Basic Well Log Interpretation Formation Evaluation

SESSION 1

M. Wahdanadi Haidar KSO Pertamina EP – Patina Group Ltd

Mochamad Wahdanadi Haidar
(email, YM, FB: adiui70@gmail.com)
Date/Place of Birth: Surabaya 22 November ’84 Home Address: Pasar Minggu, Jakarta Selatan

Few Years Study: SMUN 70 angkatan 1999-2002

Bachelor degree majoring in Physics University of Indonesia 2002-2006 (Instrumentas Elektronika’02) Master degree majoring in Reservoir Geophysics University of Indonesia 2007-2009

Recent Activity:
2006-2007 Asisten Tetap UPP-IPD 2008-2009 Support Engineer (Geotech System) and Junior GeoPhysicist @ ETRL 2009-Now Geophysicist in KSO Pertamina EP – Patina Group Ltd

Well Logs
• • • • • What? Why? When? Where? How?

Well Hole Condition
Open hole logging Cased hole logging Perforation & Production logging

7000 7001 7002 7003 7004 7005 7006 7007 7008 7009 7010 7011 7012 7013 7014 7015 7016

Tool string is moving at a certain logging speed, and data are recorded at certain intervals called sampling rate.

7000 7001 7002 7003 7004 7005 7006 7007

7008
7009 7010 7011 7012 7013 7014 7015 7016

7000 7001 7002 7003 7004 7005 7006 7007 7008 7009 7010 7011 7012 7013 7014 7015 7016

7000 7001 7002 7003 7004 7005 7006 7007 7008 7009 7010 7011 7012 7013 7014 7015 7016

7000 7001 7002 7003 7004 7005

And we get a group of wiggly lines called a “log”

7006 7007 7008 7009 7010 7011 7012 7013 7014 7015 7016

Purposes of Well Logs
• Lithology (reservoir rock?) • Resistivity (HC,water,both?) • Porosity (how much HC?) • What type of HC
• Formation mech. properties • Permeability / cap pressure • Shape of the structure • Geological information • Geothermal • Unconventional applications

Ways of well logging

Well log measurement Reference

Well Logs Data
Usually Well logs digital data provided in LAS format. Divide into 2 main information: 1.Well Header contains some drilling parameters and well information (Hardcopy). 2.LAS Value

Borehole Environment

Borehole Environment
Pada waktu mengebor: - drillstring berputar pada 50 -- 150rpm - mata bor menahan beban sebesar 10 000 sampai 40 000 lb. - cuttings yang dihasilkan diangkat oleh lumpur pemboran (drilling mud) kepermukaan. Selama proses pengeboran: - bisa terjadi erosi pada formasi sehingga menimbulkan goa yang diameternya lebih besar dari diameter mata bor. - cairan lumpur pemboran masuk meng-invasi zona-zona yang permeable. - kerak lumpur (mud cakes) menumpuk dimuka zona-zona yang permeable.

Type of Basic Well Logs
• • • • • • Spontaneous Potential Permeable and porous lithology Gamma Ray Lithology Predict reservoir characteristic Resistivity Neutron Predict and calculate Porosity and fluid content Density Sonic

Spontaneous Potential
SP results from electric currents flowing in the drilling mud.
3 sources of the currents: •Membrane potential - largest. - electrochemical •Liquid - junction potential - electrochemical •Streaming potential – smallest - electrokinetic

Membrane and Liquid Potential
These two effects are the main components of the SP. They are caused because the mud flitrate and the formation waters contain NaCl in different proportions. Firstly, shales are permeable to the Sodium ions but not the Chlorine. Hence there is a movement of charged particles through the shale creating a current and thus a potential. The ions Na+ and Cl- have different mobilities at the junction of the invaded and virgin zones. The movement of the ions across this boundary creates another current and hence a potential.

Streaming Potential
This is generated by flow of the mud filtrate through the mud cake. As this does not normally occur this effect is small. It will only become important if there are high differential pressures across the formations.

