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AIDA L. PALOMAR JUNJEN L. PALOMAR
Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately17,508 islands. It has 34 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an elected legislature and president. The nation's capital city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Other countries include Singapore, Philippines, Australia, Palau, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 1/21/13 Indonesia is a founding member of ASEAN and a
Conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia Conventional short form: Indonesia Local long form: Local short form: Former: Indies FACTS ABOUT INDONESIA Republik Indonesia Indonesia Netherlands East Indies.) Government Type: Official Language: Population: 1/21/13 .008 (July 2012 est.645. Dutch East Capital: Jakarta Republic Bahasa Indonesia 248.
NATION AL SYMBOL Click to edit Master subtitle style 1/21/13 .
1/21/13 .NATIONA L FLAG The Indonesian national flag is called Sang Saka Merah Putih or Click white treasure." Two equal horizontal bands of red "the red andto edit Master subtitle style (top) and white. red symbolizes courage. the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries. white represents purity.
an ancient. Click to edit Masterthe country's historical epics. the Garuda is often used to represent Indonesia. Like the Bald mythical bird from subtitle style Eagle in the United States.NATIONA L EMBLEM Indonesia's official coat of arms is centered on the Garuda. 1/21/13 .
A great deal of symbolism runs through the Garuda. The eagle is a symbol of creative energy. Its principal color, gold, symbolizes the greatness of the nation. The black color represents nature. There are 17 feathers on each wing, 8 on the tail and 45 on the neck. These numbers stand for the date Indonesia proclaimed its independence: 17 August 1945. The shield symbolizes self-defense and protection in struggle. The five symbols on the shield represent the state philosophy of Pancasila. The motto Bhinneka Tunggal Ika ("Unity in Diversity") is enshrined on a 1/21/13
The national anthem is called Indonesia Raya, which means "Great Indonesia." The song was composed by Wage Rudolf Supratman at the second All Indonesian YouthClick to edit Master subtitle style 1928 in Batavia, Congress in October now Jakarta. It was at this moment when Indonesian youth of different ethnic, linguistic, religious, and cultural backgrounds resolutely pledged allegiance to: One native land, Indonesia; 1/21/13 One nation, the Indonesian nation;
Pancasila is a creed that Indonesia's first leader, President Sukarno,Click to editon June 1, 1945. style presented Master subtitle To this day, it remains the philosophical basis of the Indonesian state.
Democracy guided by the inner wisdom in the unanimity arising out of deliberations amongst representatives 5.PANCASILA • Pancasila is based on two Sanskrit words: panca. 1. 1/21/13 Social justice for the whole of the people of Indonesia . which means "principles. Belief in the one and only God Just and civilized humanity The unity of Indonesia 2. 1. or "five. 3." It stands for the five inseparable and interrelated principles at the heart of Indonesia." and sila.
HISTO RY 1/21/13 .
what is today called 'Java Man' inhabited Indonesia as early as two million to 500. 1/21/13 .000 years ago. 'Java Man' is a short name for Pithecanthropus Erectus . a human-like species whose fossilized remains were discovered by the scientist Eugene Dubois on the island of Java.ANCIENT TIME • Historians believe that Indonesia was linked with the Asian mainland during the Pleistocene period (four million BC). This period was also related to the first appearance of the Hominids.
Today. Ruled by indigenous Rajas who embraced the Hindu and Buddhist religions. It lasted from ancient history to the 15th century 1/21/13 . this time in history is called the period of BuddhistHindu Kingdoms. Indonesia developed many wellorganized kingdoms. these kingdoms grew very civilized.BUDDHIST AND HINDU KINGDOMS • Much later.
BUDDHIST AND HINDU KINGDOMS • The first Buddhists arrived in Indonesia from around 100 to 200 AD from India. The mightiest Hindu kingdom in Indonesia's ancient history was the Majapahit Empire. the empire enjoyed tributary relationships with territories as far away as Vietnam. and 1/21/13 the Philippines. Cambodia. . During this period. The dynasty's replacement. the famous Buddhist temple at Borobudur was built. Under the reign of King Hayam Wuruk (1331-1364 AD). One of the most famous Buddhist kingdoms in Indonesian history is Sailendra (750-850 AD). the Hindu kingdom of Mataram began the era of Hindu kingdoms.
