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3th Forum Ha Noi 20-21 December 2012

Assc. Prof. Dr. Truong Vinh Chemical Engineering Department, Nong Lam University HCM city

Contents
i. ii. iii. iv. v. Introduction to biodiesel and algae. Introduction to ethanol plant. Introduction to algal-biodiesel from ethanol plant. Two-stage growing experiment in fresh water. Growing experiment in wastewater without stress treatment. vi. Photobioreactor development. vii. Discussion viii.Proposed growing model for large scale algal production based on two-stage growing methodology ix. Conclusion

INTRODUCTION TO BIODIESEL Why biodiesel ?
1. The resources of fossil fuel is expected to be reduced in the next decades. 2. Consumption of diesel is 6 times of petrol. Combustion of fossil diesel produces CO2 causing global warming: 240ppm to 345ppm during the 20th century. 3. Need to replace fossil fuel by other sources of energy: wind, solar, biodiesel. 4. Biodiesel is one of the renewable energy resources (wind, solar can not be used directly for transport). 5. Direct use of biodiesel in diesel engine is cleaner than fossil diesel: less emission of greenhouse gas such as CO, CO2, SO2, NOx.

* Emissions produced during the growing. carbon neutral fuels. less competition with feed crop. harvesting. canola Algae Used to produce Ethanol Ethanol Ethanol Ethanol. food competition problem •Microalgae: high productivity. less CO2 emission => renewable resources of energy that has the potential to completely displace fossil diesel . available technology.INTRODUCTION TO ALGAE Crop Corn Sugar cane Switch grass Wood residue Soybeans Rapeseed. Biodiesel Biodiesel Biodiesel Biodiesel Why microalgae ?  Less land used => No food competition problem  Algae+CO2= Energy =>Less gas emission Greenhouse gas emission (kg CO2/MJ produced)* 81-85 4-12 -24 N/A 49 37 -183 Estimated % crop land used 157-262 46-57 60-108 150-250 180-240 30 1-2 (Source: Martha Groom. University of Washington. waste cooking oil and animal fat : a potential renewable. refining and burning) •Oil crops.

000 ton CO2/year .  CO2 resource: fermentation of cassava produced 20. Location: Quang Nam Province. Specification of the ethanol plant:  Ethanol production: 100.1. INTRODUCTION TO ETHANOL PLANT 1.000 ton/year  Waste water release: 4000 m3/day  Cooling water release: this river water used to cool the ethanol distillation equipment with the rate of 8000 m3/day at temperature of 60oC. Vietnam 3. Name of company: Green Field Join Stock Company 2.

2. INTRODUCTION TO algal-biodiesel from ethanol plant Ethanol Plant Cheap CO2 source High Nutrition Cassava => Fermentation => Ethanol + CO2 + Waste water + Residual Microalgae => Photobioreactor => biodiesel + glycerine + chlorophyll + Waste Growing System Biodegradable Film Food color Antioxidant Fertilizer Biodiesel Plant .

3. Production Process of biodiesel from algae in two-stage growing system Dried biomass Drying Harvesting Dry extraction Wet biomass Second stage of growing First stage of growing Treatments Oil separation Wet extraction Oil refining Biodiesel Reaction Methanol Catalyst Glycerin Purification Product Separation Algae growth in photobioreactor Biodiesel Purification Algae seed production .

36 0.1 GROWING WITHOUT TREATMENT Composition Protein Lipid Carbonhydrates Percentage 60.55 0.3.02 Chlorophylls Carotenoids Total Composition of algae grown without treatment is suitable for Functional Food .1 14.0013 0.0059 75.

and 60 % Basal nutrient. 45. The control sample was the 100% Basal medium • Continueing to grow for 7 days and harvest Experiment 2: Best result from experiment 1 was used with modification of Basal medium and variation of initial cell density .3. 30.1 GROWING WITH TREATMENT Methodology: Experiment 1: • Growing in Basal medium for 7 days • Transfering to new medium contained 15.

g/L 45% nutrient Refined lipid.150 .278 .472 2. g/L Control .3.300 .400 .316 .500 Biomass.000 15% nutrient 30% nutrient Crude oil.500 . g/L 60% nutrient Biomass. g/L .000 .100 .403 2.250 .000 .290 .364 .2 GROWING WITH TREATMENT: results of experiment 1 Effect of stress nutrient treatment on biomass and oil productivity after 7 days . g/L .000 .206 .450 .350 Oil content.050 .500 1.500 .272 1.200 .276 .394 .

