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Network Basics

By Muhammad Arslan Farooq MBA-ITM (IIUI)

Contents
• • • • • • Computer Networks and their Uses Network Models Network Categories Network Topologies Networking Devices Network Standards

Computer Networks & Uses

Computer Networks
• “A network is a set of devices (often referred to as nodes) connected by communication links”
– A node can be a
• computer • Printer • or any other device

Computer Networks. workstations or servers. A simple definition • “A computer network is a set of two or more computers connected together in order to share information and resources” – The computers in a network are also called nodes. . clients.

Audio conferencing. Data conferencing • Easier data backups .Uses/ Benefits of Computer Networks • Information sharing • Resources sharing – Both hardware and software • Cost saving • Easy communication – Video conferencing.

Network Models .

Networks Models • Networks can be categorized by the roles the servers and PCs play in Network • Some networks use servers (ClientServer Models) • and some do not (Peer-to-Peer Models) .

. • Server is a more powerful computer than other computers in the network. Client/ Server Network • One or more computer work as servers and other computers work as clients.1. • The server controls the whole network.

• The server used in the network may be a dedicated server – A type of server that is used to perform a specific task only – e. A print server may be used only to handle printing tasks • Most of the processing is performed by the server computer .1. Client/ Server Network continued..g.

. Client/ Server Network continued. WAN. MAN etc. • The client computer requests a service from the server computer • Server responds to the request by providing the requested service • This arrangement requires special software for the nodes and the server • This model is not Network type specific. – It can be used in LAN.1. .

.2. Peer-to-Peer Network • Each computer has same status • There is no server computer to control the network • Each computer stores its data and software independently • normally deployed in LANs.

Network Categories .

MAN 3.Network Categories • Into which category a network falls is determined by – its size – ownership – the distance it covers – and physical architecture. WAN . • Generally a Network can be categorized in three Primary Types. 1. LAN 2.

– Data transmission speed can be 1 to 100 Mbps. .1. building or campus. • LAN size is limited to a few kilometers • LANs can transmit data at very fast speed. Local Area Network • Usually privately owned • link the devices in a single office.

Uses of LANs • • • • • Software sharing Hardware sharing Easy to manage data Security as data can be stored on central computer in the network Data Sharing .

.2. Metropolitan Area Network • Designed to extend over an entire city • It may be a single network – such as a cable television network. • Or it may be means of connecting a number of LANs into a larger network – e.g. A company can use a MAN to connect the LANs in all its office through a city.

Metropolitan Area Network continued.. • A MAN may be wholly owned and operated by a private company.2. or it may be a service provided by a public company. – such as local telephone company. . • covers larger area then LAN but a small geographical area then WAN • A MAN often acts as a high-speed network.

3. image and video information • Covers large geographic areas that may comprise – a country. . Wide Area Network • Provides longdistance transmission of – data. a continent. or even the whole world. voice.

– Normally it can provide data transmission rate of 56kbps to 45Mbps. Wide Area Network continued. leased. • Transmission speed of WAN is less then LAN. • A WAN can span unlimited number of miles. .3. or private communication equipment.. • The largest WAN in existence is the Internet. • A WAN can utilize public.

Uses of WAN • • • Communication Facility Remote data entry Information sharing .

Network Topologies .

4.Network Topologies • • The Term physical topology refers to the way in which a network is laid out physically The Physical layout or arrangement of connected devices in a network is called topology. • Four basic possible topologies are 1. 2. Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Mesh Topology . – It is also called shape of a Network. 3.

– This medium is often central wire known as bus. .Bus Topology • It In Bus topology. – The terminators are used at the end of a bus to absorb signals. all computers or network nodes are connected to a common communication medium.

Working of Bus Topology • The sending computer sends the data and destination address through the bus • The data and address move from one computer to the other in the network • Each computer checks the address • If it matches with the address of a computer. . the computer keeps the data • Other wise moves the data to the next computer.

Advantages and disadvantages of Bus Topology • Advantages: – Simple and easy to implement. – Less expensive – If one node fails it does not effect the rest of the network • Disadvantages – Difficult to troubleshoot – Only supports small number of computers – Increased number of nodes reduces the speed .

2. Star Topology • All computers in star topology are connected with central device called hub • Mostly used in client-server networks .

.Working of Star Topology • The sending computer sends the data to hub • The hub sends data to the receiving computer • Each computer in star network communicates with a central hub.

the whole network is lost – Expensive .Advantages and Disadvantages of Star Topology • Advantages: – Easy to maintain and modify – Troubleshooting is simple – Single computer failure does not affect rest of the network • Disadvantages: – If central hub fails.

Ring Topology • In Ring Topology.3. each computer connected to the next computer with the last connected to the first • Thus a ring of computers is formed. .

.Working of Ring Topology • Each computer receives message from the previous computer and transmits it to the next computer • The message flows in only one direction • The message is passed around the ring until it reaches the correct destination computer.

Advantages and disadvantages of Ring Topology • Advantages: – Less expensive than star – Every computer has equal status • Disadvantages: – Failure of one computer in the ring affect the whole network – It is difficult to troubleshoot – Difficult to modify the network .

every device in the network is physically connected to every other device in the network • A message can be sent on different possible paths form source to destination • provides improved performance and reliability • mostly used in WANs. . Mesh Topology • In a Mesh Topology.4.

the data traffic can be shifted to another link – Easy to troubleshoot • Disadvantages: – Very Expensive – Difficult to install – Difficult to troubleshoot .Advantages and Disadvantages of Mesh Topology • Advantages: – Dedicated links eliminate traffic problems – If one link fails.

Networking Devices .

Bridge • A device that connects two network segments using similar protocol • When a bridge receives a signal • it determines the segment where the signal should be sent • It reads the addresses of sending and receiving computers • If both computers are in the same segment.1. bridge does not pass the signal to the other segment. . • It reduces network traffic and increases network performance.

2. . Gateway • A device that connects two or more networks with different types of protocols • Two different types of networks require a gateway to communicate with each other • It receives data from one network and converts it according to the protocol of other network.

3. . Router • A device that connects multiple networks that use similar or different protocols • It manages the best route between any two communication networks • It consists of hardware and software – The hardware can be a network server or a separate computer – The software includes Operating system and routing protocol.

Network standards .

Network standards • The standards are the documents that contain technical and physical specifications about the network being designed • There are two types of network standard as follows: 1. De-Facto 2. De-Jure .

1. De-Fact • De-Facto means by tradition or by facts • These are the standards which were developed without any formal planning. . • These standards come into existence due to historical developments.

. De-Jure • De-Jure means according to law or regulation • These standards are developed with proper research to fulfill the requirement of data communication.2.

Data Communication and Networks by Behrouz A. Forouzan 2. Computer Applications in Business by Tasleem Mustafa 3.References 1. Introduction to Computers by Peter Norton .

Thanks for your attention .