Highway Engineering

‫‪GEOMETRIC DESIGN‬‬

‫دراسة كل ما تراه العين من عناصر الطريق مثل‪-:‬‬
‫• عدد وعرض الحارات (‪)No of lanes‬‬
‫•المنحنيات االفقية والراسية (‪)Horizontal Curves‬‬
‫• القطاعات والتقاطعات (‪)Intersections‬‬

‫‪STRUCTURE DESIGN‬‬

‫دراسة كل ما التراه العين من الطريق مثل‪-:‬‬
‫• تصنيف التربة (‪)Soil Classification‬‬
‫•حساب اجهادات الرصف (‪)Pavement Stresses‬‬

‫• تصميم طبقات الرصف (‪)Pavement Design‬‬

‫القطاع اإلنشائي للرصف‬
Wearing SurfaceTack Coat (RC2)

5-10 cm
5-10 cm

Binder

20-25 cm

Base

20-25 cm

Subbase

Subgrade

Prime Coat(MC1)

Soil States
The stress strain response of a soil is highly affected by its
natural moisture content, its location with respect to the value
of Atterberg limits as shown in figure. The figure shows that
soil cannot support any stress if its natural moisture content is
more than the liquid limit (the soil is in liquid state). On the
other hand the soil can support more loads when the moisture
content is less than its plastic limit(the soil is in the solid state).

Solid

0

SemiSolid

S
L

Plastic

P
L

Liquid

L
L

Stress Strain
Relationship
Solid

0

SemiSolid

S
L

Plastic

P
L

Liquid

L
L

T

T

T
W =PL

W =LL

T

W <PL

W >LL

Soil
Classification

FAE_ZUN

Soil
Tests

Sieve Analysis

Atterberge Limits

Sieve Analysis
Passing %

Cumulative
Retain. %. Retain.

100.0
98.9
75.2
56.0
42.6
30.6
19.5
4.2
0.0

0.0
1.2
24.8
44.0
57.5
69.4
80.5
95.8
100.0

0.0
6.5
133.9
237.3
310.1
374.3
434.3
517.3
539.7

Retain Sieve
0.0
6.5
127.4
103.4
72.8
64.2
60.0
83.0
22.4

9.5
4.75
2.36
1.18
0.60
0.30
0.15
0.075
Pan

Liquid Limits

MOISTURE CONTENT

LIQUID LIMIT FLOW LINE
23
22
21
20
19
13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

33

35

37

39

NUMBER OF BLOWS

LIQUID LIMIT

UNIT

TARE NO.

TRIAL NO.
1

2

3

104

B

103

GROSS WET MASS

g

58.240

49.460

51.270

GROSS DRY MASS

g

54.070

46.130

48.770

MOISTURE MASS

g

4.170

3.330

2.500

TARE MASS

g

35.380

30.170

36.240

DRY SOIL MASS

g

18.690

15.960

12.530

MOISTURE CONTENT

%

22.31

20.86

19.95

18

25

31

NO. OF BLOWS

41

TEST SUMMARY

Plastic Limits
PLASTIC LIMIT

UNITS

TARE NO.

L.L

P.L

P.I

21.0

16.0

4.9

TRIAL NO.
1

2

3

3

P

7

GROSS WET MASS

g

13.85

15.84

16.71

GROSS DRY MASS

g

13.560

15.620

16.380

MOISTURE MASS

g

0.290

0.220

0.330

TARE MASS

g

11.77

14.23

14.29

DRY SOIL MASS

g

1.790

1.390

2.090

MOISTURE CONTENT

%

16.20

15.83

15.79

Soil
Classification

FAE_ZUN

Group Index (GI)
GI = 0.2a + 0.005ac + 0.01bd
where:
a = F – 35 (0 – 40)
b = F – 15 (0 – 40)
c = LL – 40 (0 – 20)
d = PI – 10 (0 – 20)
F is passing ≠ 200
PI = LL - PL

GI
0

Rating
Excellen
t
1
Good
2-4
Fair
5 -9
Poor
10 - 20
Very
Poor

Soil
Classification

Example

FAE_ZUN

Sieve
(Soil A), %
(Soil B), %

No. 10
100

No. 40
55
96

No. 200
30
85

LL
42
35

PL
33
15

Soil A
%age passing No. 200 is 30% (< 35%)Soil is Course, It may be
A-1, A-2, A-3
%age passing No. 40 is 55% Soil could be A-2, or A-3
%age passing No. 200 is 30% (>10%)Soil is A-2 Using Chart to
deter. Type
Soil is (A – 2- 5)
GI = 0.2a + 0.005 ac + 0.01 bd
a = 30 – 35 = 0
b = 30 – 15 = 15
c = 42 – 40 = 2
d = 9 – 10 = 0

PI

A-7-6
A -6
A – 2-6
A-7–5
A – 2 -7

10

FAE_ZUN

A-4
A – 2-4

A-5
A -2-5

LL
40

Example

FAE_ZUN

%age passing No. 200 is 86% (>35%) Soil is Fine, It may be A4, A-5, A-6, A-7
Diagonal line is (LL – 30 = 70 – 30 = 40) PI = 32 < 40, and
Using the figure soil is (A – 7- 5)

GI = 0.2a + 0.005 ac + 0.01 bd
a = 86 – 35 = 51 (40)
b = 86 – 15 = 71 (40)
c = 70 – 40 = 30 (20)
d = 32 – 10 = 22 (20)
GI = 0.2*51+ 0.005*51*30+0.01*71*22= 33.47(very poor)
GI = 0.2*40 + 0.005*40*20 + 0.01*40*20=20 (very poor)
Soil is (A – 7- 5) (33.47)

‫الحمد هلل‬
‫‪FAE_ZUN‬‬

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