85 views

Uploaded by Peyman Sazandehchi

Reactor

save

- Simulation and Modelling
- FYDP Part 2 Briefing
- Flyer Gas Analyser (en)
- A. Karimi_Kinetic Studies and Reactor Modelingpdf
- Reactor Lecture 1
- Reactor Design
- Reactor
- Microbial Growth
- Theoryrhsaeghrsjtyzjdhtgbx
- fixed bed reactor design ppt
- 344F14ExamI+Solution
- Midterm2 Key
- Team 2
- Reactor
- reactors-130714122717-phpapp01
- 4 student response and assessment template (2)
- Chemical Engineering Project for Dummies Part2 (2017)
- Production of Acrolein
- Middle School Science Curriculum - Download entire curriculum at www. science powerpoint .com
- quiz4sol
- 23_Piping Glossary & Definitions
- InQu_6005_Syllabus_MCCA_2015.pdf
- C99 COD Analyzer
- Compensation of Synchronous Machines for Stability
- Base-Catalyzed Methylation of Phenols
- bnbbhbhbhjbjh
- Chemical Reactor
- Articulo EXPO.unlocked
- Material Balance Model
- Levenspiel Chemical Reaction Engineering
- Actividad de Investigación Formativa 01
- Μορφολογία.pdf
- estatutos_unsa.pdf
- lojas-confirmadas
- mytech
- Angel Laura Zevallos
- Filosofía
- 19- Sensores y Transductores
- Guía de actividades y rúbrica de evaluación - Paso 2 - Realizar una Observación.docx
- Managementul Asigurarii Calitatii in Invatamantul Preuniversitar.docx
- Investigacion Forense Informatica Latam
- Makalah Ibadah & Akhlak Hak & Kewajiban
- Pertumbuhan Dan Perkembangan
- Mi Empresa_Jose Yam
- Tugas Kelompok i b
- clase1 BOTANICA.ppt
- Econometria1-Transp-tema3.pdf
- Test
- 404_2015_ARTICLE_3804 NEW
- Exploring Sociology The Concise Edition Canadian 1st Edition Ravelli Solutions Manual
- cert 3
- Malla Inqu
- Diana Gabaldon - Outlander 3 - Az utazó II. kötet.pdf
- graph 1.docx
- 46. Herniile peretelui abdominal.doc
- Front Office Reception (3)
- laporan kemajuan pmw
- forence_toma.doc
- Casa de La Cascada
- Elizabeth Gonzalez Transistor Bjt
- Photobioreactor
- 11 Chapter 6
- Photobioreactor
- Bioreactor
- Extraction Technologies for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
- Oyster.book
- Introduction to Chemical Engineering Processes
- Photobioreactor
- The Alga Dunaliella
- 20080504 Bbddd8a174d1f28da88evg5H43leEiSQ.attach
- 3
- Biodiesel from Algae
- Review on the Use and Production of Algae and Manufactured Diets
- Downstream Processing Technology Review(1)
- Algae-Farming-and-Yields
- 20100915 Korstad Alternative Energy Biofuels
- Airlift Bioreactor
- Algae-bioreactor
- Photobioreactor
- MASS TRANSFER RELATIONSHIPS
- Spirulina_spirulina assesment and procespects
- Biodiesel From Algae
- Air lift Bioreactor
- Algae-Photobioreactor-Guide
- Bioreactor Configurations
- Large-Scale-Bioreactors
- Airlift Algae
- photobioreactor
- Algae-bioreactor
- Air lift Bioreactor

You are on page 1of 45

CEN 551

Instructor: Dr. Christine Kelly

Chapter 9

Bioreactors

•

What two type of bioreactors have

we discussed in this course?

•

What are the characteristics of each

type of reactor?

•

Which type is more efficient?

•

Which type is more common?

Reactor Types

•

Batch and Chemostat (CSTR).

•

Batch: changing conditions - transient (S, X,

growth rate), high initial substrate, different

phases of growth.

•

Chemostat: steady-state, constant low

concentration of substrate, constant growth rate

that can be set by setting the dilution rate (i.e. the

feed flow rate) .

