CVA Drug study

Brand Name: Norvasc Classification: cardiovascular agent; calcium channel blocker; antihypertensive agent Indications: Treatment of essential hypertension and angina Dosage: 10mg 1 tab BID Action: Inhibits calcium ions from entering the slow channels or select voltage sensitive areas of vascular smooth muscle and myocardium during depolarization. Side Effects: Rash, headache, dizziness and nausea

Adverse Effects: CNS: Lightheadedness,
fatigue, lethargy CV: Peripheral edema, arhythmias Dermatologic: Flushing GI: Abdominal discomfort Interactions: Drug-drug: possible increased serum levels and toxicity of cyclosporine if taken concurrently. Contraindications: Allergy to amlodipine; Hepatic or renal impairment; Sick sinus syndrome; Heart block ; Sick sinus syndrome; Lactation

Nursing Responsibilities:  Orient self with the 10 rights of giving medication before administering drug to the patient.  Assess patient for history of allergy to amlodipine, impaired hepatic or renal function, sick sinus syndrome, heart block, or CHF.  Physical assessment such as the skin lesion, color and edema.  Assess for adverse drug reactions; report irregular heartbeat, swelling of the hands and feet, shortness of breath, pronounced dizziness, and constipation.  Monitor patient’s blood pressure, pulse rate and cardiac rhythm frequently.  Monitor for S&S of dose-related peripheral or facial edema that may not be accompanied by weight gain; rarely, severe edema may cause discontinuation of drug.  Instruct patient to take drug with meals if abdominal discomfort occurs; advise on eating small, frequent meals for nausea and vomiting.  Instruct patient to take oral form with meals to improve absorption.  Instruct patient not to rise quickly off the bed.  Instruct patient to avoid sudden changes in position.

Brand Name: Lopressor, Norometoprol Classification: Cardiovascular system drugs, antihypertensive Indications: Hyperthension; Early intervention in acute MI; Agina pectoris Dosage: 100 mg/tab ; BID Action: Unknown. A selective beta blocker that selectively blocks beta receptors; decreases cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and cardiac oxygen consumption, and depresses rennin secretion. Side Effects: Fatigue, dizziness, hypotension.

diabetes. AV block. Hydralazine: May increase levels and effects of both drugs.bulatbital. Consider another H2 agonist or decrease dose of beta blocker.Adverse Effects:CNS: depression. Contraindications:Contraindicated in patients hypersensitive to drug or other beta blockers. Contraindicated in patients with sinus bradycardia. Respiratory: dyspnea. or overt cardiac failure when used to treat hypertension or agina. mephobarbital. primidone. Use cautiously in patients with heart failure. systolic blood pressure less than 100 mmHg or moderate to severe cardiac failure. When used to treat MI. secobarbital: May reduce metoprolol effect. heart failure. GI: nausea.24 second or longer with firstdegree heart block. Monitor patient closely. greater than first-degree heart block. Skin: rash Interactions: Drug-drug:Amobarbital. greater than first-degree heart block. Watch for greater beta-blocking effect. diarrhea. PR interval of 0. phenobarbital. aprobarbital. Cimetidine: May increase beta-blocker effects.Chlorpromazine: May decrease hepatic clearance.. butabarbital.. May need to adjust dosage. pentobarbital. CV: bradycardia. May need to increase beta-blocker dose. or respiratory or hepatic disease .. drug is contraindicated in patients with heart rate less than 45 beats/min. cardiogenic shock.

.  Beta selectivity is lost at higher doses. If it’s slower than 60 beats/minute.  Instruct patient not to stop drug suddenly but to notify prescriber about unpleasant adverse reactions. Watch for peripheral side effects.  Monitor blood pressure frequently.  Store drug at room temperature and protect from light.Nursing Responsibilities:  Always check patient’s apical pulse rate before giving drug.  Caution patient to avoid driving and other tasks requiring mental alertness until response to therapy has been established.  Instruct patient to take drug exactly as prescribed and to take it with meals. Discard solution if it’s discolored and contains particles.  Beta blocker may mask tachycardia caused by hyperthyroidism.  Monitor glucose level closely in diabetic patients because drug masks common signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia.  Tell patient to alert prescriber if shortness of breath occurs.  Don’t confuse metoprolol with metaprotenol or metolazone. metoprolol masks common signs and symptoms of shock. Inform her that drug must be withdrawn gradually over 1 or 2 weeks. withhold drug and call prescriber immediately.

GI ulceration. Side Effects:Rash. Dosage:100meq. 1 tab TID Action: Unknown. Also indicated when potassium is depleted by severe vomiting. GI bleeding. essential for maintenance of intracellular isotonicity. Effective in the treatment of hypokalemic alkalosis (chloride. intestinal drainage. loss of P waves depression of ST segment. prolonged diuresis. To prevent and treat potassium deficit secondary to diuretic or corticosteroid therapy. Plays a prominent role in both formation and correction of imbalances in acid–base metabolism. skeletal. GI obstruction. fistulas. ECG (peaking of T waves. Principal intracellular cation. maintenance of normal kidney function. or malabsorption. and for enzyme activity. prolongation of QTc interval) . contraction of cardiac. transmission of nerve impulses. diabetic acidosis. diarrhea. not the gluconate).Brand Name: Kalium Durule Classification: electrolytic and water balance agent Indications:Utilized for treatment of hypokalemia. and smooth muscles.

