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2012

Stresses Distribution

2

Wheel Load

150 psi

Wearing C.

3 psi

Base Sub-base Sub-grade

Load Distribution in Pavements

Stresses Distribution

3

Wheel Load

Vertical Stress

Not Drawn to Scale σS

Pavement Structure

σB σSB σSG

Subgrade

Horizontal Stress

Not Drawn to Scale

Wheel Load

Pavement Structure

Subgrade

**Loads and Contact Area
**

4 Single Tridem Tandem Dual

Pressure

Tire Pressure

P p = Tire Pressure = Contact Pressure p

Contact Area

is circle with radius = a a = P/π p

• Type of Load ( Static, and Dynamic) • Tangential Forces ( Acceleration, and Braking)

Axles Types

5

6

**Multi-Layer Elastic Theory
**

P 7 H1, E1, μ1 H2, E2, μ2 H3, E3, μ3 Hn, En, μn Interface 1 Interface 2

Interface 3 σz

dz σt

dr σr

The stresses, strains, and deflection are the pavement response to the applied load. Stress is a force load per unit area, and strain is the change in dimension. Pavement stresses, strains, and deflection are caused by traffic loading, daily or seasonal temperature and moisture variations and by any change in the conditions of pavement support. The theory used to calculate stress, strains, and deflections in pavement system is the multi-layer theory.

Load Representation

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Load Representation

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Single Load

P a

Location is defined by z & r

P a p p Z 2 r V. Stress σ1 > σ2 V. deflection Δ1 > Δ2 P s p 1 2 p 1

1 2

Z1

Z2

V. Stress σ1 > σ2

V. deflection Δ1 > Δ2

Dual Load

P

**σ1 =σ due to load1+σ due to load2 Δ1 =Δ due to load1+Δ due to load2
**

r 1 r

Z

Load Representation

10

Tandem

defined by z/a and r/a σ1 = ∑σ due to loadi Δ1 = ∑Δ due to loadi

P P

P

P

S1

S2 St

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**How to Calculate Stress & Deflection
**

Stress

One Layer Theory

For any system of loads Deflection Stress

Two Layers Theory

**Under single load
**

Deflection

**One Layer Theory
**

(Boussinsq Theory)

P a p

E1 =Ep= α E2 ( Subgrade) 11

No deflection in the pavement structure …..all deflection is in the subgrade So, the layered system is composed of only ONE LAYER (Subgrade) This layer follows the same assumption of the Elastic Multilayer Theory

**Vertical Stress (σ) & Vertical Deflection (Δ)
**

Single Load

a P

p

E1 =Ep= α E2 ( Subgrade)

1) Using (z/a, r/a) 2) Using (z/a, r/a)

Figure (1) Figure (2)

m= σ/p F

σ

Δ= pa*F/ E2

**One Layer Theory
**

(Boussinsq Theory)

Dual Load

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P s p 2

P 1

p

Z

**σ total = σ 1+ σ 2 σ1 (z/a, r/a)…….m1 = σ 1 / p σ 2 (z/a, r/a)…….m2 = σ 2 / p Δ total = Δ 1+ Δ 2 Δ 1 (z/a, r/a)……F1…. Δ1 = paF1/Esubgrade Δ 2 (z/a, r/a)……F2…. Δ2 = paF2/Esubgrade
**

Same procedure for Tandem Load …………. 4 times

**One Layer Theory
**

(Boussinsq Theory)

Example

z1/a = 2 , r1/a = 0 ……….m1 = 30% m1= σ1 / p ……. σ1 = 0.3*50 = 15 psi z2/a = 2 , r2/a = 1.0 ………m2 = 20% m2= σ2 / p ……. σ2 = 0.2*50 = 10 psi z1/a = 2 , r1/a = 0 ……….f1 = 0.7 Δ1 = paF1/Esub= 50*7*0.7/5000 = 0.049 z2/a = 2 , r2/a = 1 ……….f2 = 0.57 Δ2 = paF2/Esub = 50*7*0.57/5000 =0.04 2 r=7 1

Z=14 inch E2=5000 psi 13

P a=7 p=50psi

Vertical Stress (σ)

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m(%)

Vertical Deflection (Δ)

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**Two Layer Theory
**

( Burmister Theory)

Multilayer theory 2- In this theory, pavement

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1- Same assumption as in the

P a p

E pav. = E1

E Subgrade = E2

deflection is considered 3- Deflection at depth Z in a two layer system given by: Δ = 1.18 paf/Esub (Rigid Pav.) Δ = 1.5 paf/Esub p = tire pressure (psi) a = √P/πp Esub = Subgrade modulus of elasticity f = two layer deflection factor (Flexible Pav.) Δ = vertical deflection under CL of the applied load

**Two Layer Theory
**

( Burmister Theory)

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4- This theory is applied only to one load and r/a = 0 5- When Z/a = 0 F = 1.0 for any E2 / E1 ratio 6- If it is required to calculate deflection in two layers system under dual or dual tandem load system, the thickness conversion method described earlier can be used to convert the two layers to one layer system.

**Two Layer Theory
**

( Burmister Theory)

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Layer Equivalency It is the conversion of a thickness of a layer of material with known modulus to an equivalent thickness of another material with known modulus using the formula Zsub. = Z pav. 3√E1/E2

P a p E Subgrade = E2 E Subgrade = E2 a p

E pav. = E1

P

E Subgrade = E2

**Two Layer Theory
**

( Burmister Theory)

Example

P = 15000lb p=100psi a = √15000 / π*100 = 7.0 E1=100000 psi Z=14 E2=1000 psi

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Two layer

z/a = 2 , E2 / E1 = 1/100 ….f’ = 0.13 Δ = K paf /Esub= 1.5 *100*7*0.13/1000= 0.137

One layer

z/a = 2 , r/a = 0 ……….f1 = 0.69 Δ = paF1/Esub = 100*7*0.69/1000 =0. 483

Conversion

Z = Z pav. 3√E1/E2 = 143√100000/1000 =65 Δ = paF1/Esub = 100*7*0.17/1000 =0. 12

Vertical Stress (σ)

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m(%)

Vertical Deflection (Δ)

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Z/a

**Use of Multilayer theory in pavement evaluation
**

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Pavement Evaluation

- Pavement evalaution ………..to find E1 & E2

- Since the two layer theory ( or multilayer thoery, in general) links between the pavement deflection and its characteristics, i.e. E1 & E2, then if we can measure the deflection, it will be easy to back calculate E1 & E2.

P - Plate Bearing Test is used to measure the deflection of subgrade a = 15 under given load.

Rigid plate

**How to get E1 & E2 Using the Plate Bearing Test
**

1- Put the Plate on the top of subgrade and measure the deflection ( Δ) at the top of subgrade ( i.e. z = 0.0) p = P / π (15)2

P

a = 15

Subgrade

**using the two layer theory
**

Δ = K p a F’ / E2

Rigid plate

Δ is measured, K = 1.18, F’ = 1.0 (for z/a = 0.0), and p & a is known ………then get E2

Pavement Evaluation

How to get E1 & E2 Using the Plate Bearing Test 2- Put the Plate on the top of the base ( or pavement materials) and measure the deflection ( Δ) at the top of subgrade using the two layer theory P Δ = K p a F’ / E2 …… get F’ Known F’ and z/a ...get E2 / E1 …get E1 Example

E1 E2

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Z=choused

A certain flexible pavement consists of 2-in bituminous surface, 7-in crushed stone base course, and 9-in sandy subbase. A 30-in rigid plate was used to determine the load- deflection characteristics. The following results were obtained 1- subgrade deflection = 0.10 in at 20 psi 2- Pavement deflection = 0.10 in at 98 psi 18 in Pavement ( E1) 30 in

2 in 7 in

Solution:

step (1) Δ = 0.1 = K p a F’ / E2 0.1 = 1.18 × 20 ×15 ×1 / E2

9 in Subgrade

E2

E2 = 3540 psi

Pavement Evaluation

step (2) Δ = 0.1 = K p a F’ / E2 0.1 = 1.18 × 98 ×15 ×F’ / 3540 E2 / E1 = 1 / 80 …… E1 = 80 × 3540 = 283200 psi Given Req. SWL P,Z P, Z P, σ max. P, Δ max. Z , σ max. Z, Δ max Req. : P 1- Assume P a = √ P / π p 2- Calculate Δ σ Δ Z Z P P Chart Chart, Equation Chart Chart, Equation Chart Drawn Relation (Δ , P) E1 Z=18

E2=3540 psi

F’ = 0.204 ( using Chart with z / a = 18/15 = 1.2 and f’ = 0.204 ) Multiwheel load Chart Chart, Equation Drawn Relation (σ , Z) Drawn Relation (Δ , Z) Drawn Relation (σ , P) Drawn Relation (Δ , P)

Given : Z, p, Δ max., E2

3- If Δ = Δ max. ……..P req. = P

4- if not repeat 3 to 4 times to draw the shown relation and find Preq at Given Δ

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