BOROBUDUR TEMPLE 1/21/13 .
BOROBUDUR TEMPLE 1/21/13 .
particularly in the coastal areas of Java. and the east part of Lombok.ISLAM ARRIVES • Gujarati and Persian merchants who embraced Islam started to visit Indonesia in the 13th century. Islam also expanded to into Banjarmasin. Along with trade. Minangkabau. and Perlak. Besides those areas. they introduced Islam to the Indonesian Hindus. Palembang. Pasai. Ternate and Tidore in the northern part of Maluku. 1/21/13 . Islam then spread further east to the Bone and Goa Sultanates in Sulawesi.
the Dutch enjoyed a trade monopoly in the "Spice Islands. in search for spices." EUROPEIAN PERIOD 1/21/13 .• European influence in Indonesia began when the Portuguese. Both the Portuguese and the Spanish spread Christianity in Indonesia. Meanwhile. After the seizure of Ambon in Maluku (1605) and Banda Island (1623). the Dutch established an organized merchant trade called Dutch East India Company (VOC) in 1602 to tap the rich spices territories. landed in 1512.
• In 1814 the British came to Indonesia. the Indonesian archipelago once again became a Dutch possession in 1815. After the fall of Napoleon. Thus. Indonesians had been fighting for their 1/21/13 EUROPEIAN PERIOD • . Throughout the period of colonization. During the Napoleonic wars in Europe. when Holland was occupied by France. Indonesia fell under the rule of the British East India Company. the British and Dutch signed a convention in which it was agreed that Dutch colonial possession dating from 1803 onwards should be returned to the Dutch administration in Batavia (present-day Jakarta).
Indonesian national leaders Soekarno and Dr. the Japanese occupied the Dutch East Indies after the surrender of the Dutch colonial army in March 1942.INDEPENDENCE • When World War II broke out. and was heard by thousands of Indonesians nationwide 1/21/13 through a secret radio broadcast from a captured . To Indonesia's leaders. 1945. on August 14.56. Mohamad Hatta proclaimed Indonesia's independence on behalf of the Indonesian people. The proclamation took place at Jalan Pengangsaan Timur No. On 17 August 1945. the power vacuum in Jakarta looked like an open window of opportunity to proclaim their independence. the Japanese surrendered to the Allied Forces. Three years later. Jakarta.
CULTURE Click to edit Master subtitle style and RELIGI 1/21/13 .
born on August 17..Majapahit. The modern Republic of Indonesia . 1945. one of the earliest archaelogical discoveries of human life named "Java Man. the islands have been known by many different names...... Indeed. Indonesia 1/21/13 is home to nearly 300 separate linguistic groups. But it embraces a people whose roots stretch deep into antiquity..“ One way of grasping the successive waves of human settlement shaping Indonesian history is to observe the composition of Indonesia's 180 million citizens as they are today...Spice Islands. Dutch East Indies. CULTURE AND RELIGION • .. over the centuries. In all. may be relatively young among the world's roster of nations..• Srivijaya.Mataram...
. famed for their changeless ways. dispersing throughout the archipelago in widely varying family structures and language groups. the Malay people split into dozens of smaller subgroups.... the Minahasan people of North Sulawesi. the people of Bali. the most numerous and culturally influential within Indonesia today are the Javanese.. The Bugis and Makassars of South Sulawesi. and of course. But equally enduring cultural traditions are to be found among the Sundanese of West Java.• Historically. Of these.. 1/21/13 CULTURE AND RELIGION • . inhabitant of Central Java.
with 1/21/13 property passed from mother to daughter.. the Dayaks of Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of Borneo).. rather CULTURE AND RELIGION • . and dozens of other tribes of Irian Jaya (the Indonesian province on the island of New Guinea) are of Melanesian stock. Asmat.whose matrilineal society is ruled by women. and the Batak of North Sumatra.. each represent groups of distinct ethnic origins and customs. The Dani.. Indonesia even has one large ethnic subgroup -the Minangkabau of West Sumatra -. The people of Nusa Tenggara (Lesser Sunda) islands.• Indonesia also is home to a rich tapestry of other ethnically distinct indigenous people.
