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2 alcohol + Na2Cr2O7 ketone 1 alcohol + [O] aldehyde
Oxidation of Aldehydes Easily oxidized to carboxylic acids. => Chapter 18 2 .
O R C H + 2 + Ag(NH3)2 _ + 3 OH O H2O 2 Ag + R C O _ + 4 + NH3)2 _ + 3 OH O H2O 2 Ag + R C O _ + 4 NH3 + 2 H2O => 3 . • Aldehyde reaction forms a silver mirror.Tollens Test • Add ammonia solution to AgNO3 solution until precipitate dissolves.
Reduction Reagents • Sodium borohydride. dissolved in dry ether (ethoxyethane). => 4 .dissolved in ethanol. much stronger. NaBH4. LiAlH4. • Lithium aluminum hydride.
• Use NaCN or KCN in base to add cyanide. O CH3CH2 C HO CH3 + HCN CH3CH2 C CH3 5 CN => . then protonate to add H. • Reactivity formaldehyde > aldehydes > ketones >> bulky ketones.Addition of HCN • HCN is highly toxic.
Carbonyl Compounds => 6 .
there is a nucleophilic attack by the cyanide ion on the slightly positive carbon atom.The mechanism for the addition of HCN to propanone In the first stage. The negative ion formed then picks up a hydrogen ion from somewhere for example. 7 . from a hydrogen cyanide molecule.
Triiodomethane reaction • Is a test for the existence of CH3-CO group in a molecule • Reagent aqueous NaOH and iodine • Condition : warm • Product: iodofrom. CH3I • Observation: yellow crystals of CH3I insoluble in water 8 .
The reaction Ethanal. CH3CHO All methyl ketones 9 .
Uses of aldehydes and ketones • • • • • • Propanone: solvent. nail polish remover Methly ethyl ketone : paint stripper Benzaldehyde: almond extract (-) Carvone: spearmint flavour (+) Carvone: seed flavouring Vanillin: vanilla flavouring 10 .