Basics of

NSAID

Let’s have a review on

Musculo Skeletal System

.Musculo Skeletal System A system of bones. joints. their related structures and muscles.

Joint Junction of two bones is refers as joint Types:  Fibrous or Fixed joint  Cartilaginous or slightly movable joints  Synovial or freely movable joints .

 It secrets synovia .  Capsule is fibrous tissue.Properties of Synovial Joint  Joints are covered by hyaline cartilage  Ligaments are required to bind the bones together. encloses a joint cavity.

Types: Striated or Skeletal Muscle Visceral or Smooth muscles Cardiac Muscle .Muscles Structure of the body that convert the chemical energy of ATP into mechanical Work.

It is a protective mechanism for the body.Pain Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with acute or potential tissue damage. Types  Acute pain  Chronic pain  Spasmodic pain .

Example:       Trauma: Pain due to injury Post operative pain Acute dental pain Cardiac pain Labour pain Cancer pain .Acute Pain The pain which has occurs at short duration but has high intensity is called acute pain.

Example:  Osteoarthritis  Rheumatoid arthritis  Migraine .Chronic Pain The pain which remains for long time but has intensity lower than acute pain is called chronic pain.

Spasmodic Pain The pain which occurs due to involuntary contraction of muscles is called spasmodic pain. Example:  IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome)  Biliary colic (pain associated with irritation of the viscera secondary to cholecystitis and gallstones)  Cystitis (inflammation of urinary bladder)  Dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation) .

Acute Pain  Trauma: Pain due to injury  Post operative pain  Acute dental pain  Cardiac pain  Labour pain  Cancer pain Chronic pain  Osteoarthritis  Rheumatoid arthritis  Migraine Spasmodic Pain  IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome)  Biliary colic (pain associated with irritation of the viscera secondary to cholecystitis and gallstones)  Cystitis (inflammation of urinary bladder)  Dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation) .

Classical signs of Inflammation • Pain • Redness • Heat • Swelling .Inflammation Inflammation is the active defensive Response / reaction process of tissues against injury. infection etc.

The common painful conditions           Trauma Fracture Dislocation of bone Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Renal colic Headache Toothache Backache Dysmenorrhea .

oxygenase Cyclo-oxygenase-I Lipo-oxygenase Cyclo-oxygenase-II Prostaglandin Ⅰ Gastric Protection ProstaglandinⅡ Pain & inflammation Leukotrienes Inflammation & Allergic reaction .Pathogenesis of pain Tissue or Cell Damage Phospholipid Phospholipase Arachidonic Acid Cyclo .

Synovial Joint Junction of two bones is refers as joint. Types φ Fibrous or Fixed joint φ Cartilaginous or slightly movable joints φ Synovial or freely movable joints .

 Ligaments are required to bind the bones together.  It secrets synovia .Properties of Synovial joint  Joints are covered by hyaline cartilage.  Capsule is fibrous tissue. encloses a joint cavity.

Tendon: A cover of strong fibrous connective tissue. Bursa: A pad like sac or cavity close to the joints. Capsule: A two layered membrane that covers the synovial joint. .Synovial joint: Structure Ligament: It is a band of strong muscular tissue.

Rheumatism: A painful condition arising from articular or other elements of Musculoskeletal system. itis=inflammation).Diseases of Musculo Skeletal System Arthritis Arthritis (arth=joint. . causes pain and loss of movement of the joints.

Rheumatism Articular Rheumatism Non articular Rheumatism Inflammatory Degenerative RA Juvenile RA Osteoarthritis Tendinitis Capsulitis Bursitis .

and blood vessels. ligaments.Rheumatoid Arthritis A chronic inflammatory disease primarily involving the peripheral joints (finger joints. feet and spine • May affect some finger joints. tendons. the joint at the base of the thumb and the joint at the base of the big . • Commonly occurs in the hips. toes. wrists. knees. Osteoarthritis • Causes the breakdown of joint tissue. leading to joint pain and stiffness. and knees) and surrounding muscles.

.

.

Non Articular Rheumatism Tendonitis An inflammation of a tendon (a band of fibrous tissue connecting muscle to bone) Causes pain. restricted movement of the muscle attached to the affected tendon. tenderness and occasionally. .

wrist and elbow. or between a tendon and bone Gout: (Crystal-induced arthritis) ▪ Uric acid crystals accumulate in the joints ▪ Usually affects the large joint of the big toe. but can also affect other joints.Bursitis Inflammation of the fluid-filled sac (bursa) Lies between a tendon and skin. In rare cases. such as the knee. hand. it may later affect the shoulders. ankle. hips or spine. foot. .

Sprain: Injury to ligaments that causes pain and loss of movement. Dysmenorrhoea: Painful or difficulty in menstruation . Strain: Trauma to the muscle that results from excessive physical effort. Myalgia: Pain in the muscle.

So Analgesic is the substance that relieving the sense of pain. e. Anti-pyretic Drugs which reduce temperature. NSAID .g. Paracetamol.Treatment Approach Analgesic Greek word ‘An’ means ‘without’& ‘Algos’ means ‘sense of pain'. Analgesics are also called pain killer.

. Morphine. Pathedine etc.Classification of Analgesic drug Analgesic Narcotic or Opoid Non-narcotic or Non Opoid Narcotic / Opoid Analgesics: Drugs which are used for the relief of pain but produce narcosis. Dependence. i. Addiction. Habituation. Tolerance Opiates: Morphine derivatives Examples: Heroine.e.

Non Narcotic Analgesic NSAID Ibuprofen (Flamex) Ketoprofen (Minolac) Naproxen (Anaflex) Diclofenac Tenooxicam (Oxicam) Cox-2 inhibitor Celecoxib Etoricoxib (Coxia) • Other Analgesic: Non-opioid analgesic & antipyretic: Paracetamol (Xcel) Centrally acting analgesic: Tramadol (Tendia) .

Tissue or cell damage Phospholipid Phospholipase Arachidonic acid Corticosteroid Lipo-oxygenase Non-selective NSAID Cyclo-oxygenase Cyclo-oxygenase I Prostaglandin Ⅰ Cyclo-oxygenase II Prostaglandin Ⅱ Cox-II inhibitor Leukotriene Responsible for gastro protection Responsible for pain & inflammation Inflammation & Allergic reaction .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful