Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design basics of Column and Pressure Vessel
N Shaikh Manager Process Design Engineering Cell IOCL-RHQ
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Process Design & Engg Cell

Process Design Basics of Column

Process Design Basics of Column

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The First Distillation Still ???

Process Design & Engg Cell

The First Distillation Still used in Digboi
Process Design Basics of Column

Distillation History Process Design & Engg Cell Early distillation consisted of simple batch stills to produce ethanol. with crude oil heated in batch stills. Process Design Basics of Column . Crude ethanol was placed in a still and heated. and the vapor drawn from the still was condensed for consumption. Lamp oil was later produced using the same method.

Distillation History Furnace Process Design & Engg Cell Condenser Batch Still Distillation Process The next progression in the history of distillation was to continually feed the still and recover the light product Process Design Basics of Column .

Distillation History Process Design & Engg Cell Still Distillation in Series Further advancements include placing the stills in series and interchanging the vapor and liquid from each still to improve recovery. This was the first type of counter-current distillation column that we have today Process Design Basics of Column .

typically including a Bunsen burner. such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will vaporize. Process Design Basics of Column . a round-bottomed flask and a condenser. or fractions.Distillation – Fractionation Process Design & Engg Cell Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts. Fractional distillation in a laboratory makes use of common laboratory glassware and apparatuses. as well as the single-purpose fractionating column.

Therefore. Alternatives to distillation process : Solvent extraction. membrane separation or adsorption process. Distillation can consume more than 50% of a plant‘s operating energy cost. It is also known as fractional distillation or fractionation. especially in large-scale applications. or boiling points. These processes often have higher investment costs.Distillation vs Other Processes Process Design & Engg Cell Distillation is by far the most important separation process in the petroleum and chemical industries. It is the separation of key components in a mixture by the difference in their relative volatility. Process Design Basics of Column . distillation remains the main choice in the industry.

Process Design Basics of Column .Types Fractional Distillation Process Design & Engg Cell Extractive Distillation Reactive Distillation Variations appear due to difficulty in separation when the physical properties of the components in a mixture are very close to one another. such as an azeotropic mixture.Distillation Processes.

Process Design Basics of Column .Distillation Processes.Types Process Design & Engg Cell Fractional Distillation: It is the separation of key components in a mixture by the difference in their relative volatility. or boiling points.

forming a ternary mixture with different properties. The external solvent changes the relative volatility between two ‗close‘ components by extracting one of the components. Process Design Basics of Column . The solvent is recycled into the system after the extracted component is separated from it.Distillation Processes.Types Process Design & Engg Cell Extractive Distillation An external solvent is added to the system to increase the separation.

The external solvent changes the relative volatility between two ‗close‘ components by extracting one of the components. forming a ternary mixture with different properties. The solvent is recycled into the system after the extracted component is separated from it.Distillation Processes.Types Process Design & Engg Cell Extractive Distillation An external solvent is added to the system to increase the separation. Process Design Basics of Column .

thereby separated from the rest of the components in the mixture. Process Design Basics of Column .Types Process Design & Engg Cell Reactive Distillation A distillation column may also have a catalyst bed and reaction occurring in it.Distillation Processes. This type of column is called a reactive distillation column. The targeted component reacts when it is in contact with the catalyst.

This type of column is called a reactive distillation column. Process Design Basics of Column . The targeted component reacts when it is in contact with the catalyst.Distillation Processes.Types Process Design & Engg Cell Reactive Distillation A distillation column may also have a catalyst bed and reaction occurring in it. thereby separated from the rest of the components in the mixture.

Distillation Processes.Types Process Design & Engg Cell Reactive Distillation Process Design Basics of Column .

Industrial distillation Process Design & Engg Cell .

vertical Cylindrical columns known as "distillation or fractionation towers" or "distillation columns" with diameters ranging from about 65 centimeters to 6 meters and heights ranging from about 6 meters to 60 meters or more.Industrial distillation Process Design & Engg Cell Distillation is the most common form of separation technology used in petroleum refineries. petrochemical and chemical plants. Industrial distillation is typically performed in large. natural gas processing and cryogenic air separation plants. Process Design Basics of Column .

Distillation Column/Fractionator Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Column .

Promote an intimate contact between both Liq and Vap phases. baffles and etc. distributors and redistributors. packings. The type of internals selected would determine the height and diameter of a column for a specified duty because different designs have various capacities and efficiencies. Include trays.Distillation Column Internals Process Design & Engg Cell Critera of Distillation Column internals : To provide better mass and heat transfers between the liquid and vapor phases in the column. Process Design Basics of Column .

Distillation Column Internals Column internals: Two main types Trays Sieve Bubble Cap Valve Trays Packing Random : Rings. saddles Structure Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Column .

Distillation Column Internals Process Design & Engg Cell Feed : Liquid Vapor Mixture of vapor-liquid The vapor phase that travels up the column is in contact with the liquid phase that travels down. Process Design Basics of Column .

Process Design Basics of Column .Liq pathways inside the column : The vapor phase that travels up the column is in contact with the liquid phase that travels down.Distillation Column Internals Process Design & Engg Cell Vap.

Distillation Column Internals Process Design & Engg Cell Column distillation is divided two stages : Rectifying stages Striping stages Process Design Basics of Column .

Vapor phase is continually enriched in the light components which will finally make up the overhead product.Distillation Column Internals Rectifying Stages Process Design & Engg Cell The process above the feed tray is known as rectification. A liquid recycle condenses the less volatile components from rising vapor. Process Design Basics of Column . cooling is applied to condense a portion of the overhead vapor and termed as reflux. To generate the liquid recycle.

