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A2 (SS2011-13)



An information system (IS) - or application landscape - is any combination of information technology and people's activities that support operations, management, and decision making.

The term information system is frequently used to refer to the interaction between people, processes, data, and technology.
It help to control the performance of business processes. An information system is a work system whose activities are devoted to processing (capturing, transmitting, storing, retrieving, manipulating and displaying) information.
A2 (SS2011-13)

stored facts. instructions.Conti…… 3  An information system can also be considered a semi-formal language which supports human decision making and action. It consists of computers.   1) 2) 3) ISs can be categorized in four parts: Management Information System (MIS) Decision Support System (DSS) Executive Information System (EIS) 4) Transaction Processing System (TPS) A2 (SS2011-13) . people and procedures.

Management Information System (MIS) 4 Def: A management information system (MIS) provides information needed to manage organizations efficiently and effectively. and information. technology. A2 (SS2011-13) . Management information systems involve three primary resources: people.

Conti….. 5     1 History 2 Terminology 3 Types 4 Advantages A2 (SS2011-13) .

Personal computers (Second era) Client/server networks (Third era) Enterprise computing (Fourth ear) Cloud computing (Fifth era) A2 (SS2011-13) . IV. Mainframe and minicomputer computing (First era) II.History 6 Kenneth and Jane Laudon identify five eras of MIS evolution corresponding to five phases in the development of computing technology: I. V. III.

Information systems and ERP are broader categories that include MIS. ERP and.Terminology 7  The terms MIS. information technology management are often confused. A2 (SS2011-13) . information system. Information technology management concerns the operation and organization of information technology resources independent of their purpose.

Types 8 Most management information systems specialize in particular commercial and industrial sectors.      Accounting MIS Financial MIS Manufacturing MIS Marketing MIS Human Resource MIS A2 (SS2011-13) . aspects of the enterprise. or management substructure.

Giving an overall picture of the company and acting as a communication and planning tool The availability of the customer data and feedback can help the company to align their business processes according to the needs of the customers. Information is considered to be an important asset for any company in the modern competitive world    A2 (SS2011-13) .Advantages 9  The company is able to highlight their strength and weaknesses due to the presence of revenue reports. employee performance records etc.

documents.Decision Support System (DSS) 10 Def: Decision support system (DSS) is a computer-based information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities. A2 (SS2011-13) . personal knowledge. A properly designed DSS is an interactive software-based system intended to help decision makers compile useful information from a combination of raw data. Dss also include knowledge-based systems. or business models to identify and solve problems and make decisions.

Content 11      History Taxonomies Components Classification Benefits A2 (SS2011-13) .

History 12  According to Keen (1978). In the middle and late 1980s. group decision support systems (GDSS). A2 (SS2011-13)    . and the technical work on interactive computer systems. mainly carried out at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the 1960s DSS became an area of research of its own in the middle of the 1970s. executive information systems (EIS). the concept of decision support has evolved from two main areas of research The theoretical studies of organizational decision making done at the Carnegie Institute of Technology during the late 1950s and early 1960s. before gaining in intensity during the 1980s. and organizational decision support systems (ODSS) evolved from the single user and model-oriented DSS.

Taxonomies 13  Using the relationship with the user as the criterion. or refine the decision suggestions provided by the system. Haettenschweiler differentiates in to three types Passive Active Cooperative DSS    Passive: A passive DSS is a system that aids the process of decision making. before sending them back to the system for validation. A2 (SS2011-13) . Cooperative DSS : Allows the decision maker (or its advisor) to modify. but that cannot bring out explicit decision suggestions or solutions Active: An active DSS can bring out such decision suggestions or solutions. complete.

Conti. 14        Another taxonomy for DSS has been created by Daniel Power. examples include integrated tools like Microsoft's NetMeeting or Groove  A data-driven DSS or data-oriented DSS: Emphasizes access to and manipulation of a time series of internal company data and. A communication-driven DSS :Supports more than one person working on a shared task. communication-driven DSS. sometimes.…. A2 (SS2011-13) . data-driven DSS document-driven DSS knowledge-driven DSS model-driven DSS. external data.

rules. procedures. A knowledge-driven DSS :It provides specialized problem-solving expertise stored as facts. retrieves. financial. or simulation model. 15  A document-driven DSS: It manages. optimization.Conti. A model-driven DSS: Emphasizes access to and manipulation of a statistical.….   A2 (SS2011-13) . and manipulates unstructured information in a variety of electronic formats. or in similar structures.