Sick sinus syndrome .Respiratory: Respiratory distress. Contraindications: Allergy to amlodipine. Hepatic or renal impairment. vomiting.. Interactions: Drug-drug:Increased risk of hyperkalemia with potassium-sparring diuretics. diarrhea. irritability. CV: Hypotension. mental confusion. salt substitutes using potassium. flaccid paralysis.. difficulty in swallowing.Adverse Effects:GI: Nausea. abdominal distension.. muscle weakness and heaviness of limbs. paresthesias of extremities. listlessness. anuria.. Sick sinus syndrome. Hematologic: Hyperkalemia. Lactation . Urogenital: Oliguria.Body Whole: Pain. Heart block.

 Do not crush or allow to chew any potassium salt tablets.  Be alert for potassium intoxication may result from any therapeutic dosage.  Monitor for and report signs of GI ulceration (esophageal or epigastric pain or hematemesis). and (3) when kidney function is significantly compromised. Observe to make sure patient does not suck tablet (oral ulcerations have been reported if tablet is allowed to dissolve in mouth).  Lab test: Frequent serum electrolytes are warranted.  Swallow whole tablet with a large glass of water or fruit juice (if allowed) to wash drug down and to start esophageal peristalsis. Some patients find it difficult to swallow the large sized KCl tablet. and the patient may be asymptomatic.Nursing Responsibilities:  Orient self with the 10 rights of giving medication before administering drug to the patient  Give while patient is sitting up or standing (never in recumbent position) to prevent drug– induced esophagitis.  Montitor I/O. (2) when dietary intake of potassium suddenly increases. Irregular heartbeat is usually the earliest clinical indication of hyperkalemia.  The risk of hyperkalemia with potassium supplement increases (1) in older adults because of decremental changes in kidney function associated with aging. .  Monitor PR and Cardiac rate.

dizziness. Side Effects:Rash. this action blocks the vasoconstriction effect of the reninangiotensin system as well as the release of aldosterone. Slowing of the progression of kidney disease in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes Dosage: 300mg 1 Tab. Antihypertensive Indications: Treatment of hypertension as monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensives. OD Action: Selectively blocks the binding of angiotensin II to specific tissue receptors found in the vascular smooth muscle and adrenal gland. leading to decreased blood pressure. muscle weakness . Headache.Brand Name: Avapro Classification: Angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB). syncope.

hypovolemia . abdominal pain. back pain. gout. lactation. dental pain. nausea. alopecia. URI symptoms. dry skin. fever.Diarrhea. Cancer in preclinical studies. dry mouth. Rash. orthostatic hypotension. pruritus. fatigue Interactions: Drug-drug: use caution with drugs metabolized by CYP2C9. urticaria.Adverse Effects: Hypotension. pregnancy (use during the second or third trimester can cause injury or even death to the fetus). inflammation. sinus disorders. constipation. anticipated effects may altered Contraindications: Contraindicated with hypersensitivity to irbesartan. cough. Use cautiously with hepatic or renal dysfunction.

assess the skin color. headache.  Monitor patient I/O.  Advised patient that he may experience side effects such as dizziness.  Administer without regard to meals. hepatic or renal dysfunction and hypovolemia. nausea and vomiting  Advised to report immediately if fever. any lesions and turgor.Nursing Responsibilities:  Orient self with the 10 rights of giving medication before administering drug to the patient  Assess patient for hypersensitivity to irbesartan.  Monitor patients’ level of consciousness. chills and dizziness occur.  Monitor VS specially the BP.  Assess for any sign of hypotension and dehydration. .  Physical assessment.

increasing water flow into extracellular fluid. Diuretics in drug intoxication. dizziness headache . Irrigating solution during transurethral resection of prostate gland Dosage: 100cc Action: Increases osmotic pressure of glumerular filtrate. inhibiting tubular reabsorption of water electrolytes. drug elevates plasma osmolality. Side Effects:Diarrhea. Pregnancy risk category Indications: Test dose for marked oliguria or suspected inadequate renal function.Brand Name:Osmitrol. Sahar mannitol 20% solution for IV Classification: Osmotic Diuretic. To reduce intraocular or intracranial pressure. To prevent oligurioa or acute renal failure.Oliguria.