000 0.000 40. 8(2): Modified 2 g dầu/L Lipid Productivity.218 50.350 0. g/L .280 60. 8(1): Modified 1 .300 0.150 34.000 20.232 0.000 53.000 60.000 0.000 3 8(0) 8(1) 8(2) Initial cell density. % 50.560 27.522 Crude oil content.3.130 0.150 .100 0.156 30. million/L 15 % dầu 25 0.870 0.246 0.000 8(0): Basal .2 GROWING WITH TREATMENT: results of experiment 2 Effect of initial cell density on the biomass and oil content at 30% nutrient stress treatment 70.149 30.050 0.200 0.250 0.000 10.

the oil content was 60%. . oil content was highest with crude oil of 0.2 GROWING WITH TREATMENT: Conclusion • Nutrient stress treatment decreased the biomass but improved the oil content compared to the control.47 g/L and refined oil of 0. • At the treatment 30% of Basal medium.36 g/L.3. with additional of MgSO4 (Modified 1) and initial cell density of 8 106/mL. • At the treatment 30% of Basal nutrient (in equivalent to deprivation of 70% of nutrient).

46 106 345 Unit mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mgO2/L mgO2/L .63 0.2 40.02 131. Growing experiment in wastewater without stress treatment Nutrient in waste water of ethanol plant Item N total P total K Ca Mg Na Fe Mn Cu Zn S Mo Co BOD5 COD Value 438.4.14 11.432 0.94 648 9.

4. Growing experiment in wastewater without stress treatment Experimental design: the waste water was dilute with variation of the ratio between waste water and fresh water/cooling water from 20% to 100% (v/v) as in shown the following table: Treatment Waste water Fresh water 20w 20 80 40W 40 60 60w 60 40 80w 80 20 100w 100 0 Growth condition: container 1. fluorescent light with light intensity of 110 μmol/m2s using 4 fluorescent lamps of 40W .5 liter.

Growing experiment in wastewater without stress treatment: results 250 Cell density. x106/mL 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 15 Growing time. day 20 100 w 80 w 60 w 40 w 20 w .4.

5g/L with crude oil content of 57% . The cell density was 230 million/mL after 14 days of growing.4. The productivity of algae grown in 20% waste was 3. • At 20% of waste water. the algae grew well and better than in normal Basal medium. Growing experiment in wastewater without stress treatment: oil content and biomass • The algae could not survive in the media that contained higher 60% of waste water.

5 liter bottles.4. 25% and 30% (v/v) was used as nutrients for algal growing • Two sources of light were compared: fluorescent light (4 lamps of 40W) and LED light (4 lamps of 21 W) • Algae were grown in 1. Growing experiment in wastewater without stress treatment: Using LED light Experimental design: • The waste water /cooling water of 20% . .

Growing experiment in wastewater without stress treatment: Using LED light Results: No significant different between cell density of algae grown under fluorescent and LED light after 8 days (P>0.30 102.16 1318. million/mL 20% 25% 30% 54 85 73 70 82 72 63 85 71 65 59 55 df 1 2 2 6 11 MS 123.1847 5.6933 F P-value F crit 1.1511 51.3167 5.1925 0.6328 5.617 .1433 SS 123.6492 235.51 622.4.2678 0.25278 103.65 470.1433 0.05) Waste content Fluores LED ANOVA Source of Variation Sample Columns Interaction Within Total Cell density.9874 2.4943 0.

Growing experiment in wastewater without stress treatment: Using LED light Results: the algae growed best at 25% of waste water for both light sources => using LED light saved half of energy 90 80 Cell density.4. x106/mL 70 60 50 40 30 Fluoresence LED light 20 10 0 20% waste 25% waste 30% waste .

9 1.75 24.25 MgSO4 • 7H2O Basal medium NaNO3 CaCl2 • 2H2O MgSO4 • 7H2O 8.5 . VND/L from using waste medium 24. Growing experiment in wastewater without stress treatment: benefit from waste and CO2 Nutrient saving Price.575 8.975 Year of BOD experiment (mgO2/L) before/ After growing 2009 81/7.25 KH2PO4 28.9 COD (mgO2/L) before/ After growing 260/78 2012 33 45% 106/80 345/100 Contribution of CO2 and nutritent in waste water on cost saving to produce biomass Saving from CO2 Saving from nutrient of waste water 39.875 NaCl 0.25 K2HPO4 8.75 NaNO3 3.275 Total 73.4.

