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EPE 6123 LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION

ETHICS, VALUES AND MORAL OF LEADERSHIP


BASRI IKHTISYAM

Content

Moral
Values

Ethics

Ethics, Values and Moral of Leadership


Definition

ETHICS - DEFINITION
Ethics refer to guidelines for analyzing what is good or bad in a specific scenario. Norms for conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior. People learn ethical norms at home, at school, working place, or in other social settings. Ethical norms are so ubiquitous as simple commonsense. The sense of right and wrong occurs during childhood, develop throughout life and pass through different stages of growth as they mature.

VALUES - DEFINITION
Beliefs of a person or social group Values are guiding principles in life and every person has his own value system which helps him in his behavior and action throughout his life. Values are attitudes held by each individual and are fundamental in the selection of behaviors to be enacted ( Ponton & Carr, 1999)

Values Checklist
Having good friends Having a positive relationship Having self-respect & the respect of others Being financially secure Being spiritual Making a meaningful contribution to mankind Being a moral person Being a great athlete Being physically attractive Being creative Being personally responsible Getting along well with people in general Having freedom and independence Being well educated Serving others Having peace of mind Getting recognition (being famous) Being a good citizen Being healthy Being intelligent Having strong family ties Being honest & having integrity Being dedicated and committed

MORAL - DEFINITION

Set of norms about right and wrong conduct developed from religious and social values. Morality comes from Latin word mores, refer to character and habit Actions that are considered moral for one society may be considered immoral for another What is moral is always ethical, but what is ethical is not necessarily moral.

Moral vs Ethics
Moral and ethical are similar in that both have to do with the difference between right and wrong. But they are also dissimilar in that ethical tends to refer to a system, theory, or code of judging rightness or wrongness; whereas moral tends to refer to more concrete choices and issues that stimulate strong feelings. Morality is usually more theoretical; it is a philosophical concept. Ethics are the practical application of morality in daily life.

Ethics vs. Moral

Moral Ethics

Ethics is about our actions and decisions. Social values ethics stress a social system e.g i. Social Ethics ii. Company ethics iii. Professional Ethics iv. Family ethics

Morals are values which we attribute to a system of beliefs Morals define personal character or personal values

Ethical of Leadership
Ethics are the codes of conduct that regulates the acts of the individuals, groups or the organizations in line with the normative principles. It is possible to define ethical leadership as the ability to influence its subordinates by depending of the moral force. The code of ethics should be based on organizational values, a philosophy of ethics, and the mission statement of the organization

The Importance of Ethical in Leadership


Role model to organization and the community. Ethical leadership builds trust. Ethical leadership brings credibility and respect both for you and the organization. Ethical leadership can lead to collaboration. Ethical leadership creates a good climate within the organization. Ethical leadership is simply the right way to go.

THEORIES
Ethical Theory Provides a system of rules or principles as a guide in making decisions about what is right/wrong and good/bad in a specific situation Ethics began in ancient times - Greek philosophy is to focus on goodness of morality.

Ethical Theory .. Cont.


Ancient Ethical Theory Socrates (469-399 B.C) approach challenging and encouraging his colleagues to think about good health and spirits. Plato (428-348B.C.) Examine the relationship between ethics and human personality. Aristotle (384-322B.C.) states that moral goodness has little relationship by intellectuals, but rather than a (character) or personality.

Ethical Theory .. Cont.


Modern Ethical Theories Two Broad Domains: Theories about leaders conduct and about leaders character

Ethical Theories
CONDUCT
Teleological Theories: focus on consequences of leaders actions, results An action is morally right or wrong depends entirely on the consequences or the result of an action.

Three different approaches to making decisions regarding moral conduct Ethical egoism (Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzche (1844-1900) create greatest good for the leader Effects of human actions should benefit themselves without having to consider what other people will benefit from their actions.

Teleological Theories, contd.


Utilitarianism (Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) ) create greatest good for greatest number Behaviors that result in more pleasure and happiness is our moral behavior (seen in terms of quantity). Altruism (show concern for best interests of others)

Authentic transformational leadership is based on altruistic principles


Example: the work of Mother Theresa, who gave her entire life to help the poor

Teleological Theories

Ethical Theories

CONDUCT Deontological Theories : emphasizing the nature of the conduct or the nature of regulation itself (rather than consequences).

Conduct
Deontological Theories: duty driven, for example, relates not only to consequences but also to whether action itself is good. E.g. telling the truth, keeping promises, being fair. People should perform their duties and responsibilities based on the 'good will' and not by other motives such as reward, punishment or pressure.

If a person to do their duties due to excitement / sympathy / pity and not because of good will, the action is immoral values despite the accolades and praise.

Ethical Theories
CHARACTER
Virtue-based Theories: about leaders character Focus on who people are as people It focuses more on the individual, and their characteristics Virtue ethics talks about 'how we should be,' and what virtues we should acquire in order to lead a good life. Deontology and utilitarianism look at what we should do, and this is separated from personal desires and feelings. Aristotle identified the four main virtues: Justice, courage, temperance and wisdom. If a person did not have these human qualities, they are not considered morally mature.

VALUES

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VALUES
Values have been described as the beliefs about how to behave and what goals are important to achieve (Feather, 1994:35; Rokeach, 1967, 1968, 1973). According to Spranger (1928), values are the collection of likes, dislikes, viewpoints, should, inner inclinations, rational and irrational judgments, prejudices, and association patterns that determine a person's view of the world.

Values.. Cont.
Personal beliefs about the worth of a given idea, attitude, custom, or object that set standards that influence behavior.

Leaders embrace values; values grip leaders. The stronger the value systems, the more strongly leaders can be empowered and the more deeply leaders can empower followers.

