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Chemistry project

To determine the percentage of calcium carbonate in eggshell

Content

Introduction Principle of this experiment Apparatus and equipments Experiment procedures Chemical used Sample used Source of errors Assumption made Experimental results Calculations Conclusion Sources of references

Introduction

1960's - 1970's USA used a pesticide, DDT extensively Run-off from DDT entered our waterways and eventually into many of our wild birdlife. DDT affected the population by weakening the eggshells which would break before hatching.

An example of this devastation was the American Bald Eagle whose population was as low as 400 mating pairs in the lower 48 states.

DDT has been banned in the USA and the Bald Eagle is no longer on the endangered species list. One method of monitoring the strength of the egg is by determining the percentage of calcium carbonate in the eggshell.

This can be accomplished through an acid/base titration method.

Principle of the experiment

During this lab, the percentage of CaCO3 in an eggshell is determined by reacting the eggshell with hydrochloric acid. The equation for this reaction is:

2HCl (aq) + CaCO 3 (s) →Ca 2+ (aq) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) + 2Cl - (aq)

This reaction cannot be used directly titrate with the CaCO 3 . Instead, an excess of hydrochloric acid is added to dissolve the eggshell, and the remaining acid is titrated with NaOH solution to determine the amount of acid that did not react with the eggshell. The equation used to determine the amount of leftover acid is:

HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) → H 2 O (l) + Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq)

In order to help the hydrochloric acid dissolve the CaCO 3 , ethyl alcohol is added to the eggshell as a wetting agent. Wetting agents are chemicals that increase the spreading and penetrating properties of a liquid by lowering its surface tensionthat is, the tendency of its molecules to adhere to each other.

Although it is now banned in the United States, the pesticide DDT has caused significant damage to the

environment and its wildlife. Birds are especially affected

because the DDT weakens the shells of their eggs, which would break before hatching. This caused certain bird species to become endangered (i.e. the American bald eagle). One method of monitoring the strength of the egg is by determining the

percentage of calcium carbonate in the eggshell.

The percentage of calcium carbonate indicate that the strength of the eggshell and the strength of the eggshell show how serious the pesticide damaged to the eggshell.

Apparatus and equipments

250.00 cm 3 beaker

X4

glass rod

X1

Filter funnel

X1

Wash bottle

X1

Electronic balance

X1

Weighing bottle

X1

250.00cm 3 volumetric flask

X2

25.00 cm 3 pipette

X2

Conical flasks

X2

Measuring cylinder

X1

Bunsen burner

X2

Heatproof mat

X1

Burette

X2

Wire gaze

X2

Tripod

X2

White tile

X2

Mortar and pestle

X2

Oven

X1

Chemical used • 0.1M NaOH • 0.2M HCl • Phenolphthalein • Ethanol

Chemical used

0.1M NaOH 0.2M HCl Phenolphthalein Ethanol

Chemical used • 0.1M NaOH • 0.2M HCl • Phenolphthalein • Ethanol
Chemical used • 0.1M NaOH • 0.2M HCl • Phenolphthalein • Ethanol

Sample used

2 different eggs (1 white & 1 brown)

USA Malaysia
USA
Malaysia

Procedures

1) The eggs was boiled and cooled

down.

2) The protein membrane was removed on the inside of the

boiled eggshell.

3) The eggshell was washed with distilled water

5)

The eggshell was then grounded into fine powder by mortar and pestle.

5) The eggshell was then grounded into fine powder by mortar and pestle. (white egg) (brown

(white egg)

5) The eggshell was then grounded into fine powder by mortar and pestle. (white egg) (brown

(brown egg)

6) Dried in an oven for ten minutes.

6) Dried in an oven for ten minutes.
6) Dried in an oven for ten minutes.
6) Dried in an oven for ten minutes.
6) Dried in an oven for ten minutes.
6) Dried in an oven for ten minutes.

7)

0.2g of eggshell powder is weighted accurately by using an electronic balance and it was transferred to a conical flask.

7) 0.2g of eggshell powder is weighted accurately by using an electronic balance and it was

8) 25.00 cm 3 of HCl was pipetted to dissolve the eggshell powder and 5 cm 3 of ethanol was also added in order to help the HCl dissolve the CaCO 3

9) Distilled water was added to the flask until it reached about 50cm 3 . The flask was swirled gently.

10) The mixture was boiled for about 15

minutes (boiling away CO 2 ) and then cooled down.

10) The mixture was boiled for about 15 minutes (boiling away CO ) and then cooled

10) Boil !!

10) Boil !! Cool down!!

15 minutes!!!

10) Boil !! Cool down!!

Cool down!!

10) Boil !! Cool down!!

Experimental set-up

Experimental set-up NaOH Burette stand Burette 25.00cm of HCl + 0.2g if egg shell powder +
Experimental set-up NaOH Burette stand Burette 25.00cm of HCl + 0.2g if egg shell powder +

NaOH

Burette stand

Experimental set-up NaOH Burette stand Burette 25.00cm of HCl + 0.2g if egg shell powder +

Burette

25.00cm 3 of HCl +

0.2g if egg shell powder + 5.00cm 3 of ethanol +

3 drops of phenolphthalein +

about 20.00cm 3 of distilled water

stopcock

Conical flask

11) The solution was

then titrated with standardized

NaOH.

