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SUPPORT SYSTEM AND MOVEMENT

By: Neinamay Fajardo

SUPPORT SYSTEM AND MOVEMENT IN ANIMALS
• PSEUDOEXOSKELETON -is like a battle armour served as coverings of microscopic forms (foraminiferous protozoans) • MULTICELLULAR GROUP -are shelled mollusks such as snails, clams, oysters and many others • MESODERMAL ORIGIN -is a skeletal system beneath the epidermis of the body wall, examples are starfish and other kinds of echinoderms.

THE INVERTEBRATE SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT

• EXOSKELETON
-the most common skeleton that is found on the outside of the body.

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THE INVERTEBRATE SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT •ARTHROPODS -the largest group of animal with exoskeleton .

EXAMPLES OF ARTHROPODS .

A discarded exoskeleton of a dragonfly nymph .

THE INVERTEBRATE SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT • DISADVANTAGES OF HAVING ARTHROPODAN EXOSKELETON -growth cannot be consequently regular and continuous -they solved their problem by undergoing molting or ecdysis .

is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body.THE INVERTEBRATE SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT • MOLTING OR ECDYSIS . .

-it loosens the skin after a split occurs on the dorsal surface through which the animal emerges. .THE VERTEBRATE SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT • MOLTING FLUID -a fluid poured out by certain cells.

. hard portion of the exoskeleton is discarded.THE VERTEBRATE SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT • ECDYSIS -the outer.

THE VERTEBRATE SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT • ARTICULATING AREAS OR JOINTS -made movement possible. .

.THE VERTEBRATE SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT • ENDOSKELETON -also known as “inner skeleton”. .made up of two types of tissues (bone and cartilage). -it develops within the skin or in the deeper body tissues.

THE VERTEBRATE SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT TYPES OF BONES .

THE VERTEBRATE SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT .

. and vertebrae. breastbone.THE VERTEBRATE SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT • AXIAL SKELETON -consists of the bones ad cartilage of trunk. skull. ribs.

.THE VERTEBRATE SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT • APPENDICULAR SKELETON -includes the bones and cartilage of the limbs and fins.

.THE VERTEBRATE SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT • TWO ESSENTIAL STRUCTURE FOR EFFECTIVE LOCOMOTION OF LARGER ORGANISMS: SKELETAL STRUCTURE –is used to support the muscles MUSCLES –are needed to change position of the body or to move.

respectively. thereby playing an indispensable role in locomotion .SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT in man • LIGAMENTS AND TENDONS -attach bones to bones and muscles to bones.

SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT in man • MARROW TISSUE -performs the special task of manufacturing all red cells and some kind of white ones. .

SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT in man • AXIAL SKELETON oSKULL oBACKBONE oHYOID APPARATUS oRIBS .

Three ear bones .

SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT in man • APPENDICULAR SKELETON oARMS oLEGS oGIRDLES .

SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT in man • APPENDICULAR SKELETON o64 BONES (UPPER APPENDAGES) o62 BONES (LOWER APPENDAGES) .

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SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT in man MUSCULAR ACTIVITY .

.SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT in man • MOTOR UNIT oConsists of a single motor neuron and the group of muscle cells innervated by its axon.

000 motor neurons in spinal nerves. but only some 420.000 muscle cells.SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT in man oIt is estimated that there are some 250.000. .

SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT in man • Types of Muscles Cell o Smooth or visceral muscles o Skeletal or voluntary muscles o Cardiac or heart muscles .

They have spindleshaped cells and exhibit no striations. .SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT in man • Smooth or Visceral Muscles -are found attached to the internal organs.

and with intercalary discs. .SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT in man • Cardiac Muscles -are solely found in the heart. polynucleated. They are branching.

They are long fibers that show faint striations. .SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT in man • Skeletal Muscles -are attached to the bones.

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SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT in man • Muscular Contractions o Skeletal Muscle – contracts and relaxed in 0. o Smooth Muscle – 3 to 180 seconds to complete the cycle. .1 second cycle o Cardiac Muscle – 1 to 5 seconds.

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SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT in man • Muscular Contractions o Both cardiac and smooth muscles contain actin and myosin and the contraction process involves the hydrolysis of ATP and an interaction between actin and myosin initiated by calcium ions. .

THE OUTER. BREASTBONE. 2-3.quiz 1. CONSIST OF BONE AND CARTILAGE OF TRUNK. GIVE TWO TYPES OF BONES. IN THIS PROCESS. WHAT SYSTEM CANNOT FUNCTION WITHOUT THE OTHER? . RIBS. SKULL. HARD PORTION OF THE EXOSKELETON. 4. AND VERTEBRAE. 5.

BOTH CARDIAC AND SMOOTH MUSCLES CONTAIN ---AND ---. 11-13. THREE TYPES OF MUSCLES 14. 8-10. . TWO SPECIALIZED KINDS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE FIBERS ATTACH BONES TO BONES AND MUSCLES TO BONES.15.quiz 6-7. THREE TYPES OF MOVABLE JOINTS.AND THE CONTRACTION PROCESS INVOLVES THE HYDROLYSIS OF ATP.