•

Chemostat more efficient.

•

Batch more common.

Choice of continuous vs.

batch production

•

Productivity

•

Flexibility

•

Control

•

Genetic stability

•

Operability

•

Economics

•

Regulatory

What do each

of these factors

mean?

Reactor Choices

•

Productivity: rate of product per time

per volume. Chemostat better for

growth associated products. Wasted

time in batch process.

•

Flexibility: ability to make more than

one product with the same reactor.

Batch better.

•

Control: maintaining the same

conditions for all of the product

produced. In theory, chemostat better,

steady state. In reality????

•

Genetic stability: maintaining the

organism with the desired

characteristics. Chemostat selects for

fast growing mutants that may not have

the desired characteristics.

•

Operability: maintaining a sterile

system. Batch better.

•

Regulatory: validating the process.

Initially, many process batch, too

expensive to re validate after clinical

trials.

Comparison of Productivity:

Batch vs. Chemostat

Consider production of a growth associated

product (like cell mass) in suspension

culture

F

S

0

X

0

F

S

0

X

0

F

S

X

F

S

X

air air

air air

? ?

Batch Reactor

t

cycle

t

growth

t

l

Batch cycle time is: Batch cycle time is:

where t

growth

is the time required for growth and

t

l

is the lag time + preparation and harvest time.

where t

growth

is the time required for growth and

t

l

is the lag time + preparation and harvest time.

t

cycle

1

max

ln

X

max

X

0

t

l

where X

0

is the initial concentration and X

max

is

the maximum concentration (carrying capacity).

where X

0

is the initial concentration and X

max

is

the maximum concentration (carrying capacity).

Batch Production Rate

So net biomass production rate is: So net biomass production rate is:

Pr

X

batch

·

Y

X/ S

S

0

1

µ

max

ln

X

max

X

0

+ t

l

Recall the definition of biomass yield: Recall the definition of biomass yield:

Y

X/ S

·

∆X

∆S

·

X

max

− X

0

S

0

−0

·

X

max

− X

0

S

0

Pr

X

batch

·

X

max

− X

0

t

cycle

(1) (1)

Chemostat

For negligible k

d

, negligible extracellular product

formation and steady state, Lec. Notes 16, Eq. (10)

gave:

For negligible k

d

, negligible extracellular product

formation and steady state, Lec. Notes 16, Eq. (10)

gave:

X · Y

X/ S

S

0

−

K

S

D

µ

max

− D

¸

¸

_

,

For optimum cell productivity (X•D), calculate

d(X•D)/dt, set equal to zero, and solve for D

opt

:

For optimum cell productivity (X•D), calculate

d(X•D)/dt, set equal to zero, and solve for D

opt

:

D

opt

· µ

max

1 −

K

S

K

S

+ S

0

¸

¸

_

,

(3) (3)

(2) (2)

Chemostat

Substituting Eq. (2) into Eq. (3) gives the value

of X at the maximum production rate. :

Substituting Eq. (2) into Eq. (3) gives the value

of X at the maximum production rate. :

( ) [ ]

S 0 S S 0 X/S opt

K S K K S Y ) D (at X + − + ·

Optimum productivity is D•X when D=D

opt

and X= X

(at D

opt

):

Optimum productivity is D•X when D=D

opt

and X= X

(at D

opt

):

( ) ( ) [ ]

S 0 S S 0

0 S

S

max X/S

chemo opt,

X

K S K K S

S K

K

1 μ Y Pr + − +

1

]

1

¸

+

− ·

(4) (4)

(5) (5)

Chemostat Productivity Rate

Noting that S

0

is usually much larger than K

S

, we

have:

Noting that S

0

is usually much larger than K

S

, we

have:

Pr

X

opt, chemo

max

Y

X/ S

S

0

Comparing the rates for batch production and

production in a chemostat:

Comparing the rates for batch production and

production in a chemostat:

Pr

x

opt , chemo

Pr

x

batch

ln

X

max

X

0

max

t

l

(6) (6)

(7) (7)

Comparison

X

max

is always larger than X

0

and is typically 10-20

times larger, so the chemostat outperforms the

batch reactor. For E. coli growing on glucose, µ

max

is around 1/hr. Using t

lag

=5 hr and X

max

/X

0

=20,

X

max

is always larger than X

0

and is typically 10-20

times larger, so the chemostat outperforms the

batch reactor. For E. coli growing on glucose, µ

max

is around 1/hr. Using t

lag

=5 hr and X

max

/X

0

=20,

Pr

x

opt , chemo

Pr

x

batch

8

Even so, most industrial fermentation processes

occur in a batch reactor. Why?

Even so, most industrial fermentation processes

occur in a batch reactor. Why?

Reasons for Batch Popularity

•

Equations were for cell mass (or other

growth-associated product). Many

industrial applications are for non-

growth associated products.

•

Selective pressure of a chemostat is

detrimental to engineered organisms

•

Batch is more mechanically reliable

•

Batch system is more more flexible

Specialized Reactors

•

Chemostat with recycle

•

Multistage chemostat

•

Fed-batch

•

Perfusion

Chemostat with Recycle

Can we operate a chemostat with a dilution

rate greater than maximum growth rate?

Why or why not?

What conditions would we want to operate

a chemostat with a dilution rate higher

than the maximum growth rate?

High dilution rate

•

No

•

Because the cell growth cannot keep up

with how fast the cells are removed from

the reactor, and after some time the cells

would washout of the reactor.

•

We want a high dilution rate when we have

a high volume of feed with a low

concentration of substrate. Waste water

treatment has these characteristics.

Operation of Chemostats at

High Dilution Rates

Chemostats cannot be operated if

µ

max

<D. Higher dilution rates can be

achieved with recycle.

F

S

0

X

0

F

S

0

X

0

(1+α)F

S,X

(1+α)F

S,X

αF

S,βX

αF

S,βX

F

X’

F

X’

Chemostat with Recycle

Biomass balance on the chemostat:

( ) μVX FX α 1 αFβX FX

dt

dX

V

0

+ + − + ·

where α=volumetric recycle ratio and β=the

concentration factor of the separator. At steady

state and with X

0

=0:

where α=volumetric recycle ratio and β=the

concentration factor of the separator. At steady

state and with X

0

=0:

( ) 0 μX X

V

F

α 1 βX

V

F

α · + + −

( ) [ ]D β 1 α 1 μ − + ·

Note that for β>1, µ<D. Note that for β>1, µ<D.

(8) (8)

(9) (9)

(10) (10)

Substrate Mass Balance

V

dS

dt

· FS

0

+ αFS −V

µX

Y

X/ S

− 1 +α ( )FS

F

V

S

0

+ α

F

V

S−

µX

Y

X/ S

− 1 +α ( )

F

V

S · 0

X ·

D

µ

Y

X/ S

S

0

− S

At steady state: At steady state:

(11) (11)

(12) (12)

(13) (13)

Steady-state Values

Substituting µ given by Eq. (10) into Eq. (13): Substituting µ given by Eq. (10) into Eq. (13):

X

Y

X/ S

S

0

S

1 1

(14) (14)

We can get the expression for the substrate

concentration by equating the expression for

µ from Monod kinetics to Eq. (10):

We can get the expression for the substrate

concentration by equating the expression for

µ from Monod kinetics to Eq. (10):

Steady-state Values

µ ·

µ

max

S

K

S

+ S

· 1 +α 1 −β D

or: or:

S ·

K

S

D 1 +α 1 −β

µ

max

− D 1 +α 1 −β

(16) (16)

(15) (15)

So now we can get X entirely as a function of D: So now we can get X entirely as a function of D:

X ·

Y

X/ S

1 +α 1 −β

S

0

−

K

S

D 1 +α 1 −β

µ

max

− D 1 +α 1 −β

¸

1

]

1

(17) (17)

Special Cases - Chemostat

•

Recombinant product under the control of

an inducible promoter.

