Product Life Cycle Analysis ‘Tire’

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Composition & Source
Carbon black and silica are the basic tire fillers, providing the necessary “structure” to the compound

High-strength steel cords are applied under the tread of passenger car tires (and in the carcass of truck tires) while other steel wires are located near the bead to assure adherence to the rim

Other chemicals have various functions, like oils, zinc oxide or anti-degradants to protect the compound

Passenger car tires feature rayon or polyester cords radially disposed along the carcass (“radial tires”), while nylon cord are placed under the tread or near the bead area Natural rubber has unique elastic properties and is an essential element of a tire. Truck tires have an even higher natural rubber content 2 then passenger car tires

Synthetic rubber is added to natural rubber to achieve the desired elasticity
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Raw Materials of Tire Industry – Overview
(FY 2010-11)
• Tire Industry is highly raw-material intensive. Raw materials cost accounts for approx. 70% of Tire Industry Turnover. • Given below is the composition of raw-materials as a percentage (%) of Total Raw Material Cost: Natural Rubber 44% Nylon Tire Cord Fabric Carbon Black Rubber Chemicals Butyl Rubber 19% 12% 5% 4%

PBR
SBR Others

5%
5% 6%

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• 63% of total Natural Rubber consumption is by the Tire Sector, balance by rubber based nonTire industries. • Total weight of raw-materials consumed by Tire industry – 17.50 Lakh M.T. • Total Cost of Raw Materials consumed by Tire industry – Rs.21,000 Crores

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Vulcanization
Process
1. Rubber is mixed with sulfur and accelerators. 2. 10 minutes at 170 °C Molded or extruded into shape. 3. Heated after rubber has taken final form To improve resilience and elasticity, durability and utility
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MANUFACTURING
Schematic of Tire Production Process

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Financial Year 2010-2011 (Est.)
Turnover of Indian Tire Industry
Tire Production (Tonnage) Tire Production – All Categories (Nos.) Tire Export from India (Value) : Number of Tire companies:

Rs. 30,000 Crores
14.88 lakh M.T. 1192 Lakh Rs. 3600 crores 39

Industry Concentration
Radialisation Level - Current (as a % of total Tire production)

10 Large Tire companies account for over 95% of total Tire production.
Passenger Car Tires: 98% Light Commercial Vehicles: 18% Heavy Vehicles ( Truck & Bus ): 15%

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Category wise Tire Production in India
Financial Year 2010-11 - 2011-12 ( April-September)
(In Lakh Nos.)

Tires for:
Truck & Bus

2010-11
76.08

2011-12
77.99

Passenger Car Jeep
Light Commercial Vehicle Tractor Front Tractor Rear Tractor Trailer Animal Drawn Vehicle Scooter / Moped Motor Cycle Industrial
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124.46
7.63 28.40 13.88 9.18 4.64 1.30 91.61 209.91 3.00 0.91

134.19
7.47 34.00 14.19 9.73 4.60 1.31 109.80 229.31 3.36 0.98
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Off the Road (OTR)

Estimated supplies of key Tire categories
Category Production (Nos.) 2010-11 (AprilSeptember) Segmentwise Percentage supply (as % of Total Production) Replacement Market OEMs Export

Truck/Bus
Passenger Car / Jeep LCV Tractor Front Tractor Rear Scooter / Moped Motor Cycle

7799228
14165944 3400113 1419373 972938 10979956 22931173

65
42 34 5 34 43 46

21
53 41 44 64 53 52

14
5 25 1 2 4 2

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Uses
Transportation Sector • Pneumatic tires, tubes and automotive belts Industrial Sector • Product of material handling like conveyor and transmission belt
• Others like plates, packing & sealing device, gloves , mat.etc

Consumer sector • Rubber clothing like gloves footwear
• Other products like threads , eraser, golf ball ,mat etc

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Disposal/ Dispersal Methods
Energy recovery
 Alternative fuel .  Substitute for coal in steel plants.  Reduced emissions.  Lower cost.
Fuel

Energy (Gigajoule/ tonne) 32.0 27.0 32.4

Emissions kgCO /tonne 2,270 2,430 3,240 kgCO / Gigajoule 85 90 100

Tires Coal Pet coke

Diesel oil
Natural gas
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46.0
39.0 10.2

3,220
1,989 1,122

70
51 110
10

Wood

Disposal/ Dispersal Methods
 Material recovery  Construction material  Crumb or ground rubber applications.

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Examples Of Reuse
Slope stabilisation

Construction bale

Erosion control

Coastal and fluvial protection
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Examples Of Reuse
Compacted shred

Landfill cell
(geotextile) Drainage systems

Loose unbound chips :

Loose shred

Compacted unbound chips

Bound chips

Building insulation
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Examples Of Reuse

Road furniture Artificial turf

Running tracks

ndoor or outdoor tiles/pavers
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Sports arenas

Children’s play grounds
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Disposal/ Dispersal Methods
Other Innovative And Emerging Uses For End-of-life Tires
 Electric arc furnaces and Pyrolysis
 De-vulcanization

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Environmental Impact

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Environmental Impact

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References
•http://www.bir.org/assets/Documents/industry/ManagingEndO fLifeTyres.pdf • http://www.atmaindia.org • http://www.terdex.com/doc/Oekobilanz_en.pdf • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ • http://www.newrubbertech.com/home.php

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Questions ???

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