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Name of the Staff Members Designation Branch Institute Year/semester Subject Subject Code Topic Duration Sub. Topic Teaching Aids : P. Ramulu : Work Shop Supdt., : Mechanical Engineering : Govt. Polytechnic for women, Medak. : I year : Work shop Technology : M-105 : Foundry : 100 Minutes : CO2-moulding, Defects in castings. : Animation Clips & Images
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In the previous class we have discussed about Classification of centrifugal castings True centrifugal casting where we see a revolving mould to produce pipes ,gun barrels Semi - Centrifugal casting where Symmetrical castings like wheels are produced with revolving moulds Centrifuging where the rotating mould consists of a no.of small moulds
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On completion of this class , you would be able to know about : About Co 2-moulding. Defects in castings.

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CO2 moulding process

Fine silica sand is mixed with (3 to 5% ) of sodium silicate. This mixture is placed in the moulding box and rammed.

CO2 gas is allowed at pressure of (0.5N/mm2) for 10 to 30 seconds.

Chemical reaction takes place between co2 and sodium silicate. Formation of sodium carbonate and silica gel results Contd.
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CO2-Moulding Process
The mould becomes harder and posses high strength.
Molten metal is poured immediately after gassing.

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Advantages of CO2 processes

The process time is only few seconds.
Can be used to produce cores.

Moulds and cores can be used immediately.

Moulds are strong and abrasion resistant

Suitable for mechanisation

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Use of CO2 gas is expensive.
Difficulty in re- using moulding sand.

Poor collapsibility
Cost of binders is high.

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This method is used for ferrous and nonferrous castings
Suitable for thick walled steel castings

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Defects in castings
Blow holes. Cold shuts & mis runs. Hot tears. Mismatch Shrinkage cavities Fins or flash Slag inclusions Swell Scabs

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Defects in Castings

Fig.1 Defects in Castings

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Blow holes
These are Spherical voids

Appear on the surface

These will occur due to poor venting.

lack of permeability.
improper ramming. more moisture content.

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Cold shuts and misruns

These are dis-continuities in castings These are due to the.: poor fluidity of molten metal. improper filling and ramming. improper melting of metal

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Hot tear
These are cracks.
Occur due to:

con traction stress after solidification

Due to improper casting

Due to improper ramming

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Mis match
A shift of individual parts of casting.
Occur due to:

mis match of cope & drag.

Due to improper clamping of flasks

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These are voids in casting. Occur due to: insufficient feeding Occur due to poor casting design Occur due to incorrect arrangement of gates & risers. Occur due to high temperature of molten metal
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Fins or Flash
It is thin projection of metal.
It appears along the mould joint.

It occurs due to improper clamping

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Slag inclusions (Slag holes)

These are cavities filled with slag. These are impurities of molten metal called slag. Due to poor skimming of molten metal in laddle Also due to incorrect gating

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The surface will be non uniform or over size It occurs due to the

Improper ramming
Rapid pouring of molten metal

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These are lumps of excess metal Irregular projection containing sand inclusions.

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Due to improper ramming
Eliminated by

proper ramming
Using fine facing sand

Controlling flow of metal

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In this class , you have learnt

CO2 molding which uses CO2 gas to form sodium carbonate

and Silica gel, which bonds the sand grains

Defects in castings namely blow holes, cold shuts and mis-runs ,hot tears , mismatch, slag inclusions , swell, scabs etc

Causes of defects in castings

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1. Hot tear occurs due to ____________________.
Contraction stress 2. Fins means ________________________. Thin projections of metal 3. Blow holes appear in castings due to ____________. Spherical voids
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Frequently Asked Questions

1. 2.

Explain co2 moulding . What are the defects in castings.


What are the defects in molding & how they

are caused.

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