• With diverse traditions of social organization and cultural development in place for hundreds of years.are widespread throughout Indonesia. Traditional forms -. Indonesia's people naturally provide a rich and varied mosaic of artistic and cultural activities in all forms of expressions.most notably its fabled textiles. They are still being learned from childhood -. The lively arts -.music and dance -.and performed actively -. Indonesia's graphic arts -.especially gamelan music from Java and dance from Bali -.to this day.have long been known beyond the borders of Indonesia. including Javanese 1/21/13 and ikat weavings from Sumatra and the batik CULTURE AND RELIGION • .
the newly-formed republic decided following independence that a single. fashioned in unique design motifs from wood and stone. To this day. founded on the traditional Malay language. rendered prolifically in ceremonial objects. But "Bahasa Indonesia" (which gained formal recognition in the 1920s. Nias and Asmat peoples -. nationwide language was essential as a meands of uniting Indonesia's people. Dayak.• Many of Indonesia's smaller ethnic groups -particularly the Batak. local dialects can still be heard in villages throughout the archipelago.have developed a strongly characteristic form of artistic expression. which is also today's official language in neighboring Malaysia) has met 1/21/13 CULTURE AND RELIGION . In the face of such ethnic diversity. standard.
CULTURE AND RELIGION • . Each of the country's four major religions is honored with at least one 1/21/13 national holiday every year. Indonesia has more Moslem adherents than the entire Arab world. In spite of this. all major religions continue to be practiced throughout the country. Today. a freedom guaranteed by national law. Hinduism and Christianity. the country's dominant religion is Islam. In successive phases. with over 85 percent of the population following the Islamic faith. Buddhism. Indeed. Indonesia was influenced by the spread of Animism.• The patterns characterizing Indonesia's ethnic history can also be seen in the country's religious development.
Prambanan -. CULTURE AND RELIGION 1/21/13 . the largest of its Islamic mosques. the city's Roman Catholic cathedral and Istiqlal. Meanwhile. the world's most magnificent Buddhist temple.• Today.in Central Java. can be found only a few miles from one of Hinduism's most important historic shrines -. in modern downtown Jakarta. Borobudur. stand only a few hundred meters apart.
to which it has held firmly CULTURE AND RELIGION . Under the "New Order" government of President Suharto. the nation's founding president. following several years of "growing pains" -. however.characterized by intense cathartic internal struggles -. the early years of the new republic were focused on forging a consensus of national unity and basic political orientation under the leadership of Sukarno.• Because Indonesia achieved national independence through revolution.Indonesia succeeded in resolving its early difficulties. the country launched itself briskly on a path of pragmatic 1/21/13 growth and development. The first two decades following independence were marked by political and economic turbulence not uncommon among countries in the initial stages of nation building. By the late 1960's. including a period of severe political volatility in 1965-1966.
POLITI CS 1/21/13 .
Following the resignation of President Suharto in 1998. policy-making. The 2004 presidential election was the 1/21/13 . judicial. The president of Indonesia is the head of state. power is concentrated in the central government.POLITICS • Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. and foreign affairs. As a unitary state. and the director of domestic governance. Indonesian political and governmental structures have undergone major reforms. The president appoints a council of ministers. and legislative branches. who are not required to be elected members of the legislature. Four amendments to the 1945 Constitution of Indonesia have revamped the executive. commander-in-chief of the Indonesian National Armed Forces.
and the Regional Representative Council (DPD). with 132 members. inaugurating the president. party-aligned members are elected for five-year terms by proportional representation. The MPR comprises two houses. It has the power to impeach the president. The DPR passes legislation and monitors the executive branch. Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution. and formalizing broad outlines of state policy.POLITICS • The highest representative body at national level is the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR). with 560 members. Reforms since 1998 have 1/21/13 markedly increased the DPR's role in national . the People's Representative Council (DPR).
and hears final cessation appeals and conducts case reviews. dissolution of political parties. a Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) to hear disputes concerning legality of law. appeals are heard before the High Court (Pengadilan Tinggi). a State Administrative Court (Pengadilan Tata Negara) to hear administrative law cases against the government. and the scope of authority of state institutions. and a 1/21/13 Religious Court (Pengadilan Agama) to deal with . general elections.POLITICS • Most civil disputes appear before a State Court (Pengadilan Negeri). which handles bankruptcy and insolvency. Other courts include the Commercial Court. The Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung) is the country's highest court.
Bali Island BA LI 1/21/13 .
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During the global financial crisis.1% and 6. including tax and customs reforms.ECONOMY • Indonesia. resulting in a debt-to-GDP ratio of less 1/21/13 than 25%. a small current account surplus. a . a vast polyglot nation.4% in 2010 and 2011. respectively. The government made economic advances under the first administration of President YUDHOYONO (2004-09). The government has promoted fiscally conservative policies. Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth in 2009. introducing significant reforms in the financial sector. the use of Treasury bills. grew an estimated 6. and capital market development and supervision.
and reducing its fuel subsidy program in the face of rising oil prices. and unequal resource distribution among regions. corruption. The government in 2012 faces the ongoing challenge of improving Indonesia's insufficient infrastructure to remove impediments to economic growth.ECONOMY • Fitch and Moody's upgraded Indonesia's credit rating to investment grade in December 2011. 1/21/13 . inadequate infrastructure. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment. labor unrest over wages. a complex regulatory environment.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.125 trillion (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 16 $1.056 trillion (2010 est.) $994.8 billion (2009 est.) note: data are in 2011 US dollars GDP (official exchange rate): $832.9 billion (2011 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 38 6.2% (2010 est.) 4.6% (2009 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $4,700 (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 157 $4,400 (2010 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 14.7% industry: 47.2% services: 38.1% (2011 est.)
117.4 million (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 5
Labor force - by occupation:
1/21/13 industry: 12.8%
1% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 70 7.) Population below poverty line: 12.5% (2011 est.ECONOMY • Unemployment rate: 6.) • Household income or consumption by percentag : 1/21/13 • .6% (2011 est.
) country comparison to the world: 13 Budget: revenues: $138 billion expenditures: $147.ECONOMY • Investment (gross fixed): 32% of GDP (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 186 • • • 1/21/13 Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): .7 billion (2011 est.) Taxes and other revenues: 16.6% of GDP (2011 est.
) country comparison to the world: 186 • • • 1/21/13 Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): .ECONOMY • Investment (gross fixed): 32% of GDP (2011 est.) Taxes and other revenues: 16.) country comparison to the world: 13 Budget: revenues: $138 billion expenditures: $147.6% of GDP (2011 est.7 billion (2011 est.
• • • 1/21/13cassava rice.) Agriculture .) country comparison to the world: 140 5.1% of GDP (2011 est.4% (2011 est.ECONOMY • Public debt: 24. peanuts. . cocoa.1% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 120 25.7% of GDP (2010 est. rubber.products: (manioc).) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.
textiles. plywood. cement. footwear. rubber.) country comparison to the world: 77 Current account balance: $2. apparel. food.1% (2011 est. mining.146 billion (2010 est. chemical fertilizers.) .069 billion (2011 est.ECONOMY • Industries: petroleum and natural gas. tourism • Industrial production growth rate: 4.) country comparison to the world: 41 • 1/21/13 $5.
1 billion (2010 est.) Exports . rubber • Exports .) country comparison to the world: 27 $158. electrical appliances. plywood. South Korea 8. textiles.4% 1/21/13 (2011) .1%.commodities: • oil and gas.6%.6%. India 6.5 billion (2011 est. China 11. US 8.1%. Singapore 9.3%.ECONOMY • Exports: $201.1%. Malaysia 5.partners: Japan 16.
6%. foodstuffs • Imports .) Imports .1 billion (2011 est. fuels. Malaysia 1/21/13(2011) 5. Japan 11%. Singapore 14. South Korea 7. Thailand 5.ECONOMY • Imports: $166.4 billion (2010 est.8%.9% .partners: China 14.commodities: • machinery and equipment.3%.1%.) country comparison to the world: 30 $127. chemicals. US 6.9%.
1 billion (31 December 2010 est.7 billion (31 December 2011 est.ECONOMY • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $110.) • 1/21/13 Stock of direct foreign investment .21 billion (2010 est.at home : .) country comparison to the world: 32 $179.) country comparison to the world: 21 $96.external: $190.) • Debt .1 billion (2011 est.
abroad: $40.4 (2010 est.85 billion (31 December 2010 est.ECONOMY • Stock of direct foreign investment .) country comparison to the world: 37 $32.090.57 billion (31 December 2011 est.698.9 (2008) .) 10.389.4 (2011 est.) 9.9 (2009) • 1/21/13 9.) Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar 8.770.
EDUCATI ON 1/21/13 .
In Indonesia. 1/21/13 • . Islamic schools are under the responsibility of the Ministry of Religious Affairs.EDUCATION Education in Indonesia is under the responsibility of the Ministry of Education and Culture (Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan orKemdikbud) and the Ministry of Religious Affairs (Kementerian Agama or Kemenag). all citizens must undertake nine years of compulsory education which consists of six years at elementary level and three in secondary level.
1/21/13 Formal education is further divided into • . consciousness. The Constitution also notes that education in Indonesia is divided into two major parts. formal and non-formal. other citizens and for the nation. behavior and creativity to him/herself.EDUCATION Education is defined as a planned effort to establish a study environment and education process so that the student may actively develop his/her own potential to gain the religious and spiritual level. personality. intelligence.
EDUCATION • Schools in Indonesia are run either by the government (negeri) or private sectors (swasta). especially with the use of English as medium of instruction or having an international-based curriculum instead of the national one. 1/21/13 . Some private schools refer to themselves as "national plus schools" which means that they intend to go beyond the minimum government requirements.
1/21/13 HISTORY OF EDUCATI ON .
Karsyan is a place of hermitage. aimed to draw oneself closer to God 1/21/13 .Early Kingdoms • Education system in the era of HinduBuddhist civilization is called karsyan. This method is highly religious.
At this time period. The location of pesantren is mostly faraway from the hustling crowd of the city. 1/21/13 . a type of Islamic boarding school was introduced and several of them were established.Era of Islamic States • The emergence of Islamic state in Indonesia is noted by the acculturation of both Islamic tradition and Hindu-Buddhist tradition. pondok pesantren. resembling the location of Karsyan.
Bali Island COMO DO ISLAN D 1/21/13 .
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the embryo of what is called Sekolah Dasar (lit. folk school). some of these Dutch-founded schools opened the doors for bumiputera (lit. They were called Sekolah Rakjat (lit. Initially. with the growth of Dutch Ethical Policy formulated by Conrad Theodor van Deventer. native Indonesians). elementary school) 1/21/13 today. it was reserved for the Dutch (and other Europeans) only. • .Colonial Era Elementary education was introduced by the Dutch in Indonesia during the colonial era. In 1870.
The system they introduced was roughly similar to the current structure.Colonial Era • The Dutch introduced a system of formal education for the local population of Indonesia.Middle School AMS (Dutch: Algeme(e)ne Middelbare School) High School or College • • 1/21/13 • . although this was restricted to certain privileged children. with the following levels: • ELS (Dutch: Europeesche Lagere School) Primary School for Europeans HIS (Dutch: Hollandsch-Inlandsche School) Primary School for Natives MULO (Dutch: Meer Uitgebreid Lager Onderwijs) .
