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Introduction and Tissues

Human Anatomy BIOL 1010
Liston Campus

What is Anatomy?
Anatomy (= morphology): study of body’s structure Physiology: study of body’s function

Structure reflects Function!!!
Branches of Anatomy
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Gross: Large structures Surface: Landmarks Histology: Cells and Tissues Developmental: Structures change through life Embryology: Structures form and develop before birth

Hierarchy of Structural Organization
Each of these build upon one another to make up the next level: Chemical level Cellular Tissue Organ Organ system Organism

Hierarchy of Structural Organization Chemical level   Atoms combine to make molecules 4 macromolecules in the body  Carbohydrates  Lipids  Proteins  Nucleic acids .

net/~bbecke/newell/Cells.pvschools.Hierarchy of Structural Organization Cellular  Made up of cells and cellular organelles (molecules)  Cells can be eukaryotic or prokaryotic  Organelles are structures within cells that perform dedicated functions (“small organs”) http://cmweb.html .

emc.Hierarchy of Structural Organization Tissue   Collection of cells that work together to perform a specialized function 4 basic types of tissue in the human body:  Epithelium  Connective tissue  Muscle tissue  Nervous tissue .maricopa.

Hierarchy of Structural Organization Organ  Made up of tissue  Heart  Brain  Liver  Pancreas. etc…… Pg 181 .

Hierarchy of Structural Organization
Organ system (11)

Made up of a group of related organs that work together
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Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive


Pg 341

Urinary System

Hierarchy of Structural Organization
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An individual human, animal, plant, etc…… Made up all of the organ systems Work together to sustain life

Anatomical Directions
Anatomical position Regions

Axial vs. Appendicular
Anterior (ventral) vs. Posterior (dorsal) Medial vs. Lateral Superior (cranial) vs. Inferior (caudal) Superficial vs. Deep Proximal vs. Distal Frontal = Coronal Transverse = Horizontal = Cross Section Sagittal

Anatomical Directions-It’s all Relative!
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Anatomical Planes
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Pg 5

Reference Point Anterior – (ventral) Closer to the front surface of the body Medial – Lying closer to the midline Superior – (cranial) Closer to the head in relation to the entire body (More General) Superficial – Towards the surface Proximal – Closer to the origin of a body part (More Specific) Posterior – (dorsal) Closer to the rear surface of the body Lateral – Lying further away from the midline Inferior – (caudal) Away from the head or towards the lower part of the body Deep – Away from the surface Distal – Further away from the origin of a body part Frontal Plane Sagittal Plane Horizontal Plane Surface of body or organ Origin of a structure .

4 Types of Tissue 1)Epithelium 2)Connective 3)Muscle 4)Nervous .

Tissues: groups of cells closely associated that have a similar structure and perform a related function Four types of tissue     Epithelial = covering/lining Connective = support Muscle = movement Nervous = control Most organs contain all 4 types Tissue has non-living extracellular material between its cells .

EPITHELIAL TISSUE: Functions Protection  Secretion  Absorption  Ion Transport  sheets of cells cover a surface or line a cavity .

Characteristics of Epithelium Cellularity  Composed of cells Joined by cell junctions Apical vs. Basal surfaces differ Specialized contacts  Polarity  Supported by connective tissue Avascular Innervated Highly regenerative .

Classification of Epithelium-based on number of layers and cell shape Layers   Simple Stratified  Stratified layers characterized by shape of apical layer  Psuedostratified Squamous Cuboidal Columnar Transitional Shapes     .

intestines Simple columnar  Pseudostratified columnar  Stratified squamous (>1 layer)    Respiratory passages (ciliated version) Epidermis. mouth. vagina Named so according to apical cell shape Regenerate from below Deep layers cuboidal and columnar  Transitional (not shown)   Thins when stretches Hollow urinary organs All histology pictures property of BIOL 1010 Lab . esophagus. glands Stomach.Types of Epithelium Simple squamous (1 layer)  Simple cuboidal  Lungs. blood vessels. ventral body cavity Kidney tubules.

lymphatic & blood vessel Mesothelium   Simple squamous epithelium that forms the lining of body cavities e. pleura.g.Special Epithelium Endothelium   Simple squamous epithelium that lines vessels e. pericardium. peritoneum .g.

