHAPTER 2

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS

Tutorial

1) Basic operation of airbags system 2) Basic operation of keyless entry system 3) Basic operation of tire pressure monito system 4) Basic operation antitheft system
Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Safety Restraint System(SRS)

Safety restraint system (SRS). Devices that reduce injury in the event of a accident. Typical examples include safety belts and airbags Type of SRS
   

Airbags driver and passenger Seat belt pre tensioner Side curtain air bag Lower air bags

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Air Bags, Driver and Passenger
 Air

bags are deployed when a vehicle detects forces on the vehicle that exceed a pre-set parameter  Air bags do not always deploy, because these parameters may not have been met  New generation air bags also have the ability to detect how much weight is in the seat and adjust the airbag deployment force

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Air Bags, Driver and Passenger
 Air

bags are deployed when a vehicle detects forces on the vehicle that exceed a pre-set parameter  Air bags do not always deploy, because these parameters may not have been met  New generation air bags also have the ability to detect how much weight is in the seat and adjust the airbag deployment force

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Air Bags, Driver and Passenger
The airbags is a supplement and the seat belt is the primary restraint system -Seat belt hold the occupants in the proper position when the airbags inflates -Seat belt the risk of injury in less severe accidents in which the air bag does not deploy -Seat belt reduces the risk of occupant ejection from the vehicle, thus reducing the possibility of injury

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Common component
 Sensors
 Diagnostic

Module  Clock spring  Air bag module

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Air bag module
    

Contains the airbag and inflator assembly packaged into a single module The purpose of the air bag module is to inflate the airbag in a few milliseconds when the vehicle is involved in a frontal collision It used pyrotechnology (explosive) to inflate the air bag. The igniter is an integral component of the inflator assembly because it starts a chemical reaction to inflate the air bag The ignitor is combustile device that convert electric energy into thermal energy to ignite the ignitor propellant Three component are required to create an explosion;fuel,oxygen & heat

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Clock springspring conducts electrical signals to the module while  Clock


allowing steering wheel rotation The clock spring maintain continuity between the air bar and body wiring harness as the steering wheel is rotated Clock spring electrical connector contains a long conductive ribbon. The wires from the air bags electrical system are connected through the underside of the clock spring electrical connector to one end of the conductive ribbon. The other end of conductive ribbon is connected through wires on the top side of the clock spring electrical connector to the airbag module.

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Cont’d

When the steering wheel is rotated, the conductive ribbon wind & unwinds allowing steering wheel rotation while completing electrical contact between the system and the air bag module

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Diagnostic module
Also called as Occupant restraint controller (ORC),constantly monitors the readiness of the air SRS electrical system.  ORC also supply the back up power to the air bag module in case of the battery or cable are damage during an accident.  Typical ORC perform the following function 1.Control the instrument panel warning lamp 2.Continuosly monitors all air bag system component 3.Control air bag system diagnostic function 4.Provide an energy reserve to deploy the airbag if the battery voltage is lost during a collision

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Sensor
 


 


Crash sensor usually located in the engine compartment or below the headlight. Crash sensor are normally open electrical switch designed to close when subjected to a pre determined impact. A single safing sensor usually located inside the ORC The safing sensor determines if the collision is severe enough to inflate the air bag. When one of the crash sensor and the safing sensor closes , the electrical circuit to the igniter is complete The igniter starts the chemical chain reaction that produces heat. The heat cause the generant to produce nitrogen gas,which fill the airbag

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Frontal Airbag

Frontal airbags are designed to deploy in moderate to severe frontal or near frontal crashes Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Seat Mounted Side Airbags

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Roof Rail Airbags

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Side Curtain Air Bags

Side curtain air bags are designed to

from side impacts

protect occupants

SRS Identification

There are two types  Curtain types that extend down the length of the window opening  Cylindrical type that protect only the area they occupy

• •

There is no standard identification system for safety restraint systems Many are clearly marked, but many are not On the next slide you will see some of the SRS markings, this is only a small example and you must use extreme caution when extricating patients from vehicles with un-deployed SRS

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
SRS

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
SRS

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
SRS

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
How It works
1. 2. Vehicle is involved in a 10 MPH or higher front end collision. At least 1 crash sensor and 1 momentum/deceleration sensor activated. A crash sensor is another safety inertia type sensor located inside the control module. This sensor is used to prevent unwanted deployments.

3.

Signal sent to air bag module to deploy bag.

4. Module deploys air bag in less the conventional systems.

7 ms

on drivers side

5. Nitrogen gasses released through vent holes in back of bag, bag deflates.

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Typical Component
Air Bags Crash Sensors System Wiring and Connectors Air Bag Module Clock Spring Smart System Devices

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Front Crash Sensors
• These devices are usually located in the front grill area or the kick pad/ fire wall areas. • They are designed to complete a circuit back to the air bag module when a hard enough crash is measured. • Most crash sensors will be located inside the air bag control Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin Department Of Mechanical Engineering module.