5. PHOTOBIOREACTOR DEVELOPMENT Purpose:  Cheap price: plastic material for tube  Contamination control: closed system  Low operation cost: minimal pump energy .

5 .5 5.0 3.4 7.7 1.4 8.0 4.9 400 0.0 3.6 3.7 1.4 8 LCP400D210 210 11.5 LCP400D170 170 17.6 400 0.0 168 0.7 400 0.0 4.5.7 1.45 1 0.0 2.1 Photobioreactor parameters Table 2: Summary of characteristics of different developed PBRS for experiments Parameters Tube diameter (D) of solar receiver (mm) Total length of solar receiver (m) Length of tube (m) Total area occupied (m2) Volume of culture (liter) Air lift column height (m) Tank height from tube (m) Velocity of culture (m/s) LCP170D70 70 44.5 3.01 LCP400D140 140 26.

5.2 Photobioreactors Contamination control Simple construction LCP400-D170 81 liter/m2 LCP400-D140 70 liter/m2 Treatment system .

2 Photobioreactors Contamination control Simple construction LCP2500-D170: 2.5 m3 Width x Length = 2.5.5 m x 15 m 81 liter/m2 .

106/mL 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 Growing time.3 GROWING IN PBRS The growing of algae Chlorella vulgaris in PBR LCP-170 Initial number of cell was 106 cell/ml 60 50 Cell density.5. (h) 500 600 Figure 4: Algae density and OD of Chlorella vulgaris as function of growing time .

60 447 3.5 81. mm Biomass.41 80 38 70. g/L Crude Oil.9 47.0 70 0.4 125 40.3 170 0. mg/L CD. x106 cell/mL Specific volume.67 80. L/m2 210 0.6 27 89.4 DISCUSSION Comparison of biomass cost produced from PBRs of different tube sizes of experimental systems with and without treatment D.25 1153 . g oil/m2 VND/g oil (without treatment) VND/g oil (with treatment) 3.1 140 0.35 70.27 423 5.6 5.75 425 107.4 The cost of oil reduced by 4 times with stress treatment Capacity.336 36.5.

.a)Microalgae is renewable resource of energy that has the potential to displace fossil diesel b)Technology should be improved to reduce cost by improving of algae strain. c)Wet extraction or solar drying should be considered to reduce the production cost d)Growing in waste water using CO2 of ethanol plant provided high productivity and reduced production cost e)Growth methodology in PBR should be combined with stress treatment (two stage growing) to optimize the biodiesel production from microalgae. growing methodology.

.Methodology: Two-stage growing technology: First stageGrowing => Second stage-Treatment Strategy: Using sun energy as sustainable resource for algalbiodiesel production : Combination between direct sun light and solar panels as electrical source for LED light in order to stabilize the light source during the year.

Solar panel LED light Plastic house First stage Sun drying Cultivationoutdoor Sun drying 15m Plastic house Cultivationindoor Plastic house Plastic house 17m Harvest . Harvest . 15m Harvest .Seed culti. .Seed culti.Seed culti.

Seed cultivation.Seed cultivation .Treatment Treatment Treatment Second stage Treatment Treatment Treatment Harvest . Harvest .Seed cultivation Harvest .

sun energy is not stable for algal growing due to the weather change during the year  Therefore.  However.  Energy used in extraction of oil from algae is reduced significantly by either wet extraction method or sun drying/solar drying.5%.  Autotrophic growth of algae for biodiesel is sustainable because it uses sun as energy.  Two – stage growing method can be used to enhance the oil content. solar panel is propose to stablise the light source  LED light is expected to use to reduce the investment of the solar panels. solar panel.  Using the available CO2 source produced from ethanol plant decreased the production cost by 40%. etc. Initial results of project EEP-3-V-053 indicated that waste water of ethanol can be used as nutrient for algal growth to produce biodiesel with a contribution to cost saving of 1.  The improvement of other technologies such as plastic material for tubes of PBR. efficiency of LED light. is important .

vn 0903862721 . Vietnam tv@hcmuaf.edu.Contact adress: Truong Vinh Chemical Engineering Department Nona Lam University. Ho Chi Minh city.