Features of Apical Surface of Epithelium Microvilli: (ex) in small intestine  Finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane  of apical epithelial cell Increase surface area for absorption (ex) respiratory tubes Cilia:   Whip-like. over epithelial surface 1-way . etc. motile extension of plasma membrane Moves mucus.

nothing passes Proteins allow small molecules to pass through  Gap junction  .Features of Lateral Surface of Epithelium Cells are connected to neighboring cells via:   Contour of cells-wavy contour fits together Cell Junctions (3 common)  Desmosomes  Proteins hold cells together to maintain integrity of tissue  Tight Junctions  Plasma membrane of adjacent cells fuse.

supportive sheet made of proteins    Superficial layer Acts as a selective filter Assists epithelial cell regeneration by moving new cells Deeper layer Support  Reticular fiber layer   .Features of the Basal Surface of Epithelium Basement membrane    Sheet between the epithelial and connective tissue layers Attaches epithelium to connective tissue below Made up of:  Basal lamina: thin. non-cellular.

Glands Epithelial cells that make and secrete a product Products are water-based and usually contain proteins Classified as:   Unicellular vs. Endocrine Page 138 . multicellular Exocrine vs.

liver . salivary.Glands: epithelial cells that make and secrete a water-based substance w/proteins Exocrine Glands      Secrete substance onto body surface or into body cavity Activity is local Have ducts Unicellular or Multicellular (ex) goblet cells. mammary. pancreas.

thyroid    . pituitary.Glands:   epithelial cells that make and secrete a water-based substance w/proteins Endocrine Glands Secrete product into blood stream Either stored in secretory cells or in follicle surrounded by secretory cells Hormones travel to target organ to increase response (excitatory) No ducts (ex) pancreas. adrenal.

4 Types of Tissue 1)Epithelium 2)Connective 3)Muscle 4)Nervous .

4 Types of Connective Tissue 1) 2) 3) 4) Connective Tissue Proper Cartilage Bone Tissue Blood .

fight infection CT contains large amounts of non-living extracellular matrix Contains a variety of cells and fibers Some types vascularized All CT originates from mesenchyme  Connective Tissue (CT): Embryonic connective tissue . protection.most abundant and diverse tissue Four Classes Functions include connecting. storing & carrying nutrients.

most numerous. provide tensile strength  (ex) dominant fiber in ligaments  Elastic:  long + thin.Fibers in Connective Tissue Fibers For Support  Reticular:  form networks for structure & support  (ex) cover capillaries  Collagen:  strongest. stretch and retain shape  (ex) dominant fiber in elastic cartilage .

Components of Connective Tissue Fibroblasts:    cells that produce all fibers in CT produce + secrete protein subunits to make them produce ground matrix derived from blood in CT proper medium for nutrients. waste + oxygen to travel to cells found in ground matrix part of extra-cellular material that holds and absorbs interstitial fluid Made and secreted by fibroblasts jelly-like with sugar & protein molecules Interstitial (Tissue) Fluid    Ground Matrix (substance):    .

1) Connective Tissue Proper Two kinds: Loose CT & Dense CT  Functions  Support and bind to other tissue  Hold body fluids  Defends against infection  Stores nutrients as fat  Each function performed by different kind of fibers and cells in specific tissue .

eosinophils-fight infection . lymphocytes. mark molecules for destruction Mast cells-contain chemical mediators for inflammation response White Blood Cells = neutrophils.Defense from Infection Areolar tissue below epithelium is body’s first defense Cells travel to CT in blood     Ground substance + cell fibers-slow invading microorganisms Macrophages-eat foreign particles Plasma cells-secrete antibodies.

Loose CT Proper Areolar CT    All types of fibers present All typical cell types present Surrounds blood vessels and nerves .

forms internal “skeleton” of some organs Found in bone marrow. highly vascularized.Specialized Loose CT Proper Adipose tissue    Loaded with adipocytes. produces energy. holds blood cells. lymph nodes. spleen Reticular CT    . high metabolic activity Insulates. supports Found in hypodermis under skin Contains only reticular fibers Forms caverns to hold free cells.

Dense/Fibrous Connective Tissue Contains more collagen Can resist extremely strong pulling forces Regular vs. parallel to pull  (eg) fascia. Irregular  Regular-fibers run same direction. tendons. run in different directions  (eg) dermis. ligaments  Irregular-fibers thicker. fibrous capsules at ends of bones Dense regular Dense irregular .

Components of CT Proper Summarized Cells Matrix Fibroblasts Defense cells -macrophages -white blood cells Gel-like ground substance Collagen fibers Reticular fibers Elastic fibers Adipocytes .