How are Values Formed?


Begins in early childhood Occur within context of community Religious education Formal schooling Influenced by upbringing experiences outside the family individual experiences

The Importance of Personal Values Leadership

Personal values impact leaders in at least two ways: 1) as a perceptual filter that shapes decisions and behavior, and 2) as a driver of their methods of creating value. Personal values are a more fundamental leadership attribute than the age, tenure, functional experience, and level of education in the process of how leaders influence organizations.

Values can affect leaders in six different ways:


Values affect leaders perceptions of situations and the problems at hand. Values affect the solutions generated and the decisions that are reached. Values influence how leaders perceive different individuals and groups.

Values Affect Leaders in Six Ways (cont.)


Values influence a leaders perceptions of individual and organizational success as well as the manner in which these successes are achieved. Values provide a basis for leaders to differentiate between right and wrong and between ethical and unethical behavior. Values may affect the extent to which leaders accept or reject organizational pressures and goals.

MORAL LEADERSHIP
Moral Leadership is also about particular capacities and skills. - know how to manage followers, how to temper their egos and how to act with nobility and rectitude. To be superior leadership, it has to include both technical competencies and moral capacities. Ciulla (1995) Leadership scholars vary in their views on moral leadership. Burns (1978), for example, consider morality as a crucial component of transforming leadership.

Morals of Leadership (cont.)

According to this concept, real leadership takes place only when leaders and followers ethical aspirations are enhanced as a result of their interactions. Only those who appeal to higher ideals, moral values, and higher-order needs of followers can be called transforming leaders (Yukl, 1990, p. 210).

Morals of Leadership (cont.) Modern Western philosophy tacitly assumes that there is no morally valid leadership without the consent of the led. Eastern philosophies set other requirements for morally valid leadership, including fidelity to traditions of authority, the preservation of harmonious relationships, and loyalty to family.

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Moral Reasoning
Moral Reasoning is the process leaders use to make decisions about ethical and unethical behaviors or determining whether an idea is right or wrong. Moral reasoning does not refer to the morality of individuals, or their espoused values, but the manner by which they solve moral problems. The ability of students in the social attitude and behave in accordance with moral norms, religion, moral tradition, the moral law and moral norms that occur in society can be done by learning process .

Moral Reasoning
Two the most prominent of moral social development theories. Jean Piaget dan Lawrence Kohlberg.

Lawrence Kohlberg
Kohlberg has emphasized that the development of moral reasoning is based on moral grow gradually.
Level Stage Stage 1: Punishment/Obedience It is wrong, if you are punished for it. Physical consequences Stage 2: Personal Reward It is right if I benefit from it Personal needs are most important Individual has begun to apply the rules based on a set by parents, teachers and community Stage 3: Good Boy/Good Girl Right & wrong reasoned based on others approval Stage 4: Law & Order respect the law on his confidence to the existing law and laws are absolute.

1.Preconventional (Personal Impact) (Age 0-9 ) 2.Conventional (Personal Approval) ( Age 9-20 )

Lawrence Kohlberg .. Cont.


Level Stage

3. PostConventional (Personal Interpretation) ( > 20)

individuals begin exploring the option, other alternatives and they began to have a code of moral and ethical Stage 5: Social Contract respect the law but believe the law be modified for the welfare of the people or human beings. Stage 6: Universal Ethic Against the law not because of did not respect but due sense of responsibility in terms of ethical principles of human rights. They are willing to accept punishment for the offense committed as respect to the law stated.

Qualities of Great Leaders


No one could deny that Adolf Hitler was an effective leader. He led Germany from depression to prosperity, and from being a crippled military power to being the most powerful and efficient military machine in the world all in a few short years! However, most would deny that he was a good leader.

Positive Qualities on Great Leaders

Fidel Castro Mother Teresa Mahatma Gandhi

Empathetic Perseverant Strategic Belief in his purpose Courageous Persuasive Intelligent Resilent

Belief in her mission Self confident Perseverant Disciplined Consistent Motivational Visionary Communicative Honest Courageous Empathetic

Motivating Independent Determined Resilient Courageous Confident Communicative Inspirational Empathetic

Qualities of Leadership
The following traits can be considered important in leadership: Confidence: A great leader needs to know where he or she wants to go and believe in himself or herself in the way to realize that goal. Hard work: A great leader will establish trust by displaying hard work, knowing that subordinates get motivated when they know that their leader does not leave it all up to them. Courage: A great leader knows that decisions oftentimes need to be made without all the desired information at hand. Responsible risk taking is part of successful leadership, whereby the leader knows that it is the follow-up after a decision which frequently guarantees the success or failure of a project. Empathy for subordinates: A great leader maintains contact with followers and demonstrates interest and empathy without getting too involved. Communication skills: A great leader communicates to his or her followers in the first place, in order to ensure their support, and to other stakeholders as well, in order to keep all parties informed of the direction.

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Qualities of Leadership
The following traits can be considered important in leadership ( Cont..): Strategic insight and vision: A great leader lays out a plan of action, as well as one or more alternative plans, in order to realize his or her vision. A great leader knows that without a vision, every direction is as good as another. Appropriate intelligence: Although not every great leader has to have a high formal education, it is crucial for a leader to have useful knowledge about the business and its environment in order to determine directions. Determination: A great leader has tremendous willpower without being overly stubborn. He or she will focus on the goal yet realize when, due to developments in the market or the industry, a change is necessary. Resilience: A great leader does not get discouraged by setbacks along the way but knows that setbacks are part of the learning process. The leader will learn from the setbacks, recuperate, and move on with a stronger and better plan.

Doctor Of Education

Unisel