12) Repeat another sample

11) The solution was then titrated with standardized NaOH. 12) Repeat another sample

Experimental results

The colour change of the solution:

Experimental results The colour change of the solution: White egg: Colourless pink Brown egg: Colourless pink

White egg:

Colourless

Experimental results The colour change of the solution: White egg: Colourless pink Brown egg: Colourless pink

pink

Experimental results The colour change of the solution: White egg: Colourless pink Brown egg: Colourless pink

Brown egg:

Colourless

Experimental results The colour change of the solution: White egg: Colourless pink Brown egg: Colourless pink

pink

The titration result of brown egg:

 

Trial

1

2

3

Final burette reading/cm 3

15.20

20.00

18.30

13.10

Initial burette reading/cm 3

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Volume of NaOH used/cm 3

15.20

20.00

18.30

13.10

Average volume of NaOH used:

(20.00+18.30+13.10)/3=17.13cm 3

The titration result of white egg:

 

Trial

1

2

3

Final burette reading/cm 3

 
  • 19.50 19.80

19.60

 

19.70

Initial burette reading/cm 3

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Volume of NaOH used/cm 3

 
  • 19.50 19.80

19.60

 

19.70

Average volume of NaOH used:

Calculations

2HCl (aq) + CaCO 3 (s) →Ca 2+ (aq) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) + 2Cl - (aq)

HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) → H 2 O (l) + Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq)

For brown egg:

Number of moles of NaOH used to react with HCl:

(17.13cm 3 /1000) X0.1M = 1.713 X 10 -3 mol

Since number of moles of NaOH = number of moles of HCl = 1.713 X 10 -3 mol The initial no of moles of HCl: volume X molarity = 25/1000 X0.2M = 5X10 -3 mol Number of moles of HCl used to react with CaCO 3 :

( 5X10 - 3 - 1.713 X 10 - 3) mol =3.287 X10 -3 mol

According to the equation, one mole of HCI required to react with 2 moles of CaCO 3 ,

Number of moles of CaCO 3 reacted:

3.287X10 - 3 /2 = 1.6435X10 -3 mol The weight of CaCO 3 :

1.6435X10 -3 g X100.1

=0.1645g

The % of CaCO 3 in eggshell (brown) :

(0.1645/0.2) X100% = 82.25%

For white egg:

Number of moles of NaOH used to react with HCl:

(19.7/1000)X0.1 = 1.97X10 -3 mol Since number of moles of NaOH = number of moles of HCl = 1.97X10 -3 mol The initial moles of HCl: volume X molarity = 25/1000 X0.2M = 5X10 -3 mol Number of moles of HCl used to react with CaCO 3 :

( 5X10 -3 - 1.97X10 -3 ) mol =3.03 X10 -3 mol

Number of moles of CaCO 3 reacted:

3.03 X10 -3 /2 = 1.515X10 -3 mol The weight of CaCO 3 :

1.515X10 -3 g X100.1

=0.15165g

The % of CaCO 3 in eggshell (white) :

(0.15165/0.2) X100%

= 78.83%

Summary of Calculations

For Brown egg:

No. of moles of NaOH used to react with HCl/ mol

2.97X 10 -3

No. of moles of HCl used to react with NaOH

2.97X 10 -3

/mol

Initial moles of HCl / mol

1X10 -2

No. of moles of HCl used to react with CaCO 3 /mol

7.07 X10 -3

No. of mols of CaCO 3 reacted/ mol

3.535X10 -3

The weight of CaCO 3 / g

0.3535

The % of CaCO 3 in eggshell

70.07%

For white egg:

No. of moles of NaOH used to react with HCl/ mol

  • 1.97 X 10 -3

No. of moles of HCl used to react with NaOH /mol

  • 1.97 X 10 -3

Initial moles of HCl / mol

5X10 -3

No. of moles of HCl used to react with CaCO 3 /mol

3.03 X10 -3

No. of mols of CaCO 3 reacted/ mol

1.515X10 -3

The weight of CaCO 3 / g

0.1517

The % of CaCO 3 in eggshell

75.82%

Sources of errors

The eggshell powder did not dissolve completely Variation in visual judgement at the end point Instrumental errors of the electronic balance The eggshell was not fully dried

Some droplets of solution may still adhere on the beaker and the glass rod which lead to the reduction in number of moles of excess HCl we should wash our hands after the experiment

There was vaporization during boiling.

Remarks

During titration, control the stopcock of the burette with your left hand. Swirl the conical flask with your right hand

Use a conical flask to dissolved the eggshell since colourless gas bubbles will be evolved. It is to prevent the solution from jumping out .(CO 2 is formed)

When dissolving the eggshell in a conical flask, use a stirrer to stir the solution well in order to make sure that the eggshell is totally dissolved

After pouring the solution mixture of eggshell and HCl into a volumetric flask, remember to rinse the stirrer and the conical flask with distilled water and pour the washing to the volumetric flask After filling up the burette with NaOH, we should remember to remove the filter funnel on the top of the burette Bubble in the burette should be removed before the initial reading of the burette is read we should swirl the conical flask after each addition. Distilled water should be added to rinse the NaOH down the flask Put a white tile under the conical flask for clearer observation

Safety precautions

Dilute NaOH is corrosive

Do not touch chemicals with bare hands

Safety goggles should be put on during the experiment

We should wash our hands after the experiment

Conclusion

By comparing the percentage of two eggs, brown egg (Malaysia) has a higher percentage than white egg (USA) indicate brown egg has a higher strength than white egg. It also show that eggs from USA have a more serious problem of using DDT.

The end! Thank you for your attention! ByeBye!