Spontaneous Potential
Measure different potential (mV) between moving electrode in well bore with surface electrode as result of mud filtrate invasion SP logs can be used for: •Identify porous and permeable zone by its deflection. •Predict bed boundary and shaliness of reservoir zone. •Predict Rw (water resistivity) in permeable zone. SSP = −k log (Rmf/Rw) k = (61+0.133*T) T in F degree

Spontaneous Potential
What we can analysis from this sp logs? 1. Deflection means there is a permeable zone. 2. Resistivity of fluid contain can be predicted from direction of deflection and sp value. 3. Resisitivity mud filtrate must be known to prevent pitfalls in fluid contain resistivity in formation.

Spontaneous Potential

Spontaneous Potential
What is the Analysis if we used oil base mud filtrate with resistivity 50 ohm.m? What is the Analysis if we used salt water base mud filtrate with resistivity 2 ohm.m? Assumes: oil zone resistivity 30 ohm.m

Water formation resistivity 1 ohm.m

Can you identify wheter prospect or water zone?

Gamma Ray
Theory of Gamma Ray Log tools is recording radioactive material in rocks (Uranium (U), Thorium (Th), and Potassium (K). Radioactive material are usually deposited in shale (no permeability). SGT (Standar Gamma Ray Tools) measure total of radioactivity from 3 elements in GAPI unit. While NGT (Spectroscopy Gamma Ray Tools) measure total of each radioactivity from 3 elements.

Gamma Ray
Applications of Gamma Ray log are: •Lithology identification. •Study of depositional environments. •Investigation of shale types. •Correction of the GR for clay content evaluation. •Identification of organic material and source rocks. •Fracture identification. •Geochemical logging. •Study of a rock's diagenetic history.

Gamma Ray
Can you analyze lithology and reservoir potential???

Resistivity

There are 2 principal theory in measuring resistivity: 1. Laterolog = sends ac current to formation. 2. Induction = induction electric current to formation. This induction tool usually known as conductivity tools because it’s measuring conductivity and converted into resistivity.

Resistivity Measurements

Resistivity

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Sonic
In This Session we only limited to sonic logging tools for measuring slowness of compressional wave (primary wave). Sonic Tools measuring slowness in uS/ft. a source gives a signal to formation and will be received by near and far receiver. Two receiver will be calculated time between first break on near receiver and far receiver. This measured time will be change to slowness by dividing with distance between near and far receiver. Velocity is reciprocal of slowness (1/slowness)

Density
The Litho Density Tools (LDT) use a chemical gamma ray source and two or three gamma ray detectors. There are 3 interactions that can be happened if gamma ray with high energy shot to a material; Photoelectric, Compton Scattering, Twin Production.

If initial Energy (E) <100 keV

If 75 keV<E<2 MeV

If E>1.2 MeV

LDT is designed for high sensitivity in 2 interaction by choosing radioactive material as required like Cesium – 137 which maximum gamma ray energy at 662 keV.

Density
Gamma Ray can be a electromagnetic wave and foton particle, known as dualism particle. When GR shot to rock there will be compton scaterring, foton will be losing its energy and will be scattered to different direction. Energy is loosed by foton will be absorbed by electron. Electron will become free from its previous state. This process will cycle untill foton energy become weak and will be totally absorbed. LDT measures electron density that scaterred as result of gamma ray shot.

Neutron
Compensated Neutron Tools (CNT) can be used for predicting porosity of reservoir. CNT spreads neutron to formation, fast neutron will be slower when hit hydrogen atom (elastic collision). This happens because size of neutron and hydrogen are looks like similar. Detector in CNT will measure population of neutron in thermal region.

Gas and water from density neutron cross over

Oil and water from density neutron cross over

Density Neutron CrossPlot

Coal Interpretation from well Logs

Cross Plot Interpretation

Example of logs responses

Can you find the “beauty” reservoir?

Well Logs Correlation to find potential reservoir related to structure condition
A B C

Well log correlation
A B C