The Dutch colonial government also established a number of universities for native Indonesian on the island of Java. Ahmad Dahlan founded Muhammadiyah in November 1912. • School tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Artsen or STOVIA. such as: 1. Pesantrens were also mushrooming rapidly during this time period. Nederland-Indische . a medical school in Batavia Artsen School or NIAS. and Ki Hajar Dewantara founded Taman Siswa in July 1922. a 1/21/13 2.Colonial Era • The segregation between Dutch and Indonesian in Education pushed several Indonesian figures to start educational institutions for local people.
1/21/13 . or THS. the Dutch had introduced limited formal education to nearly every province of the Dutch East Indies. By the 1930s.Colonial Era 3. a law school in Batavia De Technische Hoges School. Rechts Hoge School. a technic school in Bandoeng 4.
Recent History Great progress has been made toward the goal of universal education since 1973.000 primary-school facilities by the late 1980s. During 1997–98. the financial crisis affected the poorest families the most. and literacy rates improved significantly nationwide. Government funding struggled to keep up with rising costs during this period. when nearly 20 percent of youth were illiterate. thenPresident Suharto issued an order to set aside portions of oil revenues for the construction of new primary schools. This act resulted in the construction or repair of nearly 40. At that time. resulting in their selectively cutting back on their education expenditures. according to the World Bank. but by 2002. only 1/21/13 2 percent of those between the ages of 15 and 24 .
known as PAUD (Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini).35% of them are privately operated schools. 99. they attend kindergarten (Taman Kanak-Kanak). This education is not compulsory for Indonesian citizens. The kindergarten years are usually divided into "Class A" and "Class B" students spending a year in each class. From the age of 4. some children in Indonesia attend pre-school playgroup.Early Education From the age of 2. Of the 49.000 kindergartens in Indonesia. as it is aimed to prepare them for Primary Schooling. 1/21/13 .
nonsectarian public schools supervised by the Department of National Education (Depdiknas) or private or semiprivate religious (usually Islamic) schools supervised and financed by the Department of Religious Affairs. 1/21/13 . according to the 2000 census only 15 percent of school-age individuals attended religious schools. Overall enrollment figures are slightly higher for girls than boys and much higher in Java than the rest of Indonesia. However.Public Primary and Secondary Education Indonesians are required to attend nine years of school.1 percent of the Indonesian population is registered as Muslim. although 86. They can choose between state-run.
national unity. . Children age six and older learned by rote its five principles—belief in one God. a key feature of the national curriculum—as was the case for other national institutions—has been instruction in the Pancasila. and social justice—and were instructed daily to apply 1/21/13 the meanings of this key national symbol to their lives. and its moral and ideological foundations. Beginning under Guided Democracy (1959–65) and strengthened in the New Order after 1975.Public Primary and Secondary Education A central goal of the national education system is not merely to impart secular wisdom about the world but also to instruct children in the principles of participation in the modern nation-state. humanitarianism. its bureaucracies. democracy.
and Pancasila began to play a diminishing role in the curriculum. a standard teaching 1/21/13 . by the third year of primary school nearly all instruction is conducted in Indonesian. A style of pedagogy prevails inside public-school classrooms that emphasizes rote learning and deference to the authority of the teacher. Teachers customarily do not ask questions of individual students. rather. Although the youngest children are sometimes allowed to use their local language. provincial and district-level administrators obtained increasing autonomy in determining the content of schooling.Public Primary and Secondary Education But with the end of the New Order in 1998 and the beginning of the campaign to decentralize the national government.
Students spend six years in primary school. Most elementary schools are government-operated public schools. accounting for nearly 93% of all elementary schools in Indonesia. called Sekolah Dasar (SD). teachers are said to show themselves to be sabar (patient). Children aged 6–11 attend primary school. which is considered admirable behavior.Public Primary and Secondary Education By not identifying individual problems of students and retaining an emotionally distanced demeanor. though some schools offer an accelerated learning program in which students who perform well can complete the level in five years. 1/21/13 .