•

Recombinant strain and wild type grow at

the same rate if the recombinant product is

not expressed.

•

If the recombinant product is expressed, the

recombinant strain grows much slower.

•

Design a continuous reactor system to

produce this product efficiently.

Mulistage chemostat

•

First chemostat is fed with a non-inducing

growth substrate, allowing the recombinant

strain to be produced.

•

The effluent from the first chemostat feeds a

second chemostat that is fed inducer, and

the product is produced.

•

Note: new recombinant cells are continually

added to the second chemostat not allowing

take-over by a fast growing mutant.

Fed-batch Operation

•

Fed-batch reactors gain some advantages

of a CSTR, retain some disadvantages of

batch.

–

Reduces substrate inhibition or

catabolic repression, allows for high

conversion, and the extension of

stationary phase.

–

Semi-batch nature usually leads to

higher operations cost and batch

variability.

Fed-batch Operation

F, S

0

F, S

0

V

0

, X, S, P V

0

, X, S, P

Start fed-batch Start fed-batch Fed batch fill Fed batch fill Harvest Harvest

V

w

, X, S, P V

w

, X, S, P V, X, S, P V, X, S, P

F, S

0

F, S

0

Fed-batch Operation

•

Fed-batch cultures are started as batch

cultures and grown to an initial cell

concentration X, after which fed-batch

operation begins.

•

Notation:

S

0

= initial substrate concentration of batch

V

0

= initial volume of batch

F= constant flow rate of addition stream during fed-batch

X

0

= initial concentration of batch

S

0

= initial substrate concentration of batch

V

0

= initial volume of batch

F= constant flow rate of addition stream during fed-batch

X

0

= initial concentration of batch

Since liquid is being added, the volume

is changing:

Since liquid is being added, the volume

is changing:

dV

dt

· F

V · V

0

+ Ft

X · X

0

+Y

X/ S

S

0

− S ( )

For a batch culture: For a batch culture:

or: or:

If the total amount of biomass (grams)

in the reactor is X

t

then the

concentration X is:

If the total amount of biomass (grams)

in the reactor is X

t

then the

concentration X is:

X X

t

/ V

(1) (1)

(2) (2)

(3) (3)

So the change in the biomass

concentration with time is:

So the change in the biomass

concentration with time is:

dX

dt

·

V

dX

t

dt

¸

¸

_

,

− X

t

dV

dt

¸

¸

_

,

V

2

Using the definition of the growth rate: Using the definition of the growth rate:

...the dilution rate: ...the dilution rate:

...and the expression for dV/dt: ...and the expression for dV/dt:

µ ·

1

X

t

dX

t

dt

D ·

F

V

dV

dt

· F

we have: we have:

dX

dt

· µ − D ( )X

(4) (4)

(5) (5)

Now, consider the case when the fed-

batch is started from a culture in the

initial substrate concentration was S

0

and

nutrient feed is begun at flow rate F and

concentration S

0

. Just as nutrient feed

begins:

Now, consider the case when the fed-

batch is started from a culture in the

initial substrate concentration was S

0

and

nutrient feed is begun at flow rate F and

concentration S

0

. Just as nutrient feed

begins:

Quasi-steady State

•

Substrate is consumed at the same rate it is

added.

X · X

0

+Y

X/ S

S

0

− S

(6) (6)

At quasi-steady state, for this case

we will have:

At quasi-steady state, for this case

we will have:

dX

dt

· 0

So X is constant (but not X

t

).

Now we have:

So X is constant (but not X

t

).