2) Cartilage Chondroblasts produce cartilage Chondrocytes mature cartilage cells  Reside in lacunae More abundant in embryo than adult Firm. Flexible Resists compression  (eg) trachea. irregular connective tissue around cartilage growth/repair of cartilage resists expansion during compression of cartilage . meniscus Avascular (chondrocytes can function w/ low oxygen) NOT Innervated Perichondrium    dense.

ribs.Cartilage in the Body Three types:  Hyaline     most abundant fibers in matrix support via flexibility/resilience (eg) at limb joints. nose  Elastic  many elastic fibers in matrix too  great flexibility  (eg) external ear. annulus fibrosus . epiglottis  Fibrocartilage  resists both compression and tension  (eg) meniscus.

Components of Cartilage Summarized Cells Chondrocytes Matrix Gel-like ground substance Chondroblasts Lots of water (in growing cartilage) Fibroblasts Some have collagen and elastic fibers .

vertebrae mineral storage (eg) calcium. grasp objects blood-cell formation (eg) red bone marrow . phosphate (inorganic component) movement (eg) walk. legs protect (eg) skull.3) Bone Tissue: Well-vascularized Function:   (a bone is an organ)    support (eg) pelvic bowl.

/skeletal.kellogg. osteoclasts Osteoclasts  Periosteum  Endosteum   Internal layer of CT that lines cavities and covers trabeculae Contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts academic..mi.htm ..Bone Tissue Osteoblasts  Osteocytes    Secrete organic part of bone matrix Mature bone cells Sit in lacunae Maintain bone matrix Degrade and reabsorb bone External layer of CT that surrounds bone  Outer: Dense irregular CT  Inner:

vanderbilt.htm .mc.Compact Bone External layer Osteon (Haversian system)    Parallel to the long axis of the bone Groups of concentric tubules (lamella) Lamella = layer of bone matrix where all fibers run in the same direction  Adjacent lamella fibers run in opposite directions  Haversian Canal runs through center of osteon  Contains blood vessels and nerves  Connected to each other by perforating (Volkman) canals Interstitial lamellae fills spaces and forms periphery

Bone Anatomy: Spongy bone Spongy bone (cancellous bone): internal layer  Trabeculae: small. no direct stress at bone’s center . needle-like pieces of bone form honeycomb     each made of several layers of lamellae + osteocytes no canal for vessels space filled with bone marrow not as dense.

Shapes of Bones Flat = skull. patella Long = femur. clavicle Irregular = pelvis. humerus . sternum. vertebrae Short = carpals. metacarpals. phalanges. of a Long Bone Diaphysis   2 Epiphyses   Medullary Cavity Nutrient Artery & Vein Epiphyseal Plates Epiphyseal Artery & Vein Does not cover epiphyses Periosteum  Endosteum   Covers trabeculae of spongy bone Lines medullary cavity of long bones training.seer.jpg .../illu_long_bone.

2 Types of Bone Formation Intramembranous Ossification   Membrane bones: most skull bones and clavicle Osteoblasts in membrane secrete osteoid that mineralizes Endochondral Ossification: All other bones     Begins with a cartilaginous model Cartilage calcifies Medullary cavity is formed by action of osteoclasts Epiphyses grow and eventually calcify  Epiphyseal plates remain cartilage for up to 20 years .

their tissue needs to be replaced body fluids from bone  Osteoblasts-form new bone by secreting osteoid  Osteoclasts-take up bone ( = breakdown) release Ca2++ . PO4 to  Ideally osteoclasts & osteoblasts work at the same rate! .Bone Growth & Remodeling GROWTH  Appositional Growth = widening of bone Lengthening of Bone  Bone tissue added on surface by osteoblasts of periosteum  Medullary cavity maintained by osteoclasts  Epiphyseal plates enlarge by chondroblasts  Matrix calcifies (chondrocytes die and disintegrate)  Bone tissue replaces cartilage on diaphysis side  REMODELING  Due to mechanical stresses on bones.