pregnancy. blurred vision. skin necrosis with infiltration  GI: nausea. . chest pain  Dermatologic: urticaria. lactation. renal disease. active intracranial bleeding. urine retention  Hematologic: fluid and electrolyte imbalances. congestive heart failure. anorexia. edema.Adverse Effects: CNS: dizziness. hypertension. seizures  CV: hypotension. rhinitis Interactions: Drug-drug: Litium: may increase urinary excretion of lithium. dehydration. headache. Monitor litium level closely Contraindications: Contraindicated in patients hypersensitive to drug  Contraindicated with anuria due to severe renal disease  Use cautiously with pulmonary congestion. dry mouth. tachycardia. hyponatremia  Respiratory: pulmonary congestion. thirst  GU: dieresis.

then cool to body temperature before administering.  Monitor serum electrolytes periodically with prolonged therapy. Laboratory and/or medical tests (e. lung swelling or congestion. severe dehydration. at least 20 mEq of sodium chloride should be added to each liter of mannitol solution to avoid pseudoagglutination.Nursing Responsibilities:  Assess hypersensitivity of patient with the drug  Assess patient if he/she experienced severe or long-term kidney disease.  If your dose is interrupted or stopped.  Store at room temperature between 56 and 86 degrees F (13 to 30 degrees C) away from light.g.  Make sure the infusion set contains a filter if giving concentrated mannitol. warm the bottle in a hot water bath.  The cardiovascular status of the patient should be carefully evaluated before rapidly administering mannitol since sudden expansion of the extracellular fluid may lead to fulminating congestive heart failure. . Discard unused portion.  Do not administer unless solution is clear and container is undamaged.  Do not share this medication with others. Do not administer Mannitol 25% if the Fliptop vial seal is not intact. bleeding in your brain not caused by surgery. fluid/electrolytes balance) may be performed to monitor patient progress. Do not refrigerate or freeze. If crystals are seen. or if patient is unable to urinate  Do not expose solutions to low temperatures. If it is essential that blood be given simultaneously. consult doctor to establish a new dosing schedule/IV rate..  Electrolyte-free mannitol solutions should not be given conjointly with blood. crystallization may occur. renal function.

Nausea and vomiting. which is a co-enzyme. decreases following decline in brain activity with cerebral trauma. Citicoline.It is usually known that phospholipid. Low or high blood pressure. Chest pains . This brain chemical is important for brain function. Citicoline might also decrease brain tissue damage when the brain is injured. Tachycardia. Nootropics Indications: Head injury  Cerebral vascular disease  Alzheimer’s disease  Cerebral surgery or acute cerebral disturbance Dosage: 500mg 2 caps TID Action: Citicoline seems to increase a brain chemical called phosphatidylcholine. 5′-Cytidine diphosphate choline Classification: Neurotonics. accelerates the biosynthesis of lecithin in the body. Headaches. Blurred vision. Diarrhea. Restlessness. Somazine. Side Effects:Body temperature elevation. Sleeping troubles or insomnia. especially lecithin.Brand Name:Nicholin.

chest tightness. tingling in mouth and throat Interactions: Drug-drug: decreased the effectiveness of (carbidopa/entacapone/levodopa) Contraindicated: Any allergy or hypersensitivity to the drug Hypertonia of the parasympathetic nervous system Use cautiously for pregnancy and lactation Conscious use for patient with renal and hepatic damage . swelling in face or hands. increased parasympathetic affects. low blood pressure Itching or hives.Adverse Effects: Fleeting and discrete hypotension effect.

 Monitor patients neurological vital signs  Note if there are signs of slurring speech . mouth or throat.  Monitor I/O  Citicoline may be taken with or without food.  Monitor patient BP. swelling in your face or hands.  The supplement should not be taken in the late afternoon or at night because it can cause difficulty sleeping. PR.  Advised patient that he may experienced common side effects such blurred vision.  Contact the physician immediately if allergic reaction such as hives. headache. tachycardia hypotension. The physician will prescribe the correct dosage and the length of time it should be taken for a medical condition. or itching. RR and Temp. Take it with or between meals. rash.Nursing Responsibilities:  Assess hypersensitivity to citicholine.  Citicoline therapy should be started within 24 hours of a stroke. nausea and vomiting. chest tightness or trouble breathing are experienced.

inform your doctor. In the colon. Side Effects: This medication may cause diarrhea. stomach cramps or bloating. exert no action in the stomach or small intestine. upon ingestion. nausea. rectal irritation.Brand Name: Senokot 187 mg Tablet/ granules Classification: Laxative Indications: For the relief of functional constipation through peristaltic stimulation. . according to current theory. Dosage: 2 tabs OD @ HS Action: Senokot preparations contain glycosides (the natural principles of senna) which. If these effects continue or become bothersome. vomiting. enzymatic action converts the inactive glycosides into active aglycones which act specifically in the large bowel through the auerbach’s plexus to stimulate peristalsis.