Now we have: µ · D

Assuming Monod growth kinetics,

this gives (just as in the case of a

chemostat):

Assuming Monod growth kinetics,

this gives (just as in the case of a

chemostat):

S ·

K

s

D

µ

max

− D

(7) (7)

(8) (8)

(9) (9)

If the total amount of substrate in the reactor

is S

t

, then a substrate mass balance gives:

If the total amount of substrate in the reactor

is S

t

, then a substrate mass balance gives:

dS

t

dt

· FS

0

−

µX

t

Y

X/ S

which, for quasi-steady state gives: which, for quasi-steady state gives:

FS

0

·

µX

t

Y

X/ S

Returning to Equation (4), we have, at

quasi-steady state:

Returning to Equation (4), we have, at

quasi-steady state:

dX

t

dt

·

X

t

V

dV

dt

¸

¸

_

,

· XF

(10) (10)

(11) (11)

(12) (12)

Integrating, we have: Integrating, we have:

X

t

· X

0

t

+ FXt

since X is constant (dX/dt=0). Therefore, the

total biomass in a fed-batch reactor operated as

assumed here increases linearly with time.

Substituting the appropriate expression for X:

since X is constant (dX/dt=0). Therefore, the

total biomass in a fed-batch reactor operated as

assumed here increases linearly with time.

Substituting the appropriate expression for X:

( ) [ ] t S S Y X F X X

0 X/S 0

t

0

t

− + + ·

Often, S<<S

0

and X

0

<<Y

X/S

S

0

and so: Often, S<<S

0

and X

0

<<Y

X/S

S

0

and so:

X

t

· X

0

t

+ FY

X/ S

S

o

t

(13) (13)

(14) (14)

(15) (15)

If the specific productivity (g product/g cells/

hr) is constant:

If the specific productivity (g product/g cells/

hr) is constant:

Product Output

1

X

t

dP

t

dt

· q

p

dP

t

dt

· q

p

X

t

where P

t

is the total product concentration in the

reactor:

where P

t

is the total product concentration in the

reactor:

or: or:

Substituting: Substituting:

X

t

· VX · V

0

+ Ft X

(16) (16)

we have: we have:

dP

t

dt

· q

p

X V

0

− Ft

Integrating this expression, we

have:

Integrating this expression, we

have:

P

t

· P

0

t

+ q

p

X V

0

+

Ft

2

¸

¸

_

,

t

or in terms of concentration: or in terms of concentration:

P · P

0

V

0

V

+ q

p

X

V

0

V

+

Dt

2

¸

¸

_

,

t

(17) (17)

(18) (18)

(19) (19)

Repeated Fed-batch

Usually, fed-batch cultures are taken

through many feeding cycles, with

each feeding cycle followed by a

harvest cycle during which the

volume is drawn back down to V

0

and the cycle begun again.

For the case of repeated fed-batch

cultures:

For the case of repeated fed-batch

cultures:

P

w

· γP

0

+ q

p

X γ +

D

w

t

w

2

¸

¸

_

,

t

w

Where V

w

is the volume just before harvesting,

V

0

is the volume after harvesting, D

w

=F/V

w

and:

Where V

w

is the volume just before harvesting,

V

0

is the volume after harvesting, D

w

=F/V

w

and:

γ ·

V

0

V

w

t

w

is the cycle time and is given by: t

w

is the cycle time and is given by:

t

w

·

V

w

−V

0

F

·

V

w

− γV

w

F

·

1 − γ

D

w

(20) (20)

(21) (21)

(22) (22)

With this definition, we now

have:

With this definition, we now

have:

( )

2

w

p

0 w

γ 1

2D

X q

γP P − + ·

(23) (23)

Perfusion Culture

•

Animal Cell Culture

•

Constant medium flow

•

Cell retention

•

Selective removal of dead cells

•

Removal of cell debris, inhibitory by

products

•

High medium use, costs raw materials and

sterilization

Immobilized Cell Systems

•

High cell concentrations

•

Cell reuse

•

Eliminates cell washout at high

dilution rates

•

High volumetric productivities

•

May provide favorable

microenvironment

•

Genetic stability

•

Protection from shear damage

Major Limitation

Mass transfer (diffusional) resistances

Whole cells provide cofactors, reducing

power, energy that many enzymatic

reactions require.

Advantage over immobilized

enzymes

Types of

Immobilization

•

Active Immobilization: similar to

enzyme immobilization. Entrapment

and binding.

•

Passive Immobilization: Biofilm –

multilayer growth on solid surfaces.

