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Training Agenda: Lighting
Introduction Types of lighting systems Assessment of lighting systems Energy efficiency opportunities
• Lighting energy consumption
• 20-45% in commercial buildings • 3-10% in industrial plants • Significant energy savings can be realized with a minimal capital investment
Introduction Basic Theory
• Light: electromagnetic waves in space
• Light is emitted through:
b) Electric discharge c) Electro luminescence d) Photoluminescence
Introduction Definitions and Common Terms Lumen • 1 lumen = the photometric equivalent of the watt • 1 lumen = luminous flux per m2 of a sphere with 1 m radius and a 1 candela isotropic light source at the centre • 1 watt = 683 lumens at 555 nm wavelength Lux • metric unit of measure for illuminance on a surface: 1 lux = 1 lumen / m2 5 .
Introduction Definitions and Common Terms Luminous intensity (I) • measured in Candela (cd) Luminous flux (lm) • 4 x luminous intensity 6 .
Introduction Definitions and Common Terms Installed load efficacy • Average maintained illuminance on a working plane: lux/W/m2 Installed load efficiency ratio • Target load efficacy / Installed load Rated luminous efficacy • Rated lumen output of the lamp / rated power consumption • Lumens per watt 7 .
Introduction Definitions and Common Terms Room index • Ratio for the plan dimensions of the room Target load efficiency • Installed load efficacy considered achievable under best efficiency • Lux/W/m² Utilization factor • A measure of the effectiveness of the lighting scheme 8 .
Introduction Definitions and Common Terms The inverse square law • Defines the relationship between illuminance from a point source and distance E=I/ E1 d12 = E2 d22 d2 E = Iluminance I = Luminous intensity d = distance 9 .
Introduction Definitions and Common Terms Color temperature • Color appearance of a lamp and the light it produces • Measured in Kelvin (K) • Incandescent lamps: “true value” color temperature • Fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID) lamps: correlated color temperature 10 .
Applications of color rendering groups (Bureau of Energy Efficiency. color printing inspection Wherever accurate color judgments are necessary or good color rendering is required for reasons of appearance e. display lighting Wherever moderate color rendering is required Wherever color rendering is of little significance but marked distortion of color is unacceptable Wherever color rendering is of no importance at all and marked distortion of colour is acceptable 11 80 < Ra < 90 2 3 60 < Ra < 80 40 < Ra < 60 4 20 < Ra < 40 Table 1.g. 2005) .Introduction Definitions and Common Terms Color rendering index (CRI) Color rendering groups 1A 1B CIE general color rendering Index(Ra) Ra Typical application > 90 Wherever accurate color rendering is required e.g.
Training Agenda: Electricity Introduction Types of lighting systems Assessment of lighting systems Energy efficiency opportunities 12 .
Types of Lighting Systems • Incandescent lamps • Tungsten Halogen Lamps • Fluorescent lamps • High pressure sodium lamps • Low pressure sodium lamps HID lamps • Mercury vapour • Metal halide • Blended • LED lamps 13 .
2005) 14 .Types of Lighting Systems Incandescent Lamps • Emit radiation mainly in the visible region • Bulb contains vacuum or gas filling • Efficacy: 12 lumen / Watt • Color rendering index: 1A • Color temperature: 2500 – 2700 K • Lamp life <2000 hrs (BEE India.
2005) .Types of Lighting Systems Tungsten-Halogen Lamps • Tungsten filament and a halogen gas filled bulb • Tungsten atoms evaporate from the hot filament and move to cooler wall of bulb • Efficacy: 18 lumens/Watt • Color rendering index: 1A • Color temperature: warm • Lamp life < 4000 hrs • • • • • • • • Advantages: More compact Longer life More and whiter light Disadvantages: Cost more Increased IR and UV Handling problems Tungsten halogen lamps 15 (BEE India.
2005) 16 .Types of Lighting Systems Fluorescent Lamps • • 3 – 5 times as efficient as standard incandescent lamps and last 10 – 20 times longer Electricity passes through a gas or metallic vapor and causes radiation • Fluorescent tubes are hot cathode lamps (BEE India.
Types of Lighting Systems Fluorescent Lamps • Different types (T12. T10. T8 and T5) differing in diameter and efficiency • Most efficient at ambient temperature of 20-30 oC.000 hours Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) 17 (BEE India. 2005) . • Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) have much smaller luminaries Features: Halo-phosphate • Efficacy – 80 lumens/Watt (HF gear increases this by 10%) • Color Rendering Index –2-3 • Color Temperature – Any • Lamp Life – 7-15.000 hours Tri-phosphor • Efficacy – 90 lumens/Watt • Color Rendering Index –1A-1B • Color Temperature – Any • Lamp Life – 7-15.
2005 18 .voltage electronic starter.2 • Color temperature: warm • Lamp life < 24. sodium. high.Types of Lighting Systems High Pressure Sodium (HPS) Lamps • Used in outdoor and industrial applications • Consist of: ballast. mercury • No starting electrodes • High efficacy: 60 – 80 lumen/Watt • Color rendering index: 1 . xenon gas filling. ceramic arc tube.000 hrs BEE India.
000 hours 19 .200 lumen/Watt Poorest quality light: colors appear black.Types of Lighting Systems Low Pressure Sodium (LPS) Lamps • • • • • Commonly included in the HID family Highest efficacy: 100 . white or grey shades Limited to outdoor applications Efficacy: Color rendering index: 3 • • Color temperature: yellow Lamp life < 16.
outer phosphor coated bulb.Types of Lighting Systems Mercury Vapor Lamps • • Oldest HID lamp Consists of: arc tube with mercury and argon gas and quartz envelope. outer glass envelope Long life and low initial costs • • • • Very poor efficacy: 30 – 65 lumens/Watt Color rendering index: 3 Color temperature: intermediate • Lamp life: 16000 – 24000 hours 20 . third electrode.
size and rating • Better efficacy than other HID lamps: 80 lumen/Watt • Require high voltage ignition pulse but some have third electrode for starting • Color rendering index: 1A – 2 BEE India.000 hours © UNEP 2006 21 . 2005 • Color temperature: 3000 – 6000 K • Lamp life: 6000 – 20.Types of Lighting Systems Metal Halide Lamps • Works similar to tungsten halogen lamps • Largest choice of color.
Types of Lighting Systems Blended Lamps • “Two-in-one”: 2 light sources in 1 gas filled bulb • Quartz mercury discharge tube • Tungsten filament • Suitable for flame proof areas • Fit into incandescent lamps fixtures • Efficacy: 20 – 30 lumen/Watt • Lamp life < 8000 hours • High power factor: 0. 2005 22 .95 • Typical rating: 160 W BEE India.
000 – 100.Types of Lighting Systems LED Lamps • • Newest type of energy efficient lamp Two types: • red-blue-green array • phosphor-coated blue lamp Emit visible light in a very narrow spectrum and can produce “white light” Used in exit signs. and the technology is rapidly progressing Significant energy savings: 82 – 93% • • • • Longest lamp life: 40. traffic signals.000 hours 23 .
• painted or powder coated white finish • Specular reflectors: 2005 • 85-96% reflectance and less decline in time • Polished or mirror-like • Not suitable for industrial open-type strip fixtures 24 .Types of Lighting Systems Reflectors • • Impact how much light reaches area and distribution pattern Diffuse reflectors: • 70-80% reflectance but declining in time BEE India.
Types of Lighting Systems Gear • Ballast • Current limiting device • Helps voltage build-up in fluorescent lights • Ignitors • Start metal halide and sodium vapor lamps 25 .
restaurants. canals. car parking. emergency lighting Offices. coating Typical Application Homes. hospitals. flood lighting Display. stadium exhibition grounds. general lighting.Types of Lighting Systems Comparing lamps Type of Lamp Incandescent Fluorescent Lamps Lum / Watt Rang e 8-18 46-60 Av g. offices General lighting in factories.t. street lighting 6000-12000 6000-12000 26 . construction areas 8000-10000 5000 18-24 20 Excellent 2000-4000 High pressure sodium (HPSV) SON Low pressure sodium (LPSV) SOX 67121 101175 90 150 Fair Poor General lighting in factories. ware houses. shops.r. shops. flood lighting. homes Life (Hours) 1000 5000 Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) High pressure mercury (HPMV) Halogen lamps 40-70 44-57 60 50 Very good Fair Hotels. homes. street lighting Roadways. 14 50 Color Rendering Index Excellent Good w. garages. tunnels.
Training Agenda: Electricity Introduction Types of lighting systems Assessment of lighting systems Energy efficiency opportunities 27 .
Assessment of Lighting Systems Designing with Light • Better lighting: increased productivity • Two main questions for designer: • Choose correct lighting level • Choose quality of light (color rendering) 28 .
g. general process in chemical and food industries. Hangers. outdoor stores . engraving. watch making. furnace rooms etc. colour work. electronic components. Transformer yards. Additional localized lighting for visually exacting tasks 3000 29 . drawing offices. casual reading and filing activities. fine bench and machine assembly. Minimum service illuminance on the task Medium bench & machine work.Assessment of Lighting Systems Designing with Light Recommended light levels for different tasks (BEE India. e. 2005) Illuminance level (lux) General Lighting for rooms and areas used either infrequently and/or casual or simple visual tasks 20 50 70 100 150 200 300 General lighting for interiors 450 1500 Examples of Area of Activity Minimum service illuminance in exterior circulating areas. instrument & small precision mechanism assembly. gauging & inspection of small intricate parts (may be partly provided by local task lighting) Minutely detailed and precise work. stores and stock rooms. stockyards Exterior walkways & platforms. inspection. Very small parts of instruments. critical drawing tasks. Boiler house. Very fine bench and machine work. Circulation areas in industry.
…Lux 30 .Assessment of Lighting Systems Recommended Illuminance Levels Scale of illuminance • Illuminance for all non-working interiors > 20 Lux • Factor 1.5 is the smallest significant difference in effect of illuminance • Therefore the following scale is recommended: 20–30–50–75–100–150–200–300–500–750–1000 –1500–2000.