Contraindicated: Do not use when abdominal pain.  Immune System Disorders: Uncommon: Urticaria.  Renal and Urinary Disorders: Uncommon: Chromaturia. or other symptoms of appendicitis are present. maculopapular rash.Adverse Effects:Gastrointestinal Disorders: Common: Abdominal pain. vomiting. Interactions: No known drug interactions. or persistent diarrhea. acute abdominal diseae. Uncommon: Feces discoloration. nausea. Very Rare: Anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reaction.  Store at temperature not exceeding 30 degrees Celsius .  Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Uncommon: Erythematous rash.  Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: Uncommon: Breast milk discoloration. rectal hemorrhage. nausea. intestinal hemorrhage. or obstruction . perianal irritation. vomiting.

 Monitor any sign of dehydration. it is important to drink plenty of fluids (4 to 6 eight ounce glasses a day). swelling of your lips.  Stop taking senna and seek emergency medical attention if you experience symptoms of a serious allergic reaction including difficulty breathing.  Advised that taking the medication may cause the urine to turn pink. or hives.  Notify physicianif experience: rectal bleeding. dizziness.Nursing Responsibilities:  Orient self with the 10 rights of giving medication before administering drug to the patient  Assess hypersensitivity if senna concentrates. increase your intake of fiber and roughage and exercise regularly . fainting.  Monitor patient I/O. red or brownish in color. weakness.  Advised to dink a lot of fluid especially water. nausea and vomiting. rapid heart rate. tongue. unrelieved constipation. sweating. skin rash.  Advised that patient may experience common side effect such as diarrhea. or face.  To maintain normal bowel habits. closing of your throat.

lymphadenopathy.Brand Name: Lipitor Classification: Antihyperlipidemic. facial or generalized edema. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor Indications:Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.  To lower cholesterol  To stabilize plaque and prevent strokes through antiinflammatory and other mechanisms Dosage: 40mg 1 tab OD @ HS Action: Reduces plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol synthesis in the liver and by increasing the number of LDL receptors on liver cells to enhance LDL uptake and breakdown. weight gain . Side Effects: Allergic reaction. flulike symptoms. infection.

fever. sinusitis. ulceration. rash. photosensitivity. urticaria . constipation. epistaxis. renal calculi. rhinitis ENDO: Hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia GI: Abdominal or biliary pain. rectal hemorrhage. eructation. constipation GU: Abnormal ejaculation. incontinence. nephritis. taste perversion. hepatic failure. hearing loss. altered refraction. bronchitis Skin: Acne. insomnia CV: Arrhythmias. tenesmus. hepatitis. torticollis. emotional lability. back pain. glaucoma. urinary frequency. stomatitis. tinnitus. jaundice. decreased libido. flatulence. dysphagia. peripheral neuropathy. vomiting. lip swelling. pharyngitis. glossitis. melena. esophagitis. facial paralysis. asthenia. thrombocytopenia Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia. loss of taste. gingival hemorrhage. nocturia. hyperkinesia. anorexia. weakness. gout. impotence. dry mouth. palpitations. paresthesia. lack of coordination. contact dermatitis. indigestion. pneumonia. eye hemorrhage. dyspepsia. colitis. duodenal or stomach ulcers. amnesia. gastroenteritis. somnolence. headache. dry skin. increased appetite. dysuria. eczema. tendon contracture. myositis. arthritis Respiratory: Dyspnea. peripheral edema EENT: Amblyopia. ecchymosis. malaise. syncope. vasodilation. urine retention. alopecia. diaphoresis. bursitis. leg cramps. cystitis. petechiae. vaginal hemorrhage.Adverse Effects: CNS: Abnormal dreams. epididymitis. myasthenia gravis. pancreatitis. phlebitis. nausea. tenosynovitis. or urgency. seborrhea. orthostatic hypotension. diarrhea. dry eyes. neck rigidity. pruritus. myalgia. UTI Heme: Anemia. hematuria. elevated serum CK level.

niacin. or electrolyte disorders. acute conditions that suggest myopathy. endocrine. or severe metabolic.  Active hepatic disease. in serious. and in major surgery. uncontrolled seizures.Interactions: Drug-drug: possible severe myopathy or rhabdomyolysis with erythromycin.  Use of Atorvastatin in children has been limited to those older than age 9 with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. hypotension.  Use cautiously in patients with history of liver disease or heavy alcohol use  Withhold or stop drug in patients at risk for renal failure caused by rhabdomyolysis resulting from trauma. Contraindications:Contraindicated in patients hypersensitive to drugs and in those with active liver disease or unexplained persistent elevations of transaminase levels.  Contraindicated in pregnant and breastfeeding women and in women of child-bearing age. cyclosporine. hypersensitivity to atorvastatin or its components. antifungals other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors  Increased digoxin levels with possible toxicity if taken together. monitor digoxin levels  Increased estrogen levels with hormonal contraceptives. unexplained persistent rise in serum transaminase level . monitor patient on his combination. severe acute infection.

Atorvastatin adjunct to—not a substitute for—low-cholesterol diet.Nursing Responsibilities:  Assess for hypersensitivity of the medication to the patient. Drug is used to reduce risk of MI.. and adverse effects of revascularization procedures.  Atorvastatin may be used with colestipol or cholestyramine for additive antihyperlipidemic effects.  Advised patient to expect atorvastatin to be used in patients without obvious coronary artery disease (CAD) but with multiple risk factors (such as age 55 or over.  Assess patient for hepatic dysfunction  Monitor patient’s VS  Monitor I/O. or family history of early CAD). . angina. smoker.  Atorvastatin is used in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia as an adjunct to other lipid-lowering treatments or alone only if other treatments aren’t available. history of hypertension or low HDL level.

to adjust dosage as directed. Patient should follow a standard low-cholesterol diet before and during therapy. and every 6 months thereafter. * Notify prescriber immediately if he develops unexplained muscle pain. * Advice patient to use only after diet and other nondrug therapies prove ineffective. with each dosage increase. * Warn patient to avoid alcohol. and to repeat periodically until lipid levels are within desired range. Expect to measure lipid levels 2 to 4 weeks after therapy starts. . the missed dose should be skipped. or weakness. * Consult prescriber before taking OTC niacin because of increased risk of rhabdomyolysis. especially if accompanied by fatigue or fever. Take drug at the same time each day to maintain its effects. DO NOT double the dose. * Take a missed dose as soon as possible.   Liver function tests to be performed before atorvastatin therapy starts. tenderness. If it’s almost time for the next dose. after 6 and 12 weeks.

Consult your doctor or pharmacist for details. upon ingestion.Nicardipine is also used to prevent certain types of chest pain(angina). inform your doctor. Nicardipine is called a calcium channel blocker. In the colon. It may help to increase your ability to exercise and decrease the frequency of angina attacks. enzymatic action converts the inactive glycosides into active aglycones which act specifically in the large bowel through the auerbach’s plexus to stimulate peristalsis. antianginal. exert no action in the stomach or small intestine. vomiting. It should not be used to treat attacks of chest pain when they occur. rectal irritation. Cardene SR Classification: Calcium channel blockers. and kidney problems. Side Effects: This medication may cause diarrhea. If these effects continue or become bothersome. antihypertensive Indications: Nicardipine is used with or without other medications to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). heart attacks. Dosage: 10mg Action: Senokot preparations contain glycosides (the natural principles of senna) which.Brand Name: Cardene. Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes. This medication must be taken regularly to be effective. . nausea. stomach cramps or bloating. Use other medications (such as sublingual nitroglycerin) to relieve attacks of chest pain as directed by your doctor. It works by relaxing blood vessels so blood can flow more easily. according to current theory.

.Action:These medications block the movement of calcium into the smooth muscle cells surrounding the arteries of the body. Excessively low blood pressure can occur in rare instances. nicardipine has little effect on heart muscle or on electrical conduction within the heart. Nicardipine sometimes causes an increase in the frequency and duration of angina. This lowers blood pressure. flushing. especially during initiation of treatment or following adjustments of dosage. Side Effects:Side effects include swelling of the feet (edema). The reason for this side effect is not clearly understood. and nausea. over growth of the gums. palpitations. which reduces the work that the heart must do to pump blood to the body. It may increase heart rate due to a drop in blood pressure. Since calcium promotes contraction of muscle. Unlike verapamil or diltiazem. Reducing the work of the heart lessens the heart muscle's demand for oxygen and thereby helps prevent angina (heart pain) in patients with coronary artery disease. and rash also may occur. blocking calcium entry into the muscle cells relaxes the arterial muscles and causes the arteries to become larger.headaches. dizziness. Fainting.

phenytoin (Dilantin. Therapy should be monitored and drug doses should be adjusted accordingly when nicardipine is used with these drugs. lactation  use cautiously with impaired hepatic or renal function. asytoleInteractions: No known drug interactions. ketoconzole. heart block (second-or third-degree) . Interactions:Rifampin. Dilantin125). Carbatrol) may reduce blood levels of nicardipine by increasing its metabolism (destruction) in theliver. phenobarbital.  It increases serum levels and toxicity of cyclosporine  Contraindicated: contraindicated with allergy to nicardipine. arrhythmias. Tegretol XR .Adverse Effects: CV: hypotension. or clarithromycin (Biaxin) may increase blood levels of nicardipine by reducing its breakdown in the liver and lead to toxicity from nicardipine.  Itraconazole (Sporanox). sick sinus syndrome. oral Trileptal) andcarbamazepine (Tegretol. Equetro. oxcarbazepine (suspension oral Trileptal. pregnancy.

dosage may be increased more rapidly in hospitalized patients under close supervision. . pronounced dizziness. edema and lesions.  Checked for any sign of imapaired hepatic or renal function.  Advised patient to report irregular heartbeat.  Provide small frequent meals if GI upset occurs. sick sinus syndrome.Nursing Responsibilities:  Assess patient to allergy to nicardipine. or heartblock. vomiting and headache.  Monitor I/O.  Monitor BP carefully with concurrent doses of nitrates.  Monitor cardiac rhythm regularly during the stabilization of dosage and long term therapy.  Advised patient that he may experience some side effects nausea.  Physical assessment in skin for color.  Monitor patient carefully (BP and cardiac rhythm) while drug is being titrated to therapeutic dose. SOB. swelling of hands and feet. constipation.

increases neurite outgrowth and connectivity as well as reduces the infarct volume. therefore results in better neurological functions. MOleac Classification: M03BX . Dosage: 4 capsule TID Action: NeuroAiD has been proved to stimulates the secretion of BDNF. motor and cognitive functions resulting in a better quality of life.Other centrally acting agents . The in vitro and in vivo results show that NeuroAiD makes cell more resistant against glutamate aggression. Used as muscle relaxants. Indications: It helps support neurological. Side Effects: May cause increase thirsty and dry mouth .Brand Name: MLC 601.

lactating mothers and children below 18. . Yet today.Adverse Effects: vomiting. nausea. and mild headaches Interactions: Research on drug interactions with aspirin as an antiplatelet agent were conducted and revealed no severe side effect. Contraindicated: Not allowed for use in pregnancy. no other interaction researches have been recorded so far.

Checked the GCS. Advised that patient may experience common side effects such as thirsty and dry mouth. .Nursing Responsibilities:         Orient self with the 10 rights of giving medication before administering drug to the patient Note for the age and condition of the patient. nausea and vomiting. Advised to report immediately if experienced headches. Checked the motor response and reflex. Advised to increased oral fluid to lessen the dryness experienced. Monitor Patient’s VS.

cerebral contusion.)  Alzheimer disease  Ischemic stokes (treatment the complications)  Mental retardation  Senile dementia Dosage: 2152mg/ml/am . concussion. post operative trauma. Bulgaria Classification: C04A .Brand Name: Ebewe.PERIPHERAL VASODILATORS . Used as peripheral vasodilators Indications: Complex therapy of endogenous depression (in combination with psychotherapy and antidepressants)  Post-apopletic complications  Chronic cerebrovascular disorders  Brain and spinal cord injuries (craniocerebral trauma.

hypertension. provides metabolic regulation. lethargy. apathy. and neurotrophic activity as well. receiving Cerebrolysin . . headache. neuroprotection. tremors.  Cerebrolysin improves the efficiency of aerobic energy metabolism in the brain. improves the intracellular protein synthesis in the developing and aging brain. The drug possesses a multimodal organo-specific effect on the brain. dizziness. dizziness. shortness of breath.  agitation. hypotension. tachycardia or fibrillation. functional neuro-modulation. which penetrate through blood-brain barrier and act directly on the nerve cells. and patients taking placebo. Side effects: heat. sweating.Action: is a nootropic drug which contains low molecular biologically active neruropeptides. nausea) were identified during clinical trials and occurred equally in patients. diarrhea. depression.

excitement. insomnia. shortness of breath. convulsions. apathy.  Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system: rarely . depression. Interactions: Cerebrolysin may enhance the effects of antidepressants and MAO inhibitors in concomitant use. itching and burning at the injection site. diarrhea.  Allergic reactions: hypersensitivity reactions. Known hypersensitivity to any of the drug ingredients .  Contraindicated: Acute kidney insufficiency. nausea and vomiting. dizziness. Epileptic status. headache.  Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system: fatigue. chills and collaptoid state. pain in the neck. lower back.  According to the results of clinical studies there were reported the following Cerebrolysin side effects:  Cardiovascular system: hypertension. vaggressive behavior. constipation. The medication should not be mixed with aminoacids solution. tremor. legs. hypotension.  Local reactions: hyperemia of the skin.Adverse Effects: Digestive system: loss of appetite. The drug is not compatible with lipid containing solution and solutions which change pH. confusion. indigestion. seizures.

Instructed to increased oral fluid intake. Monitor I/O.Nursing Responsibilities:           Assess for hypersensitivity of the drug to the patient. Assess any signs of kidney dysfunction. Advised patient that he may experience the common side effects listed. it may cause drug interactions. Checked the other medications intake. . Advised to report immediately if any drug reactions occur. Checked patient’s VS Checked patient’s NVS Checked patient’s level of consciousness.

aminofen. panadol. Thought to produce analgesia by blocking pain impulse by inhibiting synthesis of prostaglandin in the CNS or of other substances that sensitize pain receptors to stimulation. rash .aceta. tempra. valorin. Biogesic Classification: Cardiovascular system drugs. Side Effects: jaundice.actamin. Pregnancy risk category B Indications: Mild pain or fever Dosage: 500mg IVTT q6 hours Action: Unknown. feverall. Nonopioid analgesics and antipyretics. acephen. The drug may relieve fever through central action in the hypothalamic heat-regulating center.Brand Name: abenol.

neutropenia.  Use liquids form for children and patients who have difficulty swallowing  In children. be aware of this when calculating total daily dose. urticaria  Interactions: Hematologic: hemolytic anemia. pancytopenia  Hepatic: jaundice  Metabolic: hypoglycemia  Skin: rash. do not exceed five doses in 24 hours . neutropenia. pancytopenia  Hepatic: jaundice  Metabolic: hypoglycemia  Skin: rash. urticaria Contraindicated: Many OTC and prescription products contain acetaminophen.Adverse Effects: Hematologic: hemolytic anemia. leucopenia. leucopenia.

Any unexplained pain or fever that persists longer than 3-5 days requires medical evaluation .Nursing Responsibilities:           Assess vital signs Identify indications for therapy and expected outcomes. Do not take for more than 5 days for pain in children or for more than 3 days for fever without consulting the doctor. don’t exceed five doses in 24 hours. be aware of this when calculating total daily dose. Report pallor. noting type. duration and intensity. location. onset. Review with parents the difference between the concentrated dropper dose formulation and teaspoon dose formulation. Rate pain. weakness and palpitations. Document presence of fever. In children. Advise client to take only as directed and with food or milk to minimize GI upset Many OTC and prescription products contain paracetamol.

K+-ATPase enzyme system [the acid (proton H+) pump] in the parietal cells. Gastroesophageal reflux disease including severe erosive esophagitis (4 to 8 wk treatment). vertigo. multiple endocrine adenomas. anxiety.Brand Name: Prilosec Classification: gastrointestinal agent. Long-term treatment of pathologic hypersecretory conditions such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. proton pump inhibitor Indications: Duodenal and gastric ulcer. dream abnormalities. Side Effects: Asthenia. and systemic mastocytosis. insomnia. dry skin. paresthesias. In combination with clarithromycin to treat duodenal ulcers associated with Helicobacter pylori. Suppresses gastric acid secretion by inhibiting the H+. inflammation. pruritus . Dosage: 40 mg capsules Action: An antisecretory compound that is a gastric acid pump inhibitor.

abdominal pain. Urogenital:Hematuria. .  Decreased absorption with sucralfate. lactation. phenytoin. mild transient increases in liver function tests. warfarin. fatigue. nausea. Skin:Rash. GI:Diarrhea. proteinuria. Interactions: Drug-drug: increased serum levels and potential increase in toxicity of benzodiazephines. Contraindicated: Long-term use for gastroesophageal reflux disease. give these drugs at least 30 min apart.Adverse Effects: CNS:Headache. duodenal ulcers. dizziness.

unresolved severe diarrhea. Report severe headache. salicylates. .Nursing Responsibilities:          Assess for hypersensitivity to omeprazole. Checked VS. ibuprofen. small frequent meals may help to maintain adequate nutrition. or changes in respiratory status. Take medications with food Do not crush or chew the capsule Caution patient to avoid alcohol. abnormal results in RR. Physical assessment: skin (lesions and color) Monitor I/O. it affect the urinary output. may cause GI irritation Patient may experience anorexia.

agranulocytopenia. Side Effects: Headache. alone or with other antihypertensives). vomiting. Antihypertensive. nausea. thromobocytopenia with or without purpura . A direct-acting vasodilator that relaxes arterial smooth muscle. agranulocytosis. Novo-Hyzalin. diarrhea.. severe essential hypertension (parenterally to lower blood pressure quickly) Dosage: 5mEq IVTT PRN for diastolic blood pressure over 110mmHg Action: Unknown. anorexia.Brand Name: Alphapress. Apresoline. Pregnancy risk category C Indications: Essential hypertension (orally. leucopenia. neurotopenia. palpitations. angina pectoris. Supres Classification: Cardiovascular System Drug. tachycardia.

 EENT: nasal congestion  GI: nausea. severe renal impairment and in those taking antihypertensives .  Metoprolol. thromobocytopenia with or without purpura  Skin: rash Interactions: Drug-drug:  Diazoxide. MAO inhibitors: May cause severe hypotension. Use together cautiously. propanolol: May increase levels and effects of beta blockers. edema. leucopenia. agranulocytopenia. Monitor patient closely and there is a need to adjust the dosage.  Indomethacin: May decrease effects of hydralazine. constipation.Adverse Effects: CNS: peripheral neuritis.  CV: orthostatic hypotension. headache. agranulocytosis. vomiting. dizziness. Dosage adjustment may be needed. anorexia  Hemotologic: neurotopenia. angina pectoris.  Those with coronary artery disease or mitral valvular rheumatic heart disease. palpitations. tachycardia. other hypotensive drugs: May cause excessive hypotension. Monitor blood pressure. Contraindicated: Contraindicated in patients sensitive to the drug.  Use cautiously in patients with suspected cardiac disease.  Diuretics. CVA. diarrhea.

Inform the patient that low blood pressure dizziness can be minimized by rising slowly and avoidance of sudden position changes. Improve patient compliance by giving the drug and asking the patient not to meddle with the IV regulation. muscle or joint aching. Tell patient to notify the physician of unexplained prolonged general tiredness or fever. Instruct patient not to rise quickly off the bed. . and notify physician immediately if they develop. Monitor patient closely for signs and symptoms of lupuslike syndrome. Monitor patient’s blood pressure. or angina. Monitor CBC. lupus eryhtematosus cell preparation. pulse rate and weight gain frequently. Hydralazine may decrease sodium retention and tachycardia and to prevent angina attacks.Nursing Responsibilities:           Orient self with the 10 rights of giving medication before administering drug to the patient. Instruct patient to take oral form with meals to improve absorption. and antinuclear antibody titer determination before therapy and periodically during long-term therapy. Instruct patient to avoid sudden changes in position.

colorless solution of exogenous unmodified insulin extracted from beta cells in pork pancreas or synthesized by recombinant DNA technology (human). agranulocytosis. insulin Indications: Emergency treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis or coma. Used IV to stimulate growth hormone secretion (glucose counter regulatory hormone) to evaluate pituitary growth hormone reserve in patient with known or suspected growth hormone deficiency.. nausea. thromobocytopenia with or without purpura . Other uses include promotion of intracellular shift of potassium in treatment of hyperkalemia (IV) and induction of hypoglycemic shock as therapy in psychiatry. Regular Purified Pork Insulin.Brand Name: Humulin R. Velosulin. Velosulin BR. palpitations. anorexia. agranulocytopenia. Enhances transmembrane passage of glucose across cell membranes of most body cells and by unknown mechanism may itself enter the cell to activate selected intermediary metabolic processes. Regular Insulin. angina pectoris. Side Effects: Headache. Novolin R. neurotopenia. clear. tachycardia. to initiate therapy in patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. diarrhea. vomiting. antidiabetic agent. Promotes conversion of glucose to glycogen. and in combination with intermediateacting or long-acting insulin to provide better control of blood glucose concentrations in the diabetic patient. leucopenia. Dosage:100 units/mL Action: Short-acting. Velosulin Human Classification: hormone and synthetic substitute. Pork Regular Iletin II.

colorless solution of exogenous unmodified insulin extracted from beta cells in pork pancreas or synthesized by recombinant DNA technology (human). Promotes conversion of glucose to glycogen. clear. Side Effects: Rash  Hives  Itching  Swelling of the mouth or throat  Wheezing or other difficulty breathing .Action: Short-acting. Enhances transmembrane passage of glucose across cell membranes of most body cells and by unknown mechanism may itself enter the cell to activate selected intermediary metabolic processes.

uncontrolled yawning. fatigue. Metabolic:Posthypoglycemia or rebound hyperglycemia (Somogyi effect). headache. nausea.. irritability.  Interactions:Drug-drug: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Beta Blockers. (Urine glucose tests will be negatives). tongue. tachycardia. convulsions. Drug. coma. personality changes. hyperinsulinemia [Profuse sweating. Skin:Localized allergic reactions at injection site. delirium. hypothermia. inability to concentrate. blurred vision. hunger.Adverse Effects: BodyWhole:Most adverse effects are related to hypoglycemia. lymphadenopathy. palpitation. mydriasis). numb mouth. personality changes. nystagmus. apprehension.Diagnostic: Interference Large doses of insulin may increase urinary excretion of VMA. ana-phylaxis (rare). CNS:With overdose. visual disturbances (diplopia. incoherent speech. circumoral pallor. insulin resistance. psychic disturbances (i. generalized urticaria or bullae.  . aphasia. tremulousness.e. maniacal behavior). Contraindicated: Hypersensitivity to insulin animal protein. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). loss of consciousness. confusion. Octreotide (Sandostatin®). Insulin can cause alterations in thyroid function tests and liver function test and may decrease serum potassium and serum calcium. Babinski reflex. and other paresthesias. staring expression.. personality changes. ataxia. lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy of injection sites. tremors. weakness.

 Lab tests: Periodic postprandial blood glucose. Onset of hypoglycemia (blood sugar: 50–40 mg/dL) may be rapid and sudden.  Monitor for hypoglycemia at time of peak action of insulin. or Pedialyte) to prevent secondary hypoglycemia.. exercises vigorously.  Monitor I/O. whenever blood glucose is substantially elevated. Test urine for ketones in new. may indicate onset of ketoacidosis. or has an illness.  Note: Frequency of blood glucose monitoring is determined by the type of insulin regimen and health status of the patient.  Check BP and blood glucose and ketones every hour during treatment for ketoacidosis with IV insulin. dilute corn syrup or orange juice with sugar. Gatorade. or IV glucose 10%–50%. epinephrine.g. and HbA1C. Acetone without sugar in the urine usually signifies insufficient carbohydrate intake. if patient has lost weight. . unstable. give oral carbohydrate (e. As soon as patient is fully conscious. and type 1 diabetes.  Notify physician promptly for presence of acetone with sugar in the urine.  Give patients with severe hypoglycemia glucagon.Nursing Responsibilities:  Orient self with the 10 rights of giving medication before administering drug to the patient.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful