CERAMICS

STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF CERAMICS

Introduction
• Ceramics materials are inorganic and nonmetallic materials. most ceramics are compounds between metallic and nonmetallic elements for which the interatomic bonds are either totally ionic or predominantly ionic but having same covalent character

• The term “ ceramics” comes from the Greek word keramikos, which means “burnt stuff”, indicating that desirable properties of these materials are normally achieve through a hightemperature heat treatment process called FIRING.

CERAMIC STRUCTURE

ionic and covalent. The ionic character is given by the difference of electro negativity between the cations (+) and anions (-). Very ionic crystals usually involve cations which are alkalis or alkaline-earths (first two columns of the periodic table) and oxygen or halogens as anions. with a proportion that depends on the particular ceramics. . Covalent bonds involve sharing of valence electrons.Crystal structure • Ceramic bonds are mixed.

.• Two characteristics of the complementation in crystalline ceramics materials influence the crystal structure are the magnitude of the electric charge on each of the components ions and the relationship of the cations and anions.

AX-type Crystal structure Examples of AX-type crystal structure: structure of rock salt (NaCl) .

• Structure of Cesium Chloride (CsCl) • Structure of Zinc blende (Zns) .

type crystal structure • Structure of Calcium Fluoride (CaF2) .Am Xp.

AmBnXp.type of crystal structure • Structure of Barium titanate (BaTiO3) .

Their combination (silicates) occur in rocks.Silicate Ceramics • Oxygen and Silicon are the most abundant elements in Earth’s crust. soils. clays and sand .

Because the atoms exist as charge ions. electro neutrality must be maintained.Imperfection in Ceramics • Atomic point defects The expression defect structure is often used to designate the types and concentrations of atomic defect in ceramics. • Electro neutrality is the state that exist when there are equal number of cations and anions .

The defect forms when an atom or cation leaves its place in the lattice. . and becomes an interstitial by lodging in a nearby location not usually occupied by an atom. Frenkel pair.Two types of defect • Frenkel defect-A Frenkel defect. creating a vacancy. or Frenkel disorder is a type of point defect in a crystal lattice.

Example of frenkel defect .

to maintain an overall neutral charge in the ionic solid. Normally these defects will lead to a decrease in the density of the crystal.Schottky defect • Schottky defect -a type of point defect in a crystal lattice named after Walter H. The vacancies are then free to move about as their own entities. creating vacancies. The defect forms when oppositely charged ions leave their lattice sites. Schottky. These vacancies are formed in stoichiometric units. .

Example of schottky defect .

The flaws need to crack formation. along cleavage planes. and atmospheric contaminants) that result during cooling from the melt. this leads to a large variability (scatter) in the fracture strength of ceramic materials. and crack propagation (perpendicular to the applied stress) is usually transgranular.Mechanical properties • The brittle fracture of ceramics limits applications. It occurs due to the unavoidable presence of microscopic flaws (micro-cracks. internal pores. The flaws cannot be closