Alfred Adler – An Approach to Individual Psychology
January 2012

Team: • Abhishek Sehgal • Aniket Shah • Anit Singh • Hershita Singh • Pragya Singh

Criticism & Objections Slide 2 . Adler’s Theories & Concepts 3. Background & Context 2.Contents 1.

Background & Context 2. Adler’s Theories & Concepts 3. Criticism & Objections Slide 3 .Contents 1.

1907 Freud – Psychoanalytic movement President of the Viennese Analytic Society by Freud Broke up –Difference of opinion – • • • • • Aggression Instinct Children’s feeling of inferiority the School of Individual Psychology – His Founded Belief Moved to the U.S as a professor Came up with Psychology Theories & Concepts pertaining to Slide 4 . moved to General Practice Turned to Psychiatry .1895 Started Career as Ophthalmologist.Background and Context – Alfred Adler (1870-1937) • • • • • • • Austrian Citizen Medical Degree .

Contents 1. Criticism & Objections Slide 5 . Context & Background 2. Adler’s Theories 3.

Adler’s Theories & Concepts Striving for Perfection Teleology Compensation Strive for Superiority Masculine Protest Childhood & Birth Order Psychological Types Inferiority Social Interest & Lifestyle Slide 6 .

k.or do not -compensate or overcome those problems Compensation was rejected as a premise for motivation “Compensation makes it seem like people’s problems caused them to be what they are” Finally. be sexually satisfied.a Assertiveness Drive “The reaction we have when other drives (e. the need to eat. get things done.Adler’s Theories & Concepts – A Prelude Earliest phrase was the Aggression Drive a. to come closer and closer to our ideal.. Drew an analogy with Self Actualization Compensation defined Motivation – Rejected Later Personalities could be accounted for by the ways in which we do -.g. The Underlying Objective : People want to be better than others. or be loved) are frustrated” Motivation Drive A single "drive" or motivating force lies behind all our behavior and experience Striving for Perfection Compensation Motivation The desire we all have to fulfill our potentials. rather than better in their own right Slide 7 Striving for Perfection .

the education. to be thought of as strong. and the talent and motivation needed to do "great things.e.e. Structures . or dependent (i. how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. aggressive. Boys are encouraged to be assertive in life.Adler’s Theories & Concepts – A Prelude Masculine Protest: Men in many cultures often do have the power. Men’s Success Some reasons cited were: An Illustration: Innate Superiority 1." Slide 8 . for then we realize that every tree has a life pattern and is not merely a mechanical reaction to the environment. Dynamics Conflicts. People want. "feminine”). "masculine”) and not weak. Lifestyle: How people live life. Developing a perspective beyond the traditional parameters: • • • • • Internal traits. (i. often desperately. and girls are discouraged 2. “ The style of life of a tree is the individuality of a tree expressing itself and molding itself in an environment. passive. We recognize a style when we see it against a background of an environment different from what we expect." and women do not.

rather than being driven.Adler’s Theories & Concepts – A Prelude Teleology: ` “Motivation is a matter of moving towards the future. Slide 9 . for practical purposes. but that. mechanistically. we need to create partial truths” Goals/ Purpose Ideals Human Drivers Partial Truths Fiction Good Contrary to Freud’s belief that… Bad I see what I see……… Human Drivers Past Imperative to fictionlize…. by the past” Fictional Finalism: ` “Ultimate truth would always be beyond us.

Adler’s Theories & Concepts – A Prelude Social Interest: “Social concern was not simply inborn. but a combination of both” Social Interest Extraversion Adler’s connotation of Social Interest was limited to caring for: • • • • • Family Society Community Humanity Life. Limited to Personal Superiority Slide 10 . in general Social Failures: •Drunkards •Criminals •Neurotics •Psychotics Life with a purpose beyond the self…. nor just learned.

Adler’s Theories & Concepts – A Prelude Inferiority & Compensation: “People respond to psychological inferiorities with compensation” Some examples are.. Avoiding Type Slide 11 . Leaning Type Some examples are: Bullies Petty Dictators Drug Addicts 3. • • • • I will become good at what I am inferior about I will become good at something else to cover up for my inferiority I can not do anything – Lack of Self – Esteem precedes Inferiority Complex An inferiority complex could also result in … Inferiority Superiority Compensation Neurosis: Neurosis Types of Neurosis: Inferiority Complex Superiority Complex 1. Ruling Type 2.

Pampering a) Give Commands b) Highly Dependant c) Experience Hatred 2. Inferiority a) Self Centric b) Superiority 1.that contribute to understanding people. but must be not be taken too seriously” Slide 12 . Youngest Child a) Most pampered b) Second most likely to be problem children c) My feel inferiority amidst older siblings Birth Order: “Adler considered birth-order another one of those heuristic ideas -. Second Child a) Competitive – Attempt to surpass older sibling 4.useful fictions -. First Child a) Similar to the only child till dethroned b) Battles for lost position c) More likely to become problem children 3.Adler’s Theories & Concepts – A Prelude Childhood: “Saw personality or lifestyle as something established quite early in life” Three basic childhood situations are… Four basic orders classified by him are… 1. Neglect a) Trust no one b) No one values them 1. Only Child a) Pampered b) Anxiety filled care c) Bears all the impact 2.

Context & Background 2. Criticism & Objections Slide 13 .Contents 1. Adler’s Theories 3.

Criticism & Objections Intangible Inconsistent Teleology vs. Cause & Effect Not Absolute Impossible Evaluation Slide 14 .