Process Design Basics of Column . Some liquid is returned to the column as reflux to limit the loss of heavy components overhead. vapor enters the condenser where heat is removed.Distillation Column Internals Stripping Stages Process Design & Engg Cell The process below the feed tray is known as stripping Heavier components are being stripped off and concentrated in the liquid phase to form the bottom product. At the top of the column.

In many cases only part of the condensed liquid is refluxed. one a liquid with the same composition as the reflux stream while the other is a vapor product that is in equilibrium with the liquid reflux.Distillation Column Overhead Condenser Total Condenser Process Design & Engg Cell All vapors leaving the top of the column is condensed to liquid so that the reflux stream and overhead product have the same composition. there will be two overhead products. . Condensed liquid is refluxed into the column and the overhead product drawn is in the vapor form. Partial Condenser In a partial condenser . In these cases. only a portion of the vapor entering the condenser is condensed to liquid.

Distillation Column Overhead Total Condenser Process Design & Engg Cell Condenser Total Condenser All vapors leaving the top of the column is condensed to liquid so that the reflux stream and overhead product have the same composition. . Condensed liquid is refluxed into the column and the overhead product drawn is in the vapor form. In these cases. one a liquid with the same composition as the reflux stream while the other is a vapor product that is in equilibrium with the liquid reflux. only a portion of the vapor entering the condenser is condensed to liquid. In many cases only part of the condensed liquid is refluxed. Partial Condenser Partial Condenser In a partial condenser . there will be two overhead products.

Distillation Column Internals Distillation Column Tray Column Process Design & Engg Cell Packed Column Baffle Tray Random Packed Column Structur ed Packed Column Grid Packed Column Bubble Cap Tray Sieve Deck Tray Dual Flow Tray Valve Tray Shed Decks Tray Side to Side Tray Disk and Donuts Tray Process Design Basics of Column .

The vapor must overcome this liquid head to move up the column. Process Design Basics of Column .Distillation Column Internals Tray Column Process Design & Engg Cell Utilize a pressure and temperature differential to separate the products. For most tray columns. On the tray the vapor and liquid are contacted becomes bubble or froth where the mass transfer takes place and then above the tray they are separated where froth flows over the outlet weir and vapor with the light volatile compound is disengaged. Liquid enters from the downcomer of the tray above. the weir holds a liquid level of each tray.

Distillation Column Internals Tray Column-advantages Process Design & Engg Cell Tray column performs well in high liquid and vapor loading. Side to Side. Disk and donuts Process Design Basics of Column .  Tray also have high resistance to corrosion. Tray have higher pressure drop than packed. Tray Column-Types Five major types of tray column : •Bubble Cap •Sieve •Dual Flow •Valve •Baffle Shed Deck.

Distillation Column Tray Bubble Cap Tray Process Design & Engg Cell A bubble cap tray is perforated flat which has a riser (chimney) for each hole cover with a cap mounted. It is able to operate at low vapor and liquid rates (less than 2 gpm per foot of average of flow width). Process Design Basics of Column . Equipped with slots to allow the passage of vapor then the vapor will contact with liquid forming bubble on the next tray.

It is able to operate at low vapor and liquid rates (less than 2 gpm per foot of average of flow width). Process Design Basics of Column .Distillation Column Tray Bubble Cap Tray Process Design & Engg Cell A bubble cap tray is perforated flat which has a riser (chimney) for each hole cover with a cap mounted. Equipped with slots to allow the passage of vapor then the vapor will contact with liquid forming bubble on the next tray.

Distillation Column Tray Bubble Cap Tray Process Design & Engg Cell A bubble cap tray is perforated flat which has a riser (chimney) for each hole cover with a cap mounted. Process Design Basics of Column . Equipped with slots to allow the passage of vapor then the vapor will contact with liquid forming bubble on the next tray. It is able to operate at low vapor and liquid rates (less than 2 gpm per foot of average of flow width).

The liquid flow is transported down the tower by down-comers. a dam and overflow device on the side on the plate. The vapor velocity keeps the liquid from flowing down through the holes (weeping). Sieve deck tray has a minimum capacity approximately 70% Process Design Basics of Column .Distillation Column Tray Sieve Deck Tray Process Design & Engg Cell Sieve deck tray is perforated plate with holes punched into the plate usually has holes 3/16‖ to 1‖ diameter. Vapor comes out from the holes to give a multi orifice effect. The number and hole size are based on vapor flow up the tower.

a dam and overflow device on the side on the plate. The number and hole size are based on vapor flow up the tower. The liquid flow is transported down the tower by down-comers. Sieve deck tray has a minimum capacity approximately 70% Process Design Basics of Column . The vapor velocity keeps the liquid from flowing down through the holes (weeping).Distillation Column Tray Sieve Deck Tray Process Design & Engg Cell Sieve deck tray is perforated plate with holes punched into the plate usually has holes 3/16‖ to 1‖ diameter. Vapor comes out from the holes to give a multi orifice effect.

Distillation Column Tray Dual flow tray Process Design & Engg Cell Dual flow is a sieve tray without down comer. Typical perforation sizes range between 1/2‖ and 1‖ in diameter. High open area dual flow trays have a higher capacity and lower pressure drop than comparably spaced fractionation trays. Vapor move up to the tray above through the hole while the liquid turn down in the same hole that result maldistribution and low efficiency. The term dual flow comes from the countercurrent flow of the vapor and liquid through the perforations. Process Design Basics of Column . Dual flow trays best suit systems containing a moderate to high solids content or polymerizable compounds.

 Valve can be round or rectangular. minimum capacity Process Design Basics of Column .Distillation Column Tray Valve Tray Process Design & Engg Cell Valve Tray is using valve which is rise as vapor rate increase and then reduce as vapor rate fails. Valve tray has approximately 60%. Valve disk rise as vapor rate increase. with or without caging structured. This stop the liquid from weeping.

