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POROSITY DETERMINATION

FROM LOGS
Most slides in this section are modified primarily from NExT PERF Short Course Notes, 1999.
However, many of the NExT slides appears to have been obtained from other primary
sources that are not cited. Some slides have a notes section.
Well Log
SP Resistivity
OPENHOLE LOG EVALUATION
Oil sand
Gamma
ray
Resisitivity Porosity
Increasing
radioactivity
Increasing
resistivity
Increasing
porosity
Shale
Shale
POROSITY DETERMINATION BY LOGGING
POROSITY LOG TYPES
3 Main Log Types
Bulk density
Sonic (acoustic)
Compensated neutron

These logs do not measures porosity directly. To
accurately calculate porosity, the analyst must
know:
Formation lithology
Fluid in pores of sampled reservoir volume
DENSITY LOGS
Uses radioactive source to generate
gamma rays
Gamma ray collides with electrons in
formation, losing energy
Detector measures intensity of back-
scattered gamma rays, which is related
to electron density of the formation
Electron density is a measure of bulk
density
DENSITY LOGS
Bulk density,
b
, is dependent upon:
Lithology
Porosity
Density and saturation of fluids in pores
Saturation is fraction of pore volume
occupied by a particular fluid (intensive)
GR
API 0 200
CALIX
IN 6 16
CALIY
IN 6 16
RHOB
G/C3 2 3
DRHO
G/C3 -0.25 0.25
4100
4200
DENSITY LOG
Caliper
Density
correction
Gamma ray Density
Formation (
b
)
Long spacing
detector
Short spacing
detector
Mud cake
(
mc
+ h
mc
)
Source
BULK DENSITY
f ma b
1
Matrix Fluids in
flushed zone
Measures electron density of a formation
Strong function of formation bulk density
Matrix bulk density varies with lithology
Sandstone 2.65 g/cc
Limestone 2.71 g/cc
Dolomite 2.87 g/cc
POROSITY FROM DENSITY LOG
Porosity equation
xo h xo mf f
S 1 S + =
f ma
b ma
Fluid density equation
We usually assume the fluid density (
f
) is between 1.0 and 1.1. If gas is present, the
actual
f
will be < 1.0 and the calculated porosity will be too high.

mf
is the mud filtrate density, g/cc

h
is the hydrocarbon density, g/cc
S
xo
is the saturation of the flush/zone, decimal

DENSITY LOGS
Working equation (hydrocarbon zone)
( )
( )
ma sh sh sh
hc xo mf xo b
V 1 V
S 1 S
| + +
| + | =

b
= Recorded parameter (bulk volume)
| S
xo

mf
= Mud filtrate component
| (1 - S
xo
)
hc
= Hydrocarbon component

V
sh

sh
= Shale component
1 - | - V
sh
= Matrix component


DENSITY LOGS
If minimal shale, V
sh
~ 0
If
hc
~
mf
~
f
, then

b
= |
f
- (1 - |)
ma


f ma
b ma
d


= | = |
|
d
= Porosity from density log, fraction

ma
= Density of formation matrix, g/cm
3

b
= Bulk density from log measurement, g/cm
3

f
= Density of fluid in rock pores, g/cm
3

hc
= Density of hydrocarbons in rock pores, g/cm
3

mf
= Density of mud filtrate, g/cm
3

sh
= Density of shale, g/cm
3

V
sh
= Volume of shale, fraction
S
xo
= Mud filtrate saturation in zone invaded by mud filtrate, fraction
GRC
0 150
SPC
MV -160 40
ACAL
6 16
ILDC
0.2 200
SNC
0.2 200
MLLCF
0.2 200
RHOC
1.95 2.95
CNLLC
0.45 -0.15
DT
us/f 150 50
001) BONANZA 1
10700
10800
10900
BULK DENSITY LOG
Bulk Density
Log
RHOC
1.95 2.95
NEUTRON LOG
Logging tool emits high energy
neutrons into formation
Neutrons collide with nuclei of
formations atoms
Neutrons lose energy (velocity) with
each collision
NEUTRON LOG
The most energy is lost when colliding
with a hydrogen atom nucleus
Neutrons are slowed sufficiently to be
captured by nuclei
Capturing nuclei become excited and
emit gamma rays
NEUTRON LOG
Depending on type of logging tool either gamma
rays or non-captured neutrons are recorded
Log records porosity based on neutrons
captured by formation
If hydrogen is in pore space, porosity is related
to the ratio of neutrons emitted to those counted
as captured
Neutron log reports porosity, calibrated
assuming calcite matrix and fresh water in pores,
if these assumptions are invalid we must correct
the neutron porosity value
NEUTRON LOG
Theoretical equation
( )
( )
Nma sh sh sh
Nhc xo Nmf xo N
V 1 V
S 1 S
| | + | +
| | + | | = |
|
N
= Recorded parameter
| S
xo
|
Nmf
= Mud filtrate portion
| (1 - S
xo
) |
Nhc
= Hydrocarbon portion
V
sh
|
Nsh
= Shale portion
(1 - | - V
sh
) |
Nhc
= Matrix portion where | = True
porosity of rock
|
N
= Porosity from neutron log measurement, fraction

|
Nma
= Porosity of matrix fraction
|
Nhc
= Porosity of formation saturated with
hydrocarbon fluid, fraction
|
Nmf
= Porosity saturated with mud filtrate, fraction
V
sh
= Volume of shale, fraction
S
xo
= Mud filtrate saturation in zone invaded
by mud filtrate, fraction

GRC
0 150
SPC
MV -160 40
ACAL
6 16
ILDC
0.2 200
SNC
0.2 200
MLLCF
0.2 200
RHOC
1.95 2.95
CNLLC
0.45 -0.15
DT
us/f 150 50
001) BONANZA 1
10700
10800
10900
POROSITY FROM NEUTRON LOG
Neutron
Log
CNLLC
0.45 -0.15
Upper
transmitter
Lower
transmitter
R
1

R
2

R
3

R
4

ACOUSTIC (SONIC) LOG
Tool usually consists of
one sound transmitter
(above) and two receivers
(below)
Sound is generated,
travels through formation
Elapsed time between
sound wave at receiver 1
vs receiver 2 is dependent
upon density of medium
through which the sound
traveled
sec
50
T
0

E
2

E
1

E
3

Mud waves
Rayleigh
waves
Compressional
waves
Lithology Typical Matrix Travel
Time, At
ma
, sec/ft
Sandstone 55.5
Limestone 47.5
Dolomite 43.5
Anydridte 50.0
Salt 66.7
COMMON LITHOLOGY MATRIX
TRAVEL TIMES USED
ACOUSTIC (SONIC) LOG
Working equation
( )
( )
ma sh sh sh
hc xo mf xo L
t V 1 t V
t S 1 t S t
A | + A +
A | + A | = A
At
L
= Recorded parameter, travel time read from log
| S
xo
At
mf
= Mud filtrate portion
| (1 - S
xo
) At
hc
= Hydrocarbon portion
V
sh
At
sh
= Shale portion
(1 - | - V
sh
) At
ma
= Matrix portion

ACOUSTIC (SONIC) LOG
If V
sh
= 0 and if hydrocarbon is liquid
(i.e. At
mf
~ At
f
), then
At
L
= | At
f
+ (1 - |) At
ma

or
ma f
ma L
s
t t
t t
A A
A A
= | = |
|
s
= Porosity calculated from sonic log reading, fraction
At
L
= Travel time reading from log, microseconds/ft
At
ma
= Travel time in matrix, microseconds/ft
At
f
= Travel time in fluid, microseconds/ ft

DT
USFT 140 40
SPHI
% 30 10
4100
4200
GR
API 0 200
CALIX
IN 6 16
ACOUSTIC (SONIC) LOG
Sonic travel time
Sonic
porosity
Caliper
Gamma
Ray
SONIC LOG
The response can be written as follows:
f ma log
t 1 t t
ma f
ma
t t
t t

= |
log
t
log
= log reading, sec/ft
t
ma =
the matrix travel time, sec/ft
t
f
= the fluid travel time, sec/ft
| = porosity

GRC
0 150
SPC
MV -160 40
ACAL
6 16
ILDC
0.2 200
SNC
0.2 200
MLLCF
0.2 200
RHOC
1.95 2.95
CNLLC
0.45 -0.15
DT
us/f 150 50
001) BONANZA 1
10700
10800
10900
SONIC LOG
Sonic
Log
DT
150 50 us/f
EXAMPLE

Calculating Rock Porosity
Using an Acoustic Log
Calculate the porosity for the following intervals. The measured travel times from the
log are summarized in the following table.
At depth of 10,820, accoustic log reads travel time of 65 s/ft.
Calculate porosity. Does this value agree with density and neutron
logs?
Assume a matrix travel time, At
m
= 51.6 sec/ft. In addition, assume the formation is
saturated with water having a At
f
= 189.0 sec/ft.

GRC
0 150
SPC
MV -160 40
ACAL
6 16
ILDC
0.2 200
SNC
0.2 200
MLLCF
0.2 200
RHOC
1.95 2.95
CNLLC
0.45 -0.15
DT
us/f 150 50
001) BONANZA 1
10700
10800
10900
SPHI
ss 45 -15
EXAMPLE SOLUTION SONIC LOG
SPHI
FACTORS AFFECTING SONIC
LOG RESPONSE
Unconsolidated formations
Naturally fractured formations
Hydrocarbons (especially gas)
Rugose salt sections
RESPONSES OF POROSITY LOGS
The three porosity logs:
Respond differently to different matrix
compositions
Respond differently to presence of gas or
light oils
Combinations of logs can:
Imply composition of matrix
Indicate the type of hydrocarbon in pores
GAS EFFECT
Density - | is too high
Neutron - | is too low
Sonic - | is not significantly
affected by gas
ESTIMATING POROSITY FROM
WELL LOGS
Openhole logging tools are the most common method
of determining porosity:
Less expensive than coring and may be less
risk of sticking the tool in the hole
Coring may not be practical in unconsolidated
formations or in formations with high secondary
porosity such as vugs or natural fractures.
If porosity measurements are very important, both
coring and logging programs may be conducted so
the log-based porosity calculations can be used to
calibrated to the core-based porosity measurements.

Influence Of Clay-Mineral Distribution
On Effective Porosity
Dispersed Clay
Pore-filling
Pore-lining
Pore-bridging
Clay Lamination
Structural Clay
(Rock Fragments,
Rip-Up Clasts,
Clay-Replaced Grains)
|
e
|
e
|
e
Clay
Minerals
Detrital Quartz
Grains
|
e
e
|
Flow
Units
Gamma Ray
Log
Petrophysical
Data
Pore
Types
Lithofacies Core
1
2
3
4
5
Core
Plugs
Capillary
Pressure
|
vs k
GEOLOGICAL AND PETROPHYSICAL
DATA USED TO DEFINE FLOW UNITS
Schematic Reservoir Layering Profile
in a Carbonate Reservoir
Baffles/barriers
3150
SA -97A
SA -251
SA -356
SA -71
SA -344
SA -371
SA -348
SA -346
SA -37
3200
3250
3300
3350
3100
3150
3250
3300
3250
3150
3200
3100
3150
3200
3250
3200
3250
3250
3350
3300
3150
3200
3250
3300
3100
3200
3250
3300
3350
3150
3200
3250
Flow unit
From Bastian and others