Basic Aerodynamics & Theory of Flight

By Ahmad Ahsan

The Airfoil
• “Any surface, such as a wing, propeller, rudder, or even a trim tab, which provides aerodynamic force when it interacts with a moving stream of air.” FAA • The mean camber line is a line drawn midway between the upper and lower surfaces • The chord line is a straight line connecting the leading and trailing edges of the airfoil.

Angle of Attack

The angle of attack is the angle between the chord line and the average relative wind. Greater angle of attack creates more lift (up to a point).

Four Forces of Flight
LIFT

THRUST

DRAG

WEIGHT

Lift is the upwards force created by the interaction between the wings and the • Lift
airflow. • Lift Formula: L=½ ρ V2A CL

LIFT

Weight

• Weight is the combined load of the aircraft, crew, fuel, passengers, and the cargo. • Weight acts through the aircraft’s center of gravity (CG)

WEIGHT

Thrust
• Thrust is the forward force produced by the powerplant,propeller or rotor.

THRUST

Drag

• Drag is a rearward acting force that resists the motion of aircraft through the air. • Drag Formula: D= ½ ρ V2A CD

DRAG

Outline

• Aircraft Axes • Control on three axes • Air Loads: loads during flight by maneuvers and gusts • • • • Function of Aircraft Structure: To transmit and resist loads. To provide and maintain shape. To protect passengers, payload, and systems from the environmental conditions.

Three Axes of Movement Three Axes of Movement
Vertical (Vertical Axis) Axis of YawAxis

Longitudinal Axis

Axis of Roll (Longitudinal Axis) Lateral Axis

Axis of Pitch (Lateral Axis)

Control around the Longitudinal Axis Control around the Longitudinal Axis

The Ailerons control movement on the lateral axis called “rolling”. The Ailerons control movement on the lateral axis called “rolling”.

Control around the Vertical Axis Control around the Vertical Axis
Rudder – The rudder controls the movement around vertical axis Rudder – The rudder controls the called “yawing”.

movement around vertical axis
called “yawing”.

Moving rudder to the right forces tail to the left, nose to the right

Moving rudder to the left forces tail to the right, nose to the left.

Moving rudder to the right forces tail to the left, nose to the right

Moving rudder to the left forces tail to the right, nose to the left.

Control around the Lateral Axis Control around the Lateral Axis

Elevators are used to control Elevators are used to control movement about the lateral axis movement about the lateral axis
called “pitching” called “pitching”

Lift
• Definition: Lift is the aerodynamic force that opposes the downward force of weight, is produced by the dynamic effect of the air acting on the airfoil, and acts perpendicular to the flightpath through the center of lift. (FAA) • • • • • • • Important Characteristics: Aerodynamic Force Opposes Weight (downward) Upward acting Produced by “dynamic” effect of air on airfoil Required elements become: Air, Airfoil & Motion Perpendicular to the flightpath through center of lift.

Control around the Longitudinal Axis

The Ailerons control movement on the lateral axis called “rolling”.

Lift
• Important Characteristics: • Lift is the force that directly opposes the weight of an airplane • Lift is generated by every part of the airplane, but most of the lift on a normal airliner is generated by the wings • Lift is a mechanical aerodynamic force produced by the motion of the airplane through the air • Because lift is a force, it is a vector quantity, having both a magnitude and a direction • Lift acts through the center of pressure of the object • It is directed perpendicular to the airflow

Center of Pressure
• Center of pressure: A point along the wing chord line where lift is considered to be concentrated. (FAA) • For this reason, the center of pressure is commonly referred to as the center of lift. • The pilot has no direct control over the location of forces acting on the aircraft in flight except by controlling the center of lift ( by changing the AOA) • CL or CP

Center of Pressure
• Center of pressure: A point along the wing chord line where lift is considered to be concentrated. (FAA) • For this reason, the center of pressure is commonly referred to as the center of lift. • Can be considered “average” location of the pressure. • Center of pressure changes with AoA • CL or CP

Control around the Longitudinal Axis
Center of Pressure

The Ailerons control movement on the lateral axis called “rolling”. Source: NASA Glen Research Center

Productionexplanations for the generation of lift. Unfortunately, of Lift • There are many
• • • many of the explanations are misleading and incorrect. We will describe the various theories and how some of the popular theories fail. In simple terms: Lift occurs when the airflow is turned by a solid object. The airflow is turned in one direction, and the lift is generated in the opposite direction, according to Newton's Third Law of action and reaction. The pilot can control the lift. As the AOA increases, lift increases (all other factors being equal). When the aircraft reaches the maximum AOA, lift begins to decrease rapidly. This is the stalling AOA, known as CL-MAX critical AOA.

• • •

Control around the Longitudinal Axis

The Ailerons control movement on the lateral axis called “rolling”.

Productionby producing a greater pressure under the wing than of Lift • Lift is generated
above it. • To produce this pressure difference, we require a surface that is: either inclined to the relative air flow direction, or curved (cambered).

• It is normal to use a combination of inclination (angle) and camber (curvature) in most aircraft. • The shape used for a particular aircraft depends mainly on its speed range and other operational requirements.

Productionby producing a greater pressure under the wing than of Lift • Lift is generated
above it. • To produce this pressure difference, we require a surface that is: either inclined to the relative air flow direction, or curved (cambered).

• It is normal to use a combination of inclination (angle) and camber (curvature) in most aircraft. • The shape used for a particular aircraft depends mainly on its speed range and other operational requirements.

Control around the Longitudinal Axis

The Ailerons control movement on the lateral axis called “rolling”.

Production of generate lift if it is either cambered or inclined to Lift • Almost any shape will
• • • • the flow direction. Even a brick could be made to fly by inclining it and propelling it very fast. The production of lift depends on the viscosity or stickiness of air. The upper and lower surface flows rejoin at the trailing edge, with no sudden change of direction. There is a difference in the average pressure between upper and lower surfaces, and so lift is generated.

Airfoil Section

Production of generate lift if it is either cambered or inclined to Lift • Almost any shape will
the flow direction. • Even a brick could be made to fly by inclining it and propelling • it very fast.

Revision

• Definition: Lift is the aerodynamic force that opposes the downward force of weight, is produced by the dynamic effect of the air acting on the airfoil, and acts perpendicular to the flightpath through the center of lift. (FAA) • • • • • • • Important Characteristics: Aerodynamic Force Opposes Weight (downward) Upward acting Produced by “dynamic” effect of air on airfoil Required elements become: Air, Airfoil & Motion Perpendicular to the flightpath through center of lift.

Revision

• Definition: Lift is the aerodynamic force that opposes the downward force of weight, is produced by the dynamic effect of the air acting on the airfoil, and acts perpendicular to the flightpath through the center of lift. (FAA) • • • • • • • Important Characteristics: Aerodynamic Force Opposes Weight (downward) Upward acting Produced by “dynamic” effect of air on airfoil Required elements become: Air, Airfoil & Motion Perpendicular to the flightpath through center of lift.

Control around the Longitudinal Axis
Assignment

The Ailerons control movement on the lateral axis called “rolling”.

Control around the Longitudinal Axis
Assignment

The Ailerons control movement on the lateral axis called “rolling”.

The End

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