There are academic and vocational junior high schools that lead to senior-level diplomas. or SMP) may be followed by three years of senior secondary school (Sekolah Menengah Atas or SMA. There are also "domestic science" junior high schools for girls.).Public Primary and Secondary Education • Three years of middle school (Sekolah Menengah Pertama. After completion of the six-year primary-school program. or SMP) follow elementary school. each level of which requires three years of study. three years of junior secondary school (Sekolah Menengah Pertama. At 1/21/13 • . or students can choose among a variety of vocational and preprofessional junior and senior secondary schools (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan or SMK).
legal clerking.Public Primary and Secondary Education • Special schools at the junior and senior levels teach hotel management. Indeed. plastic arts. Students with disabilities/special needs may alternately opt to be enrolled in a separate school from the mainstream called Sekolah Luar Biasa (lit. There were nearly equal numbers of girls • • . 100 percent of the relevant agegroup had completed primary education as of 2003. The completion rate for Indonesian primary schools is high. but it decreased to 62 percent for secondary schools and 16 percent for postsecondary 1/21/13 schools. The gross enrollment rate for primary schools was 100 percent. Extraordinary School). and music.
5 million teachers.9 million students and 629.9 million students and 1. with a total enrollment of 3. with a total enrollment of 26. Later statistics are available for primary and secondary levels for school year 2008–9.228 primary schools.8 million students and 314. with a total enrollment of 2.Public Primary and Secondary Education • Depdiknas reported that in school year 2007–8 there were 63.762 general senior secondary schools.444 kindergartens.777 junior secondary schools. and 7.018 teachers. with a total enrollment of 3 million students and 246.686 special education schools from . Additionally. 1/21/13 there were 1. with a total enrollment of 8. They indicate that there were 144. 10.036 teachers.389 teachers.061 teachers.592 vocational senior secondary schools. 28.8 million pupils and 176.
Public Primary and Secondary Education • Teacher-training programs are varied and gradually being upgraded. Since the 1970s. compares favorably with that in other Asian countries such as Malaysia.8 to 1. and Thailand. India. For example. primary-school teachers have been required to have graduated from a senior high school for teachers. Remuneration for primary.and secondary-school teachers. however. and teachers of higher grades have been required to have completed a university-level education course.4 to 1 and 18. Student– teacher ratios also compare satisfactorily with those in many Asian nations: They were 23. respectively. although low. in the 1950s anyone completing a teacher-training program at the junior high school level could obtain a teacher’s certificate. for primary and secondary schools in 1/21/13 .
In many remote areas of the Outer Islands. in particular. or supplies. 1/21/13 . there is a severe shortage of qualified teachers. but serious difficulties remain. Providing textbooks and other school equipment to Indonesia’s 37 million schoolchildren throughout the far-flung archipelago continues to be a significant problem as well. books.Public Primary and Secondary Education • By 2008 the staff shortage in Indonesia's schools was no longer as acute as in the 1980s. and some villages have school buildings but no teachers. and finding qualified personnel. teacher certification. particularly in the areas of teacher salaries. especially in more remote areas.
The first commences in July and ends in December while the latter commences in January and ends in June. 1/21/13 .School Grades • The school year is divided into two semesters.
Level/Grade Preschool Pre-school playgroup Kindergarten Primary School 1st Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade 4th Grade 5th Grade 1/21/13 Typical age 3-4 4-6 6–7 7–8 8–9 9–10 10–11 11–12 6th Grade .
4th Grade or University) Sophomore.Level/Grade Typical age Middle School Preschool 7th grade 12-13 Pre-school playgroup 3-4 8th Grade 13-14 9th Grade 14-15 Kindergarten 4-6 High School Primary School 10th Grade 15–16 11th Grade 16–17 1st Grade 6–7 12th Grade 17–18 Post-secondary education 2nd Grade 7–8 Ages vary (usually four 3rd Grade 8–9 years. Junior and Senior years) 5th Grade 10–11 Graduate education 1/21/13 6th Grade 11–12 Adult education . Tertiary education (College referred to as 9–10 Freshman.