Components of Bone Tissue Summarized Cells Osteblasts Matrix Gel-like ground substance calcified with inorganic salts Collagen fibers Fibroblasts Osteocytes Osteoclasts .

proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur . nutrients. girdles. axial skeleton. gases.4) Blood: Atypical Connective Tissue Function:    Transports waste. hormones through cardiovascular system Helps regulate body temperature Protects body by fighting infection Derived from mesenchyme Hematopoiesis: production of blood cells   Occurs in red bone marrow In adults.

transport to rest of body Leukocytes: (WBC) complete cells . initiates clotting . filled w/hemoglobin pick up O2 at lungs. oxygen-transporting most abundant in blood no organelles. 5 types fight against infectious microorganisms stored in bone marrow for emergencies *Platelets = Thrombocytes: fragments of cytoplasm plug small tears in vessel walls.Blood Cells Erythrocytes: (RBC) small.

Components of Blood Summarized Cells Erythrocytes (red blood cells) Leukocytes (white blood cells) Matrix Plasma (liquid matrix) NO fibers *Platelets (cell fragments) .

4 Types of Tissue 1)Epithelium 2)Connective 3)Muscle 4)Nervous .

Smooth . Cardiac.Muscle Tissue Muscle cells/fibers   Elongated Contain many myofilaments: Actin & Myosin Movement Maintenance of posture Joint Stabilization Heat Generation FUNCTION     Three types: Skeletal.

.Skeletal Muscle Tissue Cells    (each skeletal muscle is an organ) Long and cylindrical.kellogg. fascia.mi. in bundles Multinucleate Obvious Striations Skeletal Muscles-Voluntary Connective Tissue Components:    Endomysium-surrounds fibers Perimysium-surrounds bundles Epimysium-surrounds the muscle Attached to bones.htm . skin Origin & Insertion

com Connective Tissue Component  . chains of cells Single or Binucleated Striations Connected by Intercalated discs Cardiac Muscle-Involuntary Myocardium-heart muscle  Pumps blood through vessels Endomysium: surrounding cells www.Cardiac Muscle Cells     Branching.answers.

uninucleate No striations Smooth Muscle-Involuntary 2 layers-opposite orientation (peristalsis) Found in hollow organs. blood vessels Connective Tissue Component Endomysium: surrounds cells .Smooth Muscle Tissue Cells Single cells.

4 Types of Tissue 1)Epithelium 2)Connective 3)Muscle 4)Nervous . .Nervous Tissue Neurons: specialized nerve cells conduct impulses  Cell body. dendrite. axon No mitosis (cell replication) Longevity High metabolic rate Characterized by:    www.

nerves . ciliated.Nervous Tissue: control Support cells (= Neuroglial): nourishment. protection      Satellite cells-surround cell bodies within ganglia Schwann cells-surround axons (PNS) Microglia-phagocytes Oligodendrocytes-produce myelin sheaths around axons Ependymal cells-line brain/spinal cord. help circulate CSF Brain. spinal cord. insulation.

chemical. UV     Cushions & insulates deeper organs Prevention of water loss Thermoregulation Excretion  Salts. water  Sensory reception . urea. thermal.Integumentary System Functions  Protection  Mechanical.

Microanatomy .com/.Layers of the Skin Epidermis  Epithelium Dermis  Connective tissue Loose connective tissue Anchors skin to bone or muscle Hair follicles Sweat and Sebaceous glands Nails Hypodermis / subcutis   Skin Appendages = outgrowths of epidermis    www.uptodate./Melanoma_anatomy..jpg ..

Cell Layers of the Epidermis Stratum corneum  Dead keratinocytes Only in “thick” skin Dead keratinocytes Water proofing Resists tears and tension Sensory receptors Melanocytes Keratinocytes (in all layers) Stratum lucidum   Stratum granulosum  Stratum spinosum  Stratum basale    .blogspot.

jpg  Smooth muscle fibers  Innervation .uptodate..Layers of the Dermis Highly innervated Highly vascularized Collagen & Elastic fibers 2 layers:  Papillary layer (20%)     Areolar CT Collagen & Elastic fibers Innervation Hair follicles  Reticular layer (80%)  Dense irregular CT  Glands   sebum 2.5 million sweat glands!! www./

Insulation . etc.Hypodermis Also called superficial fascia Areolar & Adipose Connective Tissue Functions    Store fat Anchor skin to muscle.

Structure of Tubular Organs LUMEN Tunica Mucosa    Lamina epithelialis Lamina propria Lamina muscularis mucosa Tunica Submucosa Tunica Muscularis   Inner circular Outer longitudinal Adventitia – covers organ directly Serosa – suspends organ in the peritoneal cavity Tunica Adventitia / Serosa   .