numbers.  DSS components may be classified as:   Inputs: Factors.Classification 16  A compound DSS is the most popular classification for a DSS It is a hybrid system that includes two or more of the five basic structures described by Holsapple and Whinston. and characteristics to analyze User Knowledge and Expertise: Inputs requiring manual analysis by the user   Outputs: Transformed data from which DSS "decisions" are generated Decisions: Results generated by the DSS based on user criteria A2 (SS2011-13) .

e. The user interface. A2 (SS2011-13) . The database (or knowledge base) The model (i. and iii.. the decision context and user criteria).Components 17 Three fundamental components of a DSS architecture are: i. ii.

Benefits 18   Improves personal efficiency Speed up the process of decision making          Increases organizational control Encourages exploration and discovery on the part of the decision maker Speeds up problem solving in an organization Facilitates interpersonal communication Promotes learning or training Generates new evidence in support of a decision Creates a competitive advantage over competition Reveals new approaches to thinking about the problem space Helps automate managerial processes A2 (SS2011-13) .

modify. Transaction Processing is not limited to application programs. A2 (SS2011-13) . A transaction processing system is a type of information system. store. including a journal. TPSs collect. and retrieve the transactions of an organization. The journal file system provided with IBMs AIX Unix operating system employs similar techniques to maintain file system integrity. A transaction is an event that generates or modifies data that is eventually stored in an information system.Transaction Processing System (TPS) 19 Def.

Contents 20     Types Features Components 4 ACID test properties: first definition  Storing and retrieving A2 (SS2011-13) .

ii. Transactions are accumulated for a certain period (say for day) where updates are made especially after work. Batch processing involves processing several transactions at the same time. Online transaction processing is the form of transaction processing that processes data as it becomes available. A2 (SS2011-13) . there is a time delay. Real-time and batch processing: -Each transaction in real-time processing is unique.Types 21 i. Real-time processing requires the master file to be available more often for updating and reference than batch processing. The database is not accessible all of the time for batch processing. and the results of each transaction are not immediately available when the transaction is being entered. even though those transactions are processed in the same manner.Batch processing is a form of transaction processing. Contrasted with batch processing: . It is not part of a group of transactions.

ii. iv. iii. Rapid response Reliability Inflexibility Controlled processing A2 (SS2011-13) .Features 22 i.

iii. iv.Components 23 i. Input Processing Storage Output A2 (SS2011-13) . ii.

III. it appears to each transaction T.A transaction’s changes to the state are atomic: either all happen or none happen. and actions on transducers. II. A2 (SS2011-13) . but not both Durability: -Once a transaction completes successfully (commits). These changes include database changes. Concurrency: -Once a transaction completes successfully (commits). Consistency: -A transaction is a correct transformation of the state. The actions taken as a group do not violate any of the integrity constraints associated with the state. messages. that others executed either before T or after T. This requires that the transaction be a correct program Isolation: -Even though transactions execute concurrently. Atomicity: .ACID test properties: first definition 24 I. IV. its changes to the state survive failures. its changes to the state survive failures. V.

so they usually have a restricted view of certain data Data warehouse: . Databases are always protective of their delicate data.A data warehouse is a database that collects information from different sources. A2 (SS2011-13) . subject-oriented.Since business organizations have become very dependent on TPSs. In order to prevent data loss and minimize disruptions when a TPS breaks down a welldesigned backup and recovery procedure is put into use.A database is a collection of data neatly organized. The recovery process can rebuild the system when it goes down.Storing and retrieving 25 Databases and files: . which stores the accounting and operational records in the database. It provides data that are consolidated. historical and read-only Backup procedures: . a breakdown in their TPS may stop the business' regular routines and thus stopping its operation for a certain amount of time. When it's gathered in real-time transactions it can be used for analysis efficiently if it's stored in a data warehouse.

This only occurs when parts of the master file are backed up. this could be daily. the oldest backup is the grandfather. The master file can be recreated from the journal files on the backup tape if the system is to fail. ii. It's commonly used for a batch transaction processing system with a magnetic tape. the most recent backup is the son.. thus. 26 Types of back-up procedures: i.This procedure refers to at least three generations of backup master files. A2 (SS2011-13) .Conti…. Partial backups: . weekly or monthly. Grandfather-father-son: . or journal files. Completed transactions since the last backup are stored separately and are called journals. The master file is usually backed up to magnetic tape at regular times.

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