Rajah Ampat 1/21/13 .
the Arabic language. they . Students can enter and leave the pesantren any time of the year. pesantren are attended by young people seeking a detailed understanding of the Quran. Although the chief 1/21/13 aim of pesantren is to produce good Muslims. Usually located in rural areas and directed by a Muslim scholar.Islamic Schools • The secular and nationalist emphasis in public schools has been resisted by some of the Muslim majority. mathematics. and geography. as well as more modern subjects such as English. or Islamic school. the sharia. A distinct and vocal minority of these Muslims prefer to place their children in a pesantren. and the studies are not organized as a progression of courses leading to graduation. and Muslim traditions and history.
religion. the majority of these schools in Indonesia are theologically moderate. Bali. and family life. a sixth-grade equivalency 1/21/13 certificate is available after successful completion of . reflecting the views of the Indonesian population as a whole.Islamic Schools • Some pesantren emphasize the autonomy of modern students to think for themselves and to interpret scripture and modern knowledge in a way that is consistent with the teachings of Islam. Although the terrorist bombings in Kuta. including their teachings on science. For those who opt for a pesantren education. in 2002 raised suspicions about whether pesantren promote extremist views. Others are more traditional and stress the importance of following the wisdom of elders.
in the 1970s the Muslim-dominated Department of Religion (now the Department of Religious Affairs) advocated the spread of a newer variety of Muslim school. Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs) is the 1/21/13 Islamic schooling equivalent of SMP. This kind of school integrates religious subjects from the pesantren with secular subjects from the Western-style publiceducation system. among Islamic schools a madrassa is ranked lower than a pesantren.Islamic Schools • In order for students to adapt to life in the modern nation-state. Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI) is the Islamic schooling alternative to SD. Madrasah • . the madrassa. Although in general the public believes that Islamic schools offer lower-quality education. following a curriculum with more focus on Arabic and Islam.
Both are supervised by the Ministry of National Education.Higher Education • The higher education institution is categorized into two types: public and private. Indonesia's institutions of higher education have experienced dramatic growth since independence. There are four types of higher education institution: universities. institutes.5 million students. and by 1990 there were 900 institutions with about 141. By 2009 there were 2.975 1/21/13 institutions of higher education and more • .500 students. and polytechnics. In 1950 there were 10 institutions of higher learning with a total of about 6.000 students. In 1970.000 teachers and nearly 1. academies. 450 private and state institutions enrolled about 237.
Most of the 6. In particular. Gadjah 1/21/13 • . These foreign students are dispersed across Indonesia in almost all government universities such as Universitas Sumatera Utara. Islamic studies and engineering and the majority are sponsored by the Malaysian government. The government provides only limited scholarship support for students wishing to attend private universities.000 foreign students studying in Indonesian universities hail from Malaysia. humanities.Higher Education • Universities with a religious affiliation may receive donations or grants from religious organisations. literature. University of Indonesia. they are in the fields of medicine. pharmacy.
Indonesian Degrees Type of degree Diploma 1 (D1) Indonesian term Equivalent in English-speaking countries Associate degree Associate degree Profesional ahli pratama Diploma 2 (D2) Profesional ahli muda Diploma 3 (D3) Profesional ahli madya Associate degree Diploma 4 (D4) Sarjana sains terapan Bachelor's degree Sarjana 1 (S1) Sarjana Bachelor's degree Sarjana 2 (S2) Magister Master's degree Sarjana 3 (S3) Doktor Doctoral degree 1/21/13 .
MAJOR EDUCATI ON PROBLEM 1/21/13 .
16% districts have GER < 80%) 1/21/13 . Inequity problem .Problems in Education 1. & commitment to teach • School facilities • School management 2. quality. Education quality • Disparity of quality among schools • Teacher deployment.the higher the level of education the larger the gap of enrollment • Between the poor and the rich • Among districts (while the national GER of JSS is 96.18%.
TERIM A 1/21/13 .
THAN K 1/21/13 .