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Figure 5.

2a The Internal Organization in Representative Bones

epiphysis metaphysis

spongy (cancellous) bone – filled with red bone marrow (hemopoietic) Epiphyseal growth plate

medullary cavity filled with yellow bone marrow (fat) (hollow in shaft)
compact bone



hyaline cartilage (articular)
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Figure 3.19 Anatomy and Histological Organization of Bone (Part 1 of 2)

in central canal artery concentric lamellae vein osteon

spongy bone

compact bone

trabeculae perforating canal
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central canal

Figure 3.19 Anatomy and Histological Organization of Bone (Part 2 of 2)

canaliculi periosteum matrix central canal osteon

interlamellar bone

osteocytes In lacunae

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Synovial fluid Capsule Capillary Adipocytes Areolar tissue Epithelium Bone Synovial membrane © 2012 Pearson Education.Figure 3.20 Membranes Mucous membranes are coated with the secretions of mucous glands. Mucous membranes line most of the digestive and respiratory tracts and portions of the urinary and reproductive tracts. Serous membranes line the ventral body cavities (the peritoneal. and pericardial cavities). Epithelium Areolar tissue Dense irregular connective tissue Articular (hyaline) tissue Synovial membranes line joint cavities and produce the fluid within the joint. pleural. covers the outer surface of the body. Inc. . the skin. Mucous secretion Epithelium Lamina propria (areolar tissue) Transudate Mesothelium Areolar tissue The cutaneous membrane.

1 Structural Organization of Skeletal Muscle Epimysium Muscle fascicle Endomysium Perimysium SKELETAL MUSCLE Nerve Muscle fibers Blood vessels (organ) Perimysium Muscle fiber Endomysium Epimysium Blood vessels and nerves MUSCLE FASCICLE (bundle of cells) Mitochondria Endomysium Tendon Sarcolemma Capillary Endomysium Myofibril Perimysium Axon Sarcoplasm MUSCLE FIBER Myosatellite cell Nucleus (cell) © 2012 Pearson Education. Inc.Figure 9. .

Figure 3. Inc. .22a Histology of Muscle Tissue Skeletal Muscle Tissue Nuclei muscle fiber striations © 2012 Pearson Education.

. Inc.22b Histology of Muscle Tissue Cardiac Muscle Tissue nuclei cardiac muscle cells intercalated disc striations © 2012 Pearson Education.Figure 3.

22c Histology of Muscle Tissue Smooth Muscle Tissue nucleus smooth muscle cell © 2012 Pearson Education. . Inc.Figure 3.

Inc. .Figure 3.23a Histology of Neural Tissue Brain Cell body Spinal cord Axon Dendrites Nucleus of neuron Nucleolus Diagrammatic view of a representative neuron © 2012 Pearson Education.

Inc.1a The Axial Skeleton SKELETAL SYSTEM 206 AXIAL SKELETON 80 Cranium 8 APPENDICULAR SKELETON 126 (see Figure 7. © 2012 Pearson Education.1) Skull Face Skull and associated 29 bones 14 Associated bones Auditory 6 ossicles Hyoid 1 Sternum 1 Thoracic 25 cage Ribs 24 Vertebrae 24 Vertebral 26 column Sacrum Coccyx 1 1 Anterior view of the skeleton highlighting components of the axial skeleton. . the flowchart indicates relationships among the axial components.Figure 6.

.1b The Axial Skeleton Skull Skull Cervical vertebrae Sternum Ribs Ribs Thoracic vertebrae Ribs Lumbar vertebrae Sacrum Coccyx Lumbar vertebrae Sacrum Coccyx Anterior (left) and posterior (right) views of the bones of the axial skeleton © 2012 Pearson Education.Figure 6. Inc.

Figure 6.3c The Adult Skull (Part 1 of 2) CRANIAL BONES E Frontal bone (1) Sphenoid bone (1) Temporal bone (2) Ethmoid bone (1) Parietal bone (2) Occipital bone (1) E E Lateral view of the bones of the adult skull EE © 2012 Pearson Education. . Inc.

.Figure 6. Inc.3c The Adult Skull (Part 1 of 2) FACIAL BONES Zygomatic bones Nasal bone (2) Lacrimal bone (2) Maxilla (2) Zygomatic bone (2) Mandible (1) Lateral view of the bones of the adult skull © 2012 Pearson Education.

Figure 6. .16b The Nasal Complex. Part I Frontal bone Palatine bones Frontal sinuses Ethmoid Nasal bone Sphenoid Maxilla (hard palate) Vomer Superior Middle Inferior Nasal conchae Palatine bones (2) © 2012 Pearson Education. Inc.

Inc.Middle ear Auricle (external ear) Figure 18.10b Bones of the Middle Ear Inner ear Malleus Incus Stapes © 2012 Pearson Education. .

Inc.Figure 6.18a The Hyoid Bone Mandible Temporal bone Hyoid Bone Thyrohyoid ligament Thyroid Cartilage © 2012 Pearson Education. .