Valve tray has minimum capacity approximately 60%. Valve disk rise as vapor rate increase. with or without caging structured.Distillation Column Tray Valve Tray Process Design & Engg Cell Valve Tray is using valve which is rise as vapor rate increase and then reduce as vapor rate fails.  Valve can be round or rectangular. Process Design Basics of Column . This stop the liquid from weeping.

They have open areas approaching 50% where a high efficiency tray will have an open area of less than 15%. with low efficiency.Distillation Column Tray Baffle Tray Process Design & Engg Cell Baffle trays are trays of low fouling pot ential. Baffle tray has three types: Shed Decks Trays Side to Side Trays Disk and Donuts Trays Process Design Basics of Column . The down-comers require a disengaging area to separate the liquid from the vapor. This area requires a minimum distance that normally sets the tray spacing. The liquid is required to travel across the deck to the next down-comer.

Distillation Column Tray Baffle Tray Process Design & Engg Cell Because of their open design. “. Tray decks may be level or slightly inclined and typically occupy 40-60% of the tower cross-sectional area. Process Design Basics of Column . Vapor-liquid contacting takes place when the vapor passes through a curtain of liquid falling between trays. fouling resistance and low pressure drop. or through rivulets of liquid flowing through tray deck perforations. Baffle trays are well suited for heat transfer applications including heavy oil refining and petrochemical oil refining and petrochemical heat transfer services with high solids or petroleum coke content. baffle trays are used in applications requiring high capacity.

as with efficiency. Process Design Basics of Column . Fouling potential of this tray is low. The decks can be sloped.Distillation Column Tray Baffle Tray Process Design & Engg Cell Side to side baffle trays Side-to-side trays are trays that allow the liquid to splash from side to side.

Fouling potential of this tray is low along with the efficiency.Distillation Column Tray Process Design & Engg Cell Baffle Tray Disk and donut trays Disk and donut trays are slightly sloped trays that allow the liquid to splash from inner circle ring to outer circle ring. Process Design Basics of Column .

Fouling potential of this tray is low along with the efficiency. Schematic of a disk and donut baffle tray column for use as a steam condenser Process Design Basics of Column .Distillation Column Tray Process Design & Engg Cell Baffle Tray Disk and donut trays Disk and donut trays are slightly sloped trays that allow the liquid to splash from inner circle ring to outer circle ring.

Fouling potential of this tray is low along with the efficiency. Process Design Basics of Column .Distillation Column Tray Process Design & Engg Cell Baffle Tray Disk and donut trays Disk and donut trays are slightly sloped trays that allow the liquid to splash from inner circle ring to outer circle ring.

Process Design Basics of Column .Distillation Column Tray Baffle Tray Shed Decks trays Process Design & Engg Cell Shed decks are essentially angle iron beams of various sizes from two to ten inches that are placed in rows across the column. They may be set in overlapping rows or rotated 90 degrees from tray to tray. They typically are at on 24 inch tray spacing.

A major advantage to packed columns is the reduction in pressure across the column.Distillation Column with packing Packed Column Process Design & Engg Cell Packed column utilize packing to contact between the phases (liquid-vapor) on the surface. Typical percent open area of a trayed column is 8 to 15%. Schematic diagram of a typical packed bed absorption column Process Design Basics of Column Packed column is divided by Random. Packed column is advantageous than tray for reduced foaming since generates thin films instead of fine droplets for mass and heat transfer. Structured and Grid Packed Columns . whereas a packed column can approach 50%. Typically the column pressure drop for a packed column is less than that of a trayed col umn because of the percent open area.

Process Design Basics of Column . Random packing has more risk than structured packing and less ability to handle maldistributed liquid.Distillation Column with packing Process Design & Engg Cell Packed Column— random packing Random packing is packing of specific geometrical shapes which are dumped into the tower and orient themselves randomly.

Process Design Basics of Column .Distillation Column with packing Process Design & Engg Cell Packed Column-structured packing Structure Packed column is crimped layers or corrugated sheets which is stacked in the column. Structured packed offers 30% capacities higher than random packed for equal efficiency up to 50% higher at the same capacity. Each layer is oriented at 70° to 90° to the layer below.

and high tolerance to fouling. resulting in high capacity.Distillation Column with packing Process Design & Engg Cell Packed Column-Grid packing Grid packed column is systematically arranged packing use an open-lattice structure. They have high open area. low pressure drop. Process Design Basics of Column . This device is composed of panels that promote mass transfer and enhance entrainment removal.

the mechanical design focuses on the tower internals and heat exchanger arrangements. Process Design Basics of Column .Distillation Column Design General Considerations Process Design & Engg Cell A tower design is normally divided into two main steps a process design followed by a mechanical design. column diameter and tower height. On the other hand.  The purpose of the process design is to calculate the number of required theoretical stages.

which depends on the relative volatility and concentration of each component in the feed  Performing a material balance for the column Determining the tower operating pressure (and/or temperature) Calculating the minimum number of theoretical stages using the Fenske equation Calculating the minimum reflux rate using the Underwood equations Determining the operating reflux rate and number of theoretical stages Selection of column internals (tray or packings) Calculating the tower diameter and height Process Design Basics of Column .Distillation Column Design Steps : Process Design & Engg Cell Determine the separation sequences.

There are several choices of column internals and the two major categories are trays and packing.Distillation Column Design The Selection of Column Internals : Process Design & Engg Cell The selection of column internals has a big impact on the column performance and the maintenance cost of a distillation tower. The choice of which to utilize depends on the Pressure Fouling potential Liquid to vapor density ratio Liquid Loading Life Cycle Cost Process Design Basics of Column .

Distillation Column Design Criteria for Tray Column Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Column .

Distillation Column Design Criteria for Packed Column Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Column .

Process Design Basics of Column . The economically optimum number of stages is about 200% of the minimum value. Economically optimum reflux ratio is about 120% to 150% of the minimum reflux ratio. Reflux drums are almost always horizontally mounted and designed for a 5 min holdup at half of the drum's capacity. A safety factor of at least 25% about the reflux should be utilized for the reflux pumps.Distillation Column Design Important Thumb rule : Process Design & Engg Cell Tower operating pressure is determined most often by the temperature of the available cooling medium in the condenser or by the maximum allowable reboiler temperature.

Q : Energy in Million Btu/hr D : Tower diameter in feet.5 D2 for pressure distillation Q = 0.Distillation Column Design Important Thumb rule : Process Design & Engg Cell Limit tower heights to 175 ft (53 m) due to wind load and foundation considerations. A rough estimate of reboiler duty as a function of tower diameter is given by: Q = 0. The Length/Diameter ratio of a tower should be no more than 30 and preferably below 20.15 D2 for vacuum distillation Where.3 D2 for atmospheric distillation Q = 0. Process Design Basics of Column .

Tray efficiencies for aqueous solutions are usually in the range of 6090% while gas absorption and stripping typically have efficiencies closer to 10-20% Process Design Basics of Column .1 psi (0.007 bar). or 6 ft/s (1. Tray spacing is ~18”.Distillation Column Design Important Thumb rule : Process Design & Engg Cell Overall column height depends on tray spacing. A typical pressure drop per tray is 0. Tray spacing should from 18“ to 24“ (ease of maintenance to be kept in mind).8 m/s) under vacuum conditions. Tray spacing ~ 24 “ and for tower dia < 4 ft.6 m/s) at moderate pressures. Peak tray efficiencies usually occur at linear vapor velocities of 2 ft/s (0. For tower dia > 4 ft.

Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 58 .

Vapor-Liquid c. Vapor-Liquid-Liquid Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 59 .why required??? Process Vessel are necessary for providing: Process Design & Engg Cell Hold up time of fluid Phase-Separation -separation between various phases of mixed process stream a. Liquid-Liquid b.Process Vessel --.

Distillate drums – reflux vessels b.types ??? Process Vessel can be classfied as : Process Design & Engg Cell Vertical a. Steam drums d. Surge vessels c.Knockout drums (except flare knockout drums) b.Driers Horizontal a.Process Vessel --.Flash drums c.Settling drums e.Blowdown drums d.Flare knockout drums Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 60 .

61 Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel . by installing a boot).g. resulting in improved de-gassing and foam breakdown Additional to vapor / liquid separation also a liquid / liquid separation can be achieved (e.Vertical vs. Horizontal Vessels Advantages of a vertical vessel are:  Process Design & Engg Cell A smaller plot area is required (critical on offshore platforms) Large Vapor throughput with small liquid hold up Generally the vessel volume is smaller   Advantages of a horizontal vessel are:  It is easier to accommodate large liquid flow    Less head room is required The downward liquid velocity is lower.

Horizontal Vessels--services Process Design & Engg Cell The preferred orientation for a number of typical vapor / liquid separators Application Reactor Effluent Separator (V/L) Reactor Effluent Separator (V/L/L) Reflux Accumulator Compressor KO Drum Fuel Gas KO Drum Flare KO Drum Condensate Flash Drum Preferred Orientation Vertical Horizontal Horizontal Vertical Vertical Horizontal Vertical 62 .Vertical vs.

Vapor/Liquid Separation Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 63 .Process Design & Engg Cell Drum sizing.

) AFTER FORMING (TYP. EARTHING LUGS N8 N13A 6 Inch (min) HIL 2 FT 1:120 4 ft.5 ft M2 N14A VORTEX BREKER LLL 3 FT LLLL 10 Inch N12B N14B ` N15A 2 NOS. 165 MIN N3 N9 12 STIFFENER RING-1 NO AT CENTER MIN MIN 2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD 10+3 THK CLAD (MIN.) MIN N2 M1 N1 M11 M10 M17 M16 M18 M5 MIN WEAR PLATE 900 SHORT RADIUS ELBOW N12A 150 MM MINIMUM (HHLL TO BOTTOM OF PIPE) HHLL 10 FT NAME PLATE HLL 9 FT NLL 6 FT Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 12.) AFTER FORMING (TYP.) N4 VORTEX BREKER N7 64 . 200 N13B N6 LIL 1 FT 2 ft.16 ft 5 ft NIL 1 FT SADDLE 2 NOS.Vapor/Liquid Separation 41. 12 10+3 THK CLAD (MIN) 4.) 2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD 15+3 THK CLAD (MIN.5 ft Process Design & Engg Cell 17+3 THK CLAD (MIN.Drum sizing.

Vapor/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 65 .Drum sizing.

Vapor/Liquid Separation Major steps for Vapor/Liquid vessel sizing Step 0: Assume L/D ratio and % vapour area Assume L/D ratio Assume % Vapour area from the standard Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 66 .Drum sizing.

VA = Factor x Vc VC = L 0.maxm allowable design velocity).15   1 G Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 67 .Vapor/Liquid Separation Major steps for Vapor/Liquid vessel sizing Step 1: Calculate Minimum allowable vapor area  For both Horizontal & vertical vessels Area =flow volume per second/ allowable velocity per second Process Design & Engg Cell  The allowable vapor velocity (VA) is obtained by applying a factor to the critical velocity (Vc .Drum sizing.

0 Horizontal drums (With or without crinkled wire mesh pad) 1.5 Vertical knockout drums with horizontal crinkled wire mesh pad.7 Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 68 .0 2.Vapor/Liquid Separation ALLOWABLE VELOCITY FACTORS Drum Type Vertical knockout drum without internals Vertical knockout drum with baffles 1.Drum sizing. (Pad at least 4 inches (10 centimeters) thick) Process Design & Engg Cell Factor 1.

Drum sizing.guidelines for liquid surge time Service Feed to Tower or Furnace Drum Diameter.Vapor/Liquid Separation Step 2: Calculate Liquid Space Process Design & Engg Cell a. inclusive Above 6 Reflux to Tower Product to Storage Flow to Heat Exchanger Flow to Sewer or Drain Surge Time. Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 69 . Liquid Surge Volume (LLL-HLL) -. When the discharge rate is unimportant. not the sum of the two volumes. a nominal surge (or holdup) time of approximately two (2) minutes is provided. Minutes 20 15 10 5 2 2 1 In case surge must be provided for both product and reflux. the larger volume is used. feet Below 4 4 to 6.

Vapor/Liquid Separation Step 2: Calculate Liquid Space b. holdup for the water itself must also be provided in the bottom of the drum. the following minimum levels may be used: Horizontal drums 6 inches (15 centimeters) above bottom Vertical drums 6 inches above lower tangent line With Water Settling Provide five (5) minutes holdup at the total hydrocarbon rate below the low liquid level for the ―settling out― of water. In case no pot is employed. Surge Volume (BTM-LLL) – Locating LLL Without Water Settling Process Design & Engg Cell For guidance.Drum sizing. Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 70 .

whichever is greater. Surge Volume (BTM-HLL) – Locating HLL Following minimum distance are maintained above HLL Horizontal Drums Process Design & Engg Cell Minimum 20% of the drum diameter or 12 inches (30 centimeters) or clearance for feed inlet device. If no vapor is present. whichever is greater. or impingement baffle) when vapor is present.Vapor/Liquid Separation Step 2: Calculate Liquid Space b.Drum sizing. Vertical Drums 1'-0" to the bottom of the inlet arrangement (bottom of nozzle. to top of drum. 15% of the drum diameter or 12 inches (30 centimeters) or clearance for feed inlet device. to the upper tangent line Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 71 . elbow.

Vapor/Liquid Separation Step 2: Calculate Liquid Space c.Drum sizing. Total Liquid Volume Volume (LLL-HLL ) + Volume (BTM-LLL) Process Design & Engg Cell Step 3: Drum Dia and Length calculation  π d2  x % of Total Drum Volume Occupied by Liquid  x L  4    = Total Volume of Liquid “D” and “L” is calculated from above assuming L/D ratio Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 72 .

Vessels .Important guidelines Length to Diameter (L/D) ratio: Design Pressure. in Psig 50 and less greater than 50 Process Design & Engg Cell Length to Diameter Ratio (L/D) 2:1 to 3:1 4:1 to 5:1 Note: 3.5 kg/cm2 gauge is equivalent to 50 psig Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 73 .

r. Check that height of Vapor area >=0.t.Drum sizing.feed inlet device Take the larger height of the check “a” and “b” Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 74 . Vapor space check w.20 x Drum Dia Process Design & Engg Cell % of Total vapor area= (Minimum vapor area (step-1)/ Total area )x100 Height of vapor area can be calculated from the standard chart b.Vapor/Liquid Separation Check A: Vapor Space Check a.

Drum sizing.Vapor/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 75 .

Inches Process Design & Engg Cell Short Radius Elbow Long Radius Elbow Short Radius Elbow Minimum Recommended Long Radius Elbow Minimum Recommended 1 1½ 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 13 14 14 15 16 18 24 30 36 42 14 15 15 17 18 21 28 35 42 49 4 5 6 7 9 12 15 18 21 23 10 11 11 13 14 17 20 23 26 29 5 6 7 8 11 15 19 23 27 30 10 11 12 14 16 20 24 28 32 36 16 18 20 24 48 54 60 72 56 63 70 84 26 29 32 38 32 35 38 44 34 38 42 50 40 44 48 56 Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 76 . Inches Horizontal Drums High Liquid Level to Top of Drums.Vapor/Liquid Separation Required Distance for 900 Elbows Nominal Elbow Diameter.Drum sizing. Inches Vertical Drums High Liquid Level to Nozzles Centerline.

Vapor/Liquid Separation Step 4: Height (BTM-LLL) calculation Area (BTM-LLL) =Volume (BTM-LLL ) / Length % Area (BTM-LLL) = Area (BTM-LLL) / Total Area Height (BTM-LLL) can be calculated using the chart Process Design & Engg Cell Step 5: Height (BTM-HLL) calculation Volume (BTM-HLL)= Volume (BTM-LLL ) +Volume (LLL-HLL) Area (BTM-HLL) =Volume (BTM-HLL ) / Length % Area ( BTM-HLL) = Area (BTM-HLL) / Total Area Height (BTM-HLL) can be calculated using the chart Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 77 .Drum sizing.

Drum sizing.Vapor/Liquid Separation Step 6: Locating Normal Liquid Level NLL = (LLL+HLL)/2 Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 78 .

Pot Diameter 1/2 drum diameter 1/3 drum diameter Process Design & Engg Cell Increase the water velocity as required up to 10 inches per minute (25 centimeters per minute) to avoid exceeding these values.Drum sizing.Boot Calculation MAXIMUM POT DIAMETER Drum Diameter Below 60 inches (150 centimeters) 60 inches and larger Max.Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Water Settling (Draw off Pots) --. Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 79 .

extend the hydrocarbon outlet above the bottom of the drum to provide disengaging. less than 0. do not provide a pot. Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 80 .25 centimeters per minute) are obtained with the above diameters.Boot Calculation MINIMUM POT DIAMETER Drum Diameter Feet Below 5 5 to 8 inclusive Above 8 Centimeters Below 150 150 to 240 inclusive Above 240 Inches 12 18 Pot Diameter Process Design & Engg Cell Centimeters 30 45 24 60 If extremely low water velocities. Instead.Drum sizing.Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Water Settling (Draw off Pots) --.10 inches per minute (0.

LIL & BTL of Boot Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 81 .Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Water Settling (Draw off Pots) --. length of 3 ft betn.Boot Calculation Step1 : Consider boot diameter as per the guideline Process Design & Engg Cell Step2 : Consider boot liquid hold-up time of ~ 10 mins between LIL & HIL Step3: Calculate Length of boot Step 4: Check Min.Drum sizing. HIL & LIL for controller connection Step5 : Keep minimum distance of 1 ft betn.

200 N13B N6 LIL 1 FT 2 ft.) 2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD 15+3 THK CLAD (MIN.) AFTER FORMING (TYP. EARTHING LUGS N8 N13A 6 Inch (min) HIL 2 FT 1:120 4 ft.16 ft 5 ft NIL 1 FT SADDLE 2 NOS.) MIN N2 M1 N1 M11 M10 M17 M16 M18 M5 MIN WEAR PLATE 900 SHORT RADIUS ELBOW N12A 150 MM MINIMUM (HHLL TO BOTTOM OF PIPE) HHLL 10 FT NAME PLATE HLL 9 FT NLL 6 FT Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 12.) AFTER FORMING (TYP.5 ft Process Design & Engg Cell 17+3 THK CLAD (MIN.5 ft M2 N14A VORTEX BREKER LLL 3 FT LLLL 10 Inch N12B N14B ` N15A 2 NOS.) N4 VORTEX BREKER N7 82 .Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation 41.Drum sizing. 12 10+3 THK CLAD (MIN) 4. 165 MIN N3 N9 12 STIFFENER RING-1 NO AT CENTER MIN MIN 2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD 10+3 THK CLAD (MIN.

Drum sizing.Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 83 .

Important guidelines Slop for Horizontal vessel: Process Design & Engg Cell 1 inch in 10 feet down towards the outlet or low point drain so that the vessel may be completely drained during shutdown. Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 84 . This slope is equivalent to a slope of 1:120.Vessels .

Vessels .Important guidelines Location of Feed Inlet Nozzle Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 85 .

Important guidelines Feed Inlet Inlet Nozzle The feed nozzle is normally sized to limit the momentum of the feed. Inlet device Impacts vapor / liquid separation that can be achieved Some Typical Inlet Device are as follows: A Deflector Baffle Slotted Tee Half Open Pipe 86 . Process Design & Engg Cell The limitation depends on whether or not a feed inlet device is installed.Vessels .

Important guidelines Feed Inlet device Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 87 .Table 3 Vessels .

Table 3 Vessels .Important guidelines Feed Inlet device Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 88 .

Internals Vortex Breaker Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 89 .Vessels .

Vessel Internals-Wire Mesh Process Design & Engg Cell Vapor (Liquid Free) Wire Mesh Liquid Feed Inlet Vapor + Liquid Vapor (Entrained Liquid) 90 .

Vessel Internals-Wire Mesh Process Design & Engg Cell 91 .

Vessel Internals-Wire Mesh Process Design & Engg Cell 92 .

when sizing is governed by vapor-liquid separation criteria.Vessel Internals-Wire Mesh Process Design & Engg Cell They are used for two reasons: To minimize entrainment  Suction drums for reciprocating compressors are the most notable examples To reduce the size of a vessel The allowable vapor velocity in a drum can be increased significantly by using a wire mesh demister. So. this will result in a smaller diameter of the vessel Major disadvantage of wire mesh demisters is: They are not suitable for fouling services 93 .

Important guidelines Inlet / Outlet Nozzle sizing guideline Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 94 .Vessels .

Important guidelines Inlet / Outlet Nozzle sizing guideline Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 95 .Vessels .

Important guidelines Vapor Nozzles sizing guideline Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 96 .Vessels .

Vessels .Important guidelines Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 97 .

Vapor/Liquid Separation TYPICAL LIMITS FOR VAPOR-LIQUID SEPARATOR PARAMETER LOWER LIMIT UPPER LIMIT Process Design & Engg Cell Vessel Diameter.0 (0.005 (0. lb/ft3 (kg/m3) Liquid Density. except for Crude Flash Vessels Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 98 .0) 75 2 20 (13.6) NONE.Drum sizing.05 0. cP or mPa•s CWMS Liquid Loading.2) 0.6) 5 (80) 80 (1280) Surface Tension. lb/ft3 (kg/m3) 0.7 (0. gpm/ft2 (dm3/s•m2) Foaming Tendency 2 0. dynes/cm or mN/m Liquid Viscosity. ft (m) Vapor Density.08) 20 (320) 25 (7.

Liquid/Liquid Separation Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 99 .Process Design & Engg Cell Drum sizing.

Liquid/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 100 .Drum sizing.

85 specific gravity oils Water .004 each phase 0.012 each phase 0.Drum sizing.Naphtha or heating oils Propane .0. Calculate Rising Rate (V) of Light Liquid through Heavy Liquid ---Calculation require droplet diameter DROPLET SIZES System Caustic .005 each phase 0.Liquid/Liquid Separation Major steps for Liquid/Liquid vessel sizing Step1.oil deresining Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel Inches Droplet Diameter Centimeters 0.005 each phase 0.010 each phase 101 .012 each phase 0. Liquid /Liquid Separators are generally horizontal L/D ratio ~ 4:1 or 5:1 Process Design & Engg Cell Step2.

Drum sizing.14 x Δ S0. Calculate Rising Velocity Stokes‘ law (Reynolds number less than 1) V = 8.43 ) Newton‘s law (Reynolds number between 1. Calculate Rising Rate (V) of Light Liquid through Heavy Liquid a.000) V = 2.3 x 105 x d2 x Δ S / uc Intermediate law (Reynolds number between 1 and 1.05 x 103 (d Δ S)0.000 and 200.04 x 104 x d1.71 / ( Sc0.5 / ( Sc ) Where the Reynolds number = 10.7 d V Sc / uc Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 102 .000) V = 1.29 x uc0.Liquid/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell Step3.

But if rising velocity exceeds 10"/min then take 10‖/min. inches per minute d = droplet diameter.Drum sizing. centipoise Process Design & Engg Cell b. Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 103 . inches S = droplet specific gravity Sc = continuous phase specific gravity Δ S = specific gravity differential between phases uc = continuous phase viscosity.7 d V Sc / uc V = settling rate in each phase.Liquid/Liquid Separation Where the Reynolds number = 10. Select Rising velocity based on Re value from point ―a‖.

04 x 104 x d1.7 d V Sc / uc Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 104 .43 ) Newton‘s law (Reynolds number between 1.3 x 105 x d2 x Δ S / uc Intermediate law (Reynolds number between 1 and 1.000 and 200.000) V = 2. Calculate Settling Velocity Stokes‘ law (Reynolds number less than 1) V = 8.14 x Δ S0.Liquid/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell Step4.29 x uc0.71 / ( Sc0.5 / ( Sc ) Where the Reynolds number = 10. Calculate Settling Rate (V) of Heavy Liquid through Light Liquid a.05 x 103 (d Δ S)0.000) V = 1.Drum sizing.

Liquid/Liquid Separation Where the Reynolds number = 10. But if settling velocity exceeds 10"/min then take 10‖/min. inches per minute d = droplet diameter. inches S = droplet specific gravity Sc = continuous phase specific gravity Δ S = specific gravity differential between phases uc = continuous phase viscosity. Select Settling velocity based on Re value from point ―a‖.7 d V Sc / uc V = settling rate in each phase.Drum sizing. Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 105 . centipoise Process Design & Engg Cell b.

Calculate Vessel Diameter D= 2 +1.inches/min D = drum diameter. Calculate ―L‖ Keeping L/D ratio 4:1 to 5:1 Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 106 .Drum sizing.7 (flow rate / V) ½ ―flow rate― = that of light phase. cubic feet per minute V= settling rate of heavy droplet. feet Step6.Liquid/Liquid Separation Step5.

Drum sizing- Liquid/Liquid Separation
Step6. Calculate Low & High Interface levels a. Bottom Tangent Line (BTL) to Low Interface Level (LIL) -----Recommended 12 inches minimum (i) Calculate Height (BTL-LIL)/Radius of Drum (ii) Calculate % Area occupied by BTL-LIL from chart---y b. Bottom Tangent Line (BTL) to High Interface Level (HIL) Low Interface level (LIL) to High interface level (HIL) -----Recommended 14 inches minimum (i) Calculate Height (BTL-HIL)/Radius of Drum (ii) Calculate % Area occupied by BTL-HIL from chart-----x

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Step7. Residence time of Heavy Liquid settling through Light Liquid a. Area between high and low interfaces =(x-y)*0.01*cross sectional area of vessel

b. Residence time of Heavy Liquid between high and low interface level =area in‖a‖*L/Heavy Liquid volume flow

CHECK: Residence time should be more than 2 min

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Liquid/Liquid Separation Step8.Height(BTL-HIL) d.Drum sizing. Heavy Liquid settling time (between top of drum and high interface level) required for separation = Distance ―a‖/ Heavy Liq settling velocity Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 110 . Light phase space settling time a. Process Design & Engg Cell Distance Heavy Liquid must fall from top of drum to High Interface level =Vessel dia .

Light phase Space residence time= Light space volume/Light Liq flow rate CHECK : Light phase space residence time > Heavy Liquid settling time through Light phase Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 111 . Light phase space residence time a.% area occupied below HIL)*Vessel cross sectional area*0. Process Design & Engg Cell Light Space Area =(100 .Drum sizing.01 b.Liquid/Liquid Separation Step9. Light Space volume = Light space area*L c.

Light Liquid rising time (between bottom of drum and low interface level) required for separation = Height (BTL-LIL) /Light Liq rising velocity Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 112 . Process Design & Engg Cell Distance Light Liquid must travel from bottom of drum to low Interface level =Height (BTL-LIL) d.Liquid/Liquid Separation Step10.Drum sizing. Heavy phase space rising time a.

01 b. Heavy phase space residence time a. Heavy Space Area =( % area occupied below LIL)*Vessel cross sectional area*0.Liquid/Liquid Separation Step11. Heavy Space volume = Heavy space area*L c. Heavy phase Space residence time = Heavy space volume/Heavy Liq flow rate CHECK : Heavy phase space residence time > Light Liquid rising time through Heavy phase Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 113 .Drum sizing.

Liquid/Liquid Separation Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 114 .Drum sizing.

Process Design & Engg Cell Drum sizing.Vertical Flash Drum Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 115 .

Drum sizing.Vertical Flash Drum Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 116 .

Vessel Internals-Wire Mesh Process Design & Engg Cell Vapor (Liquid Free) Wire Mesh Liquid Feed Inlet Vapor + Liquid Vapor (Entrained Liquid) 117 .

this will result in a smaller diameter of the vessel Major disadvantage of wire mesh demisters is: They are not suitable for fouling services 118 .Vessel Internals-Wire Mesh Process Design & Engg Cell They are used for two reasons: To minimize entrainment  Suction drums for reciprocating compressors are the most notable examples To reduce the size of a vessel The allowable vapor velocity in a drum can be increased significantly by using a wire mesh demister. when sizing is governed by vapor-liquid separation criteria. So.

b. it is not used much in diameters less than 4 ft. d. allowable factor – 2.Drum sizing. When used. Calculate critical vap velocity Calculate allowable vap velocity ( with CWMS. it would be to prevent large slugs of liquid from going to the compressor. Vessel with CWMS or without CWMS a. and since a crinkled wire mesh pad or screen is fairly expensive. c.Vertical Flash Drum Major steps for Vertical Flash Drum Sizing Step1. Step 2: Calculate with Crinkled Wire Mesh Screen a.0) Calculate min vap area (Vap Flow rate/allowable vap velocity) Calculate minimum diameter 119 Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel . Process Design & Engg Cell The use of a crinkled wire mesh pad or screen would not permit a large reduction in vessel size for vessels lower than 4 ft in diameter.

