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Development in Context

People do not grow in isolation from their surroundings. Rather, we constantly interact with our environment: our family, peers, schools, neighborhood and society.

Our social class. . and culture also play a role in shaping who we are. historical context.

There is wide diversity in development because of differences in the which people grow .

Bioecological Systems Perspective • Proposed by Urie Bronfenbrenner • Exemplifies development as contextual • According to this perspective. influencing their environments • Inasmuch they are also influenced . children are active producers in their own development. a child develops within a complex dynamic system of relationships and is affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment • Moreover.

Examples: child’s relationship with parents in the home setting.What are these systems? Microsystem. surroundings. and roles experienced by a person in his/her immediate. activities. child’s interaction with teachers in the school setting . interactions. it consists of the primary relationships. or proximal.

among the microsystems in which the person is involved Example: the interaction between the home and school settings.Mesosystem. as when parents involve themselves their child’s school activities . refers to connections. or interrelationships.

but in which events occur that affect his/her development nonetheless Example: Parent’s work environment may affect a child’s development even though the child is not part of that setting . which refers to settings that do not directly involve the person himself/herself.Exosystem.

and the like These contexts shape an individual’s values. religion. and life opportunities .Macrosystem. historical context. sociocultural practices. belief systems. comprises the larger variables of culture. government policies. social class.

Chronosystem. reflects the influence of historical time in shaping the person’s environmental and life experiences Example: Overseas work and migration is a modern-day phenomenon that significant implications for Filipino society. family relationships. and youth aspirations .

Bioecological Systems Perspective .

a Filipino Clinical Psychologist • Rubic’s Cube approach offers a local approach to working with children • Likening the framework to popular toy consisting of different colored cubes • Carandang emphasized the importance of integrating four dimensions to gain understanding of children . Lourdes Arellano-Carandang.Rubic’s Cube Approach • This is a landmark article written by Ma.

socio-emotional.Four Dimensions • 1st .looks at the child’s inner world. how the child makes sense of all that happens within and around him/her .views the child as a total person with physical.looks at the child’s behavior within the context of the family and community • 4th . intellectual. and moral/spiritual facets • 2nd .grounds these characteristics on the child’s developmental level • 3rd .

Developmental Theories Lawrence Kohlberg’s Moral Development Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Development Sigmund Freud’s Psychosexual Development Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Development .

specifically in moral judgment or reasoning . the situation or the sociocultural context? • How do people evaluate whether a certain behavior is “good” or “bad”? • These are the questions spurred Kohlberg’s interest in morality. universal definition of “good” and bad”? • Or is morality determine by the individual.Lawrence Kohlberg’s Moral Development • What is the nature of morality? • Is there an absolute.

not as a means” • This forms the basis of Kohlberg’s notion of a universal morality characterized by justice and equality— highest stage of moral development .Moral Development • Kohlberg’s theory was influenced by Jean Piaget and Immanuel Kant • Particularly on Kant’s practical imperative philosophy: “Treat each person as an end.

Story: “Heinz Dilemma” .

to have favors returned .Punishment and Obedience Orientation -One must obey rules in order to avoid punishment Stage 2.Reward Orientation -One conforms in order to obtain rewards.Preconventional Level Stage 1.

Social System /Authority Orientation -justice orientation -strong emphasis on law and order.Conventional Level Stage 3. and legitimate authority .Good boy/Good girl Orientation -approval seeking orientation -trying to meet the significant other’s expectations Stage 4. duty.

contractual agreement.Morality of individual principles of conscience . human dignity. and mutual obligation Stage 6. equality.willing to break social rules and the law. and accept the consequence if such law went against the highest principles of human life.Morality of social contract and democracy .Postconventional Morality Stage 5.relies on fundamental principles such as individual rights. such as equality and dignity .