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Air Bag Control Module
 The air bag control module is almost always located inside the passenger compartment.  There are at least 1 and sometimes 2 more crash sensors located inside this unit that must also close for deployment to occur.  This unit is responsible for sending the deploy command to the air bag.

Crash Sensor

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Air Bag Assembly
• There could be as many as 14 of these air bags located throughout the vehicle. • The main assembly is located in the steering wheel. This units main purpose is to protect the passengers and driver in the event of a crash. • These could be inflated at different speeds depending on size and weight of occupants.

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Clock Springs
• Located inside the steering wheel. • This device is used to connect the hard wired air bag harness to the systems harness while allowing the steering wheel to maintain a full range of motion. Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Air Bag Circuit Harness and Connectors.
• The air bag harness and connectors are yellow in color. • DO NOT ATTEMPT ANY TYPE OF REPAIRS ON THIS CIRCUIT!

Typical Air Bag Harness

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Seat Belt Pre tensioners
   

Seat belt pre tensioners work in concern with the air bags as they deploy As the air bag receives the signal to deploy the seat belt pre tensioner pulls the seat belt tight against the body This allows the body to be held tightly against the seat as the air bag deploys Most seat belt pre tensioners are deployed using sodium azide (a chemical reaction producing a gas)

The buckle pre tensioner uses a pyrotechnic gas generator to propel a piston that is attached to the safety belt buckle with a cable. The cable pulls the buckle down toward the seat.

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Tire Pressure Monitoring System
 Tpms is an electronic systems that alert with a dash bord indicator light when cars tire pressure fall to the point needing inflation
 To help drivers recognize the importance of tire pressure safety and maintenance

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
How It Works

continuously monitor the pressure in the tires through sensors located in the tires (direct system) or the use of wheel speed and other vehicle
Tire pressure monitoring systems sensors (indirect system).

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS

is transmitted to an on-board processor that interprets the sensor signals and warns the driver when tire pressure is below the minimum acceptable level by illuminating a warning lamp.
The information collected by the sensors

 

Most system use a pressure sensor transmitter in each wheel. Wheel mounted tire pressure sensor are attached to the rim by a sleeve nut on the valve stems The TPS’s internal transmitter uses a 315 MHz signal to broadcast tire pressure & temperature information

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS

Benefit

is transmitted to an on-board processor that interprets the sensor signals and warns the driver when tire pressure is below the minimum acceptable level by illuminating a warning lamp.
The information collected by the sensors

 TPMS can increase safety on the road by improving vehicle's handling, decreasing tire wear, reducing braking distance and bettering fuel economy Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
OPTICAL TYPE SENSORS
• In electronic ignition systems, the contact breaker is eliminated and switching of the primary circuit is carried out electronically. • Optical sensors inside the distributor can be used to sense the crank angle position and an appropriate voltage signal is then sent to an engine management electronic control module.

How it works
• An infrared sensor triggers when a rotor blade blocks the light path. Although accurate, the sensor is sensitive to dirt and dust. • A signal rotor plate is attached to the distributor shaft. It has 360 slits at 1 degree intervals on it's outer edge.

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Cont’d
•As the rotor plate turns, it passes between two sets of diodes positioned in line with the slits. •Once the appropriate dwell period has elapsed, the module switches off the voltage applied to the base of the transistor and the transistor switches off the primary circuit.

•The high tension secondary voltage is then transmitted to the centre of the rotor arm and to the appropriate cylinder.

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal •This cycle is repeated for each cylinder Department Of Mechanical Engineering in turn.

Abidin

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Understand Security system Key less Entry system

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Main Component
 Control

module  Coded button keypad  Door lock motors

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
System function

 Unlock all doors when 3-4 button is pressed within 5 seconds after code entered  Release truck lid  Activates illuminated entry  Operates in conjunction with automatic lock syste

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Key Module
 Controls

all functions for Keyless and Autolock systems  Located in Trunk on Fords  On newer cars, built into BCM  Code usually on module itself.

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Key pad

 Five

normally open single pole, single throw switch  Each pad represent two numbers  Located on driver’s door  Provide input to control module
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Lock motor

Uses either solenoid or permanent magnet reversible motor Module controls PM lock motors by reversing current

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

Remote operation

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
 Transmitter  Receiver

module  Antenna  Sometimes use with alarm system

built into

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

Anti theft System
 These

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS

system are deterrent design to scare off would be thieves by sounding alarm and or disabling the ignition system  The common component that used in an antitheft systems are
An electronic control module  Door switch at all doors  Trunk key cylinder switch  Hood switch  Starter inhibitor relay  Horn relay  Alarm

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
Operation
 For

the system to operate, it must first be armed. This done when the ignition switch is turn off and the doors are locked  When the driver’s door is shut, a security light will illuminate for approx. 30seconds to indicate that the system is armed and ready to function

Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Department Of Mechanical Engineering

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