Calculate min vap area (Vap Flow rate/allowable vap velocity) d.Calculate LLL-HLL height Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 120 .Calculate minimum diameter Step4.Vertical Flash Drum Step3.Calculate allowable vap velocity ( without CWMS. Calculate critical vap velocity Process Design & Engg Cell b. Calculate without Crinkled Wire Mesh Screen a.Drum sizing.Consider liquid hold–up time (between LLL-HLL) as per standard b. Liquid surge volume and height calculation a. allowable factor – 1.0) c.

Height (LLL to Bottom Tangent line)– min recommended 0. Total Drum Height Calculated Process Design & Engg Cell g.Vertical Flash Drum Step5. Height (Vessel top tangent line to top of inlet nozzle) .5 ft c.5 ft f. Height of CWMS (if there) b.as per previous table. Height of inlet +elbow . Height (HLL-LLL) f.min recommended 2.Drum sizing. Check L/D . Drum height a. If L/D is not OK. Height HLL to bottom of Inlet nozzle – min recommended 1 ft e. calculate with new Dia Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 121 .5 ft d.min recommended 2.

Vertical KOD Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 122 .Process Design & Engg Cell Drum sizing.

Vertical KOD Major steps for Vertical KOD Sizing Step1. it is not used much in diameters less than 4 ft. When used. Vessel with CWMS or without CWMS a. and since a crinkled wire mesh pad or screen is fairly expensive.0) Calculate min vap area (Vap Flow rate/allowable vap velocity) Calculate minimum diameter 123 Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel . b. c. Calculate critical vap velocity Calculate allowable vap velocity ( with CWMS. allowable factor – 2. Process Design & Engg Cell The use of a crinkled wire mesh pad or screen would not permit a large reduction in vessel size for vessels lower than 4 ft in diameter.Drum sizing. d. Step 2: Calculate with Crinkled Wire Mesh Screen a. it would be to prevent large slugs of liquid from going to the compressor.

c.Consider liquid hold–up time (between LLL-HLL) – min recommended 24 hrs b.5 ft Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 124 .0) d. Calculate allowable vap velocity ( without CWMS. Calculate critical vap velocity Calculate min vap area (Vap Flow rate/allowable vap velocity) Process Design & Engg Cell b.Calculate LLL-HLL height – min recommended 1.Drum sizing. Calculate minimum diameter Step4. Liquid surge volume and height calculation a. Calculate without Crinkled Wire Mesh Screen a.Vertical KOD Step3. allowable factor – 1.

Drum height a. Total Drum Height Calculated h. Height HLL to bottom of Inlet nozzle – min recommended 1 ft e. Height of CWMS (if there) Process Design & Engg Cell b.min recommended 2. Height of inlet +elbow .typical L/D for KOD is 2:1 Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 125 . Height (HLL-LLL) – min recommended for KOD is 1. Height (Vessel top tangent line to top of inlet nozzle) . Check L/D .5 ft c.min recommended 2.Drum sizing. Height (LLL to Bottom Tangent line)– min recommended 0.5 ft g.5 ft f.Vertical KOD Step5.5 ft d.

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Drum sizing- Flare KOD
Typical Flare KOD

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d. Drum Dia = maxm vap space height b. b. Check L/D ratio– within 3:1 to 5:1 a.Generally zero(0) Residence time – Vapor Space height / Allowable velocity Find vapor volume = maxm vap Flow rate/residence time = drum volume a.Flare KOD Major steps for Flare KOD Sizing Process Design & Engg Cell Step1. f. Garvity of HC liq from chart at 3200F and 19 psia Dropout Velocity(VD) -. Find drum length c. c.0 for conservative case Assume vapor space Height (HLL-top of drum) Liquid space Height (BTL-HLL). Drum sizing based on maximum single risk vapor load condition Sp. g. e. Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 129 .Critical velocity Allowable Velocity (VA) – Generally 1.Drum sizing.

Drum sizing.Flare KOD Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 130 .

Maximum liquid relief load after flash at operating condn – generally 3200F and 19 psia b. Pump capacity for liquid out d. Liq flow time – Generally 2 hrs recommended c. Check Drum sizing based on maximum liquid relief condition a.Drum sizing. Net liq fill up volume= ―d‖ * ―b‖ f. Find Drum volumetric capacity = 3. recalculate Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 131 .14*0. Net Liq fill up flow = ―a*b‖ – ―c‖ e.25*D2*L ( using D & L calculated in Step-1) CHECK: Net Liq Fill up Volume (for maxm liquid relief condition) <= 50% of Drum Volumetric capacity( for maxm vapor load condition) If not satisfied.Flare KOD Process Design & Engg Cell Step2.

Example Drum sizing.Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 132 .

Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 133 .Example Drum sizing.

Example Drum sizing.Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 134 .

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Drum sizing- Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation

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Example Drum sizing.Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 138 .

Example Drum sizing.Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 139 .

Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 140 .Example Drum sizing.

Example Drum sizing.Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 141 .

Example Drum sizing.Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 142 .

Vapor/Liq/Liq Separation Process Design & Engg Cell Process Design Basics of Pressure Vessel 143 .Example Drum sizing.

Process Design & Engg Cell 144 .

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