Inc. .Figure 6.20a The Vertebral Column SPINAL CURVES C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 L1 L2 VERTEBRAL REGIONS Cervical Cervical – 7 vertebrae Thoracic Thoracic – 12 vertebrae Lumbar L3 L4 L5 Lumbar – 5 vertebrae Sacral Sacral – 5 fused vertebrae Coccygeal – coccyx 3-5 fused vertebrae (Tailbone) © 2012 Pearson Education.

Figure 6.21a Vertebral Anatomy Articular processes Superior articular process Vertebral body Transverse process Spinous process Inferior articular process Vertebral body Superior articular process Transverse process Vertebral body Inferior articular facet © 2012 Pearson Education. . Inc.

Inc.21de Vertebral Anatomy Superior articular facet Spinous process Inferior articular process © 2012 Pearson Education. .Figure 6.

.Figure 6.21de Vertebral Anatomy Superior articular facet Facet joint Spinous process Intervertebral foramen Inferior articular process Spinal nerves pass through vertebral canal © 2012 Pearson Education. Inc.

Inc.8b Intervertebral Articulations End plate Nucleus pulposis Interertebral foramen Intervertebral disc Anulus fibrosis Spinal cord Spinal nerve Nucleus pulposis Anulus fibrosis © 2012 Pearson Education.Figure 8. .

Inc.Figure 6. .27a The Thoracic Cage T1 1 2 Manubrium Sternum Body 3 4 5 True ribs (ribs 1–7) Xiphoid process Costal cartilages Floating ribs (ribs 11–12) T11 10 6 7 8 9 T12 12 11 False ribs (ribs 8–12) Anterior view of the rib cage and sternum © 2012 Pearson Education.

. Inc.27b The Thoracic Cage C7 1 2 T1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 3 4 5 True ribs (ribs 1–7) 6 7 8 9 T10 10 False ribs (ribs 8–12) T11 T12 12 12 L1 10 11 11 Posterior view of the rib cage © 2012 Pearson Education.Figure 6.

1 The Appendicular Skeleton SKELETAL SYSTEM 206 AXIAL SKELETON (see Figure 6. Posterior view of the skeleton © 2012 Pearson Education.1) 80 APPENDICULAR SKELETON 126 Clavicle 4 Scapula 2 Scapula 2 Pectoral girdles Clavicle Humerus Humerus Upper limbs 60 Radius Ulna Carpal bones Metacarpal bones Phalanges 2 2 2 Radius 16 Ulna Hip bone 10 28 Pelvic girdle 2 Hip bones 2 Femur Femur Lower limbs 60 Patella Tibia Fibula 2 2 2 Tibia 2 Fibula Tarsal bones 14 Metatarsal bones Phalanges 10 28 Anterior view of the skeleton highlighting the appendicular components.Figure 7. The numbers in the boxes indicate the total number of bones of that type or category in the adult skeleton. Inc. .

.Figure 7.4a Mobility of the Pectoral Girdle Scapula Acromioclavicular joint Sternoclavicular joint Manubrium of sternum Clavicle Bones of the right pectoral girdle. Inc. superior view © 2012 Pearson Education.

4b Mobility of the Pectoral Girdle Retraction Protraction Alterations in the position of the right shoulder that occur during protraction (movement anteriorly) and retraction (movement posteriorly) © 2012 Pearson Education. Inc.Figure 7. .

. In each instance. © 2012 Pearson Education. note that the clavicle is responsible for limiting the range of motion (see Figure 8. Inc.Figure 7.f).4c Mobility of the Pectoral Girdle Elevation Depression Alterations in the position of the right shoulder that occur during elevation (superior movement) and depression (inferior movement).5d.

anterior view © 2012 Pearson Education.Figure 7. .2a The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb Scapula Humerus Radius Ulna Carpal bones Metacarpal bones (I to V) Phalanges Right upper limb. Inc.

8a The Bones of the Wrist and Hand Radius Scaphoid Ulna Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform Radius Ulna Lunate Scaphoid Capitate Trapezium Trapezoid Pisiform Triquetrum Hamate Capitate Trapezium Trapezoid Hamate I II V I II III IV V III IV Anterior (palmar) view of the bones of the right wrist © 2012 Pearson Education. . Inc.Figure 7.

.Figure 7.11a The Pelvis (Part 1 of 2) Sacrum Ilium Sacrum Pubis Ischium Coccyx Iliac fossa Iliac crest Sacro-iliac joint Arcuate line Pectineal line Acetabulum Coccyx Pubic tubercle Obturator foramen Pubic crest Pubic symphysis Ilium Pubis Hip bone Ischium Anterior view © 2012 Pearson Education. Inc.

Figure 7. Inc. .9a The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb Hip bone (coxal bones) Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsal bones Metatarsal bones Phalanges Right lower limb. lateral view © 2012 Pearson Education.