This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
TECHNICAL SEMINAR Presented by Sangeetha Nandan (1ay05cs057)
Cognitive radio is a paradigm for wireless communication in which either a network or a wireless node changes its transmission or reception parameters to communicate efficiently avoiding interference with licensed or unlicensed users. This alteration of parameters is based on the active monitoring of several factors in the external and internal radio environment, such as radio frequency spectrum, user behavior and network state.
ARCHITECTURE OF CR
frequency and space) in order to identify subchannels currently available for transmission. Physical Layer Functions 1) Spectrum Sensing: The main function of the physical layer is to sense the spectrum over all available degrees of freedom (time.A. .
The transmission parameters (transmit power.) are determined based on the channel sounding results . bit rate.2) Channel Estimation In order to set up the link. channel sounding is used to estimate the quality of sub-channels between SUs that want to communicate. etc. coding.
low to high order QAM). different channel coding schemes. Therefore it should have the ability to operate at variable symbol rates.g. capacity increase (MIMO) or range extension . modulation formats (e.3) Data Transmission CR’s optimally uses the available spectrum as determined by the spectrum sensing and channel estimation functions. power levels and be able to use multiple antennas for interference nulling.
Link Layer Functions Group Management It is assumed that any secondary station will belong to a SU Group. all Sub-Channels used by one SU Link cannot be used by any other SU Link this problem comes down to a simple token-passing algorithm ensuring that only one of the two communication peers is using the link . A newly arriving user can either join one of the existing groups or create a new one through the Universal Control Channel.B. Link Management covers the setup of a link in order to enable the communication between two SUs and afterwards the maintenance of this SU Link for the duration of the communication.e. i. Medium Access Control As long as it can be assured that all Sub-Channels are used exclusively. .
The main two are: Full cognitive radio Spectrum sensing cognitive radio .Types of Cognitive Radio Depending on the set of parameters taken into account in deciding on transmission and reception changes. we can distinguish certain types of cognitive radio.
(Contd. we can distinguish: Licensed Band Cognitive Radio (IEEE 802.22) Unlicensed Band Cognitive Radio (IEEE 802.15) .) depending on the parts of the spectrum available for cognitive radio.
FUNCTIONS OF CR The main functions of Cognitive Radios are: Spectrum Sensing : detecting the unused spectrum and sharing it without harmful interference with other users. .
(Contd.) Spectrum sensing techniques can be classified into three categories: ◦ Transmitter detection: cognitive radios must have the capability to determine if a signal from a primary transmitter is locally present in a certain spectrum. there are several approaches proposed: matched filter detection energy detection cyclostationary feature detection .
with an unknown signal to detect the presence of the template in the unknown signal. or template. .Match filter detection is obtained by correlating a known signal.
.(Contd.) ◦ Cooperative detection: refers to spectrum sensing methods where information from multiple Cognitive radio users are incorporated for primary user detection.
) Spectrum Management: Capturing the best available spectrum to meet user communication requirements management functions can be classified as: ◦ spectrum analysis ◦ spectrum decision .(Contd.
Cognitive radio networks target to use the spectrum in a dynamic manner by allowing the radio terminals to operate in the best available frequency band.) Spectrum Mobility: is defined as the process when a cognitive radio user exchanges its frequency of operation. maintaining seamless communication requirements during the transition to better spectrum .(Contd. .
. secondary users need to cease transmission if they will cause interference. Once a primary user appears.(Contd.) Spectrum Pooling :is a resource sharing strategy that organizes the available spectrum into a spectrum pool which is then optimized for a given application .
outside world) by empowering each user’s receiver to sense the environment on a continuous-time basis •to learn from the environment and adapt the performance of each transceiver ..e.Cognitive radio network The cognitive radio network is an intelligent multi user wireless communication system that embodies the following list of primary tasks: •to perceive the radio environment (i.
(Contd.) •to facilitate communication between multiple users through cooperation in a self-organized manner •to control the communication processes among competing users through the proper allocation of available resources .
filters. amplifiers.) are instead implemented using software on a personal computer or other embedded computing devices. etc. detectors. .Software defined radio Software-Defined Radio (SDR) system is a radio communication system where components that have typically been implemented in hardware (e. mixers.g. modulators/demodulators.
preceded by some form of RF front end.(Contd. Such a design produces a radio that can receive and transmit a different form of radio protocol (sometimes referred to as a waveform) just by running different software. Significant amounts of signal processing are handed over to the general purpose processor.) A basic SDR may consist of a computer (PC) equipped with a sound card. rather than done using special-purpose hardware. It is the enabler of Cognitive radio. . or other analog-to-digital converter.
Software modules represent code that has been loaded into field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The radio hardware includes radio frequency circuitry and signal processing devices. The radio hardware.Functions provided by SDRs 1. digital signal processors (DSPs). 2. or embedded general purpose processors. Software modules. .
Middleware. . Device Manager: The device manager loads radio configurations into the hardware components and sets-up the logical radios. The middleware layer attempts to reduce the details of specific devices and software modules to common abstractions.) 3.(Contd. 4.
) 5. the hardware and software can be programmed to act like multiple radio links . . Logical Radio Layer: Depending on the radio configuration.(Contd. 6. Module Libraries: The module libraries are collections of radio functions.
geographical. 8. Smart Controller: A “smart controller” manages all of the radio resources outlined above. or physical constraints.) 7. Rules Engine and Policies: Policies are used to limit the operation of the radio due to regulatory.(Contd. .
ISSUES IN CR Spectrum management Spectrum utilization: presence of white spaces Spectral co-existence Spectrum sharing .
All users satisfying certain restrictions. some spectrum may be reserved for unlicensed use (this is sometimes referred to as the spectrum commons). Additionally. This can be done through administrative methods or by means of a market process. for example on power .Spectrum management spectrum management involves assigning particular frequencies to specified users. such as an auction.
Spectral utilization white spaces refer to frequencies allocated to a broadcasting service but not used locally unlicensed devices that can guarantee that they will not interfere with assigned broadcasts can use the empty white spaces in spectrum .
Spectral coexistence Two approaches have been given: Collaborative approach: radio of different technologies exchange information regarding the frequency usage of the spectrum. . Non collaborative: radio devices sense the frequency spectrum occupancy and determine by itself the channel definition without communicating with other users.
Spectral sharing Stringent spectrum sensing requirements ◦ Various types of primary users ◦ Low SNR environment ◦ Fast wideband sensing ◦ Robust sensing (to noise uncertainty. interference …) Can the acquired on/off status be used to protect primary users? ◦ Channel asymmetry ◦ Shadowing. hidden terminal issue ◦ Transmission power asymmetry .
effective solutions are needed to protect the primary users ◦ economically. good business models are needed to make both primary users and secondary users happy! .CONCLUSION There are opportunities to explore “spectrum white spaces” To promote white space reuse ◦ technically. though challenging.
trust.) Cognitive radio -> cognitive radio networks ◦ How to acquire cognition PHY sensing Network layer traffic sensing ◦ Cognitive MAC: Control information sharing. cooperation.(Contd. …) Let us work together to make cognitive radio (networks) from imagination to reality! . … ◦ Distributed processing ◦ Other issues (security.
) Cognitive radio can be used in the following fields: Signal processing Communication theory Radar systems Control theory .(Contd.
com www.cognitiveradio.org IEEE xplore www.technologyreview.edu IEEE papers .vt.wireless.bibliography Wikipedia.
THANK YOU .