Diffusional Limitations

•

Analysis similar to immobilized

enzymes

•

Damkohler number

•

Effectiveness factor

•

Thiele modulus

Immobilized Bioreactors

•

Packed-column: feed flows through a

column packed with immobilized cells.

Similar to a plug flow reactor. Can be

recycle chamber.

•

Fluidized-bed: feed flows up through a

bed of immobilized cells, fluidizing the

immobilized cell particles.

•

Airlift: air bubbles suspend the

immobilized cell particles in a reactor.

Solid-state Fermentations

•

Fermentations of solid materials

•

Low moisture levels

•

Agricultural products or foods

•

Smaller reactor volume

•

Low contamination due to low moisture

•

Easy product separation

•

Energy efficiency

•

Differentiated microbiological structures

- Simulation and ModellingUploaded byBrainardConcordia
- FYDP Part 2 BriefingUploaded byWeimingTan
- Flyer Gas Analyser (en)Uploaded byIgnacio Rodriguez Carrascosa
- A. Karimi_Kinetic Studies and Reactor ModelingpdfUploaded byPetronela Cozma
- Reactor Lecture 1Uploaded byAkhil Mandava
- Reactor DesignUploaded byAbhinav Ajmani
- ReactorUploaded bySudhanshu Tripathi
- Microbial GrowthUploaded bydreamrose
- TheoryrhsaeghrsjtyzjdhtgbxUploaded byadfsrge
- fixed bed reactor design pptUploaded bySandeepan_Goswam_970
- 344F14ExamI+SolutionUploaded byTriMapTrimapcase
- Midterm2 KeyUploaded byHungDo
- Team 2Uploaded bysahilchem
- ReactorUploaded byronywerner
- reactors-130714122717-phpapp01Uploaded byHanumanthu
- 4 student response and assessment template (2)Uploaded byapi-288654969
- Chemical Engineering Project for Dummies Part2 (2017)Uploaded byWan Sham
- Production of AcroleinUploaded byAleem Naeem
- Middle School Science Curriculum - Download entire curriculum at www. science powerpoint .comUploaded byRyan Murphy
- quiz4solUploaded byBarto135x
- 23_Piping Glossary & DefinitionsUploaded byAsad Khan
- InQu_6005_Syllabus_MCCA_2015.pdfUploaded byManny de Jesus
- C99 COD AnalyzerUploaded byumamkhairul
- Compensation of Synchronous Machines for StabilityUploaded byTavo Ergo
- Base-Catalyzed Methylation of PhenolsUploaded byrahulsaini855
- bnbbhbhbhjbjhUploaded byZati Thz
- Chemical ReactorUploaded bymarwan_husin
- Articulo EXPO.unlockedUploaded byhen1911
- Material Balance ModelUploaded byChristian Karekonde Opuba
- Levenspiel Chemical Reaction EngineeringUploaded byAllBeta

- PhotobioreactorUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- 11 Chapter 6Uploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- PhotobioreactorUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- BioreactorUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- Extraction Technologies for Medicinal and Aromatic PlantsUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- Oyster.bookUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- Introduction to Chemical Engineering ProcessesUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- PhotobioreactorUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- The Alga DunaliellaUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- 20080504 Bbddd8a174d1f28da88evg5H43leEiSQ.attachUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- 3Uploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- Biodiesel from AlgaeUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- Review on the Use and Production of Algae and Manufactured DietsUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- Downstream Processing Technology Review(1)Uploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- Algae-Farming-and-YieldsUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- 20100915 Korstad Alternative Energy BiofuelsUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- Airlift BioreactorUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- Algae-bioreactorUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- PhotobioreactorUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- MASS TRANSFER RELATIONSHIPSUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- Spirulina_spirulina assesment and procespectsUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- Biodiesel From AlgaeUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- Air lift BioreactorUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- Algae-Photobioreactor-GuideUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- Bioreactor ConfigurationsUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- Large-Scale-BioreactorsUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- Airlift AlgaeUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- photobioreactorUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- Algae-bioreactorUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi
- Air lift BioreactorUploaded byPeyman Sazandehchi