Assessment of Lighting Systems Recommended Illuminance Levels Illuminance ranges recommended for interior or activity • Middle value (R) for working interiors • Higher value (H) for visual work • Lower value (L) where accuracy is nonimportant 31 .
population and use profile S.Assessment of Lighting Systems Methodology for Efficiency Study • Step 1: Make inventory of lighting system elements and transformers Table: Device rating. N o. Plant Locati on Lighting Device & Ballast Type Rating in Watts Lamp & Ballast Population Numbers Use / Shifts as I / II / III shifts / Day Table: Lighting transformer/rating and population profile S. N o. Plant Locatio n Lighting Transformer Rating (kVA) Numbers Installed Measurement Provisions Available Volts / Amps / kW/ Energy 32 .
Assessment of Lighting Systems Methodology for Efficiency Study • • • • Step 2: Measure and document the Lux levels Step 3: Measure and document the voltage and power consumption at input points Step 4: Compare the measured Lux values with standard values as reference Step 5: Analyze the failure rates of lamps. ballasts and the actual life expectancy levels 33 .
Assessment of Lighting Systems Methodology for Efficiency Study Step-6 : identify improvement options. for example: • Maximum sunlight use options through transparent roof sheets • Replacements of lamps and ballasts to more energy efficient types • Selecting interior colors for light reflection • Modifying layout as per needs • Providing individual / group controls for lighting 34 .
Training Agenda: Electricity Introduction Types of lighting systems Assessment of lighting systems Energy efficiency opportunities 35 .
Energy Efficiency Opportunities Use Natural Day Lighting • North lighting • Glass strips across the roof • Sky lights with fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) • Atrium with FRP dome • Natural light from windows 36 .
Energy Efficiency Opportunities De-lamping to Reduce Excess Lighting • Effective method to reduce energy consumption • Reducing lamp height combined with de-lamping: illuminance hardly affected • Complicated for series wired ballasts • Less problematic with parallel wired ballast 37 .
Energy Efficiency Opportunities Task Lighting • Low wattage lamps at task • General illuminance at lower level • Benefits: • Reduce number of lighting fixtures • Reduce lamp wattage • Save considerable energy • Better illuminance • Aesthetically pleasing ambience 38 .
Energy Efficiency Opportunities High Efficiency Lamps & Luminaries Examples (9 – 75% savings): • Metal halide lamps to replace mercury / sodium vapor lamps • HPSV lamps where color rendering is not critical • LED panel indicator lamps to replace filament lamps • Luminaries with mirror optics instead of 39 conventional painted ones .
Energy Efficiency Opportunities Reduction of Lighting Feeder Voltage 5 Percentage 1 2 3 Supply voltage percentage 4 • Can save energy • Provided drop in light output is acceptable 2 1 6 4 5 3 6 1) Lamp current 4) Lamp output 2) Circuit power. 2005) 40 . 5) lamp voltage 3) Lamp power. 6) lamp efficiency Effect of voltage variation of fluorescent tube light parameters (BEE India.
000 – 30. LPSV and HPSV lamps Benefits in fluorescent tube lights: • Reduced power loss: 1 Watt instead of 10-15 Watt • Improved efficacy at higher frequencies • Elimination of starter: no flickering 41 .000 Hz Available for fluorescent tube lights.Energy Efficiency Opportunities Electronic Ballasts instead of Electromagnetic Ballasts • • • Oscillators that convert supply frequency to about 20.
Energy Efficiency Opportunities Low Loss Electromagnetic Ballasts for Tube Lights Loss per tube lights: • Standard ballasts: 10 – 15 Watts • Low loss ballasts: 8 .10 Watts 42 .
Energy Efficiency Opportunities Timers. conference rooms. cubicles. exteriors 43 . restrooms. Twilight Switches & Occupancy Sensors • • • • Timers: switching of unnecessary lights Twilight switches: depending on availability of daylight Occupancy sensors: depending on presence of people Applicable for general areas.
Energy Efficiency Opportunities T5 Fluorescent Tube Light • Slimmer tubes than T12 and T8 tubes • • • Improved luminaire efficiencies by 7%. and with super-reflective aluminum luminaire by 11-30% Mercury reduction: 3 mg instead of 15 mg per lamp Can only be operated with electronic ballasts and not existing luminaries 44 .
Energy Efficiency Opportunities Lighting Maintenance • Light levels decrease >50% due to aging lamps and dirt on fixtures. lamps and room surfaces • Maintenance options: • Clean equipment • Replace lenses • Keep spaces bright and clean • Re-lamping 45 .
Training Session on Energy Equipment Lighting THANK YOU 46 FOR YOUR ATTENTION .
© UNEP. 2006. UNEP does not accept responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the contents.energyefficiencyasia. • The GERIAP project was funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) • Full references are included in the textbook chapter that is available on www.Disclaimer and References • This PowerPoint training session was prepared as part of the project “Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction from Industry in Asia and the Pacific” (GERIAP). the contents of this publication. and shall not be liable for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of.org 47 . or reliance on. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure that the contents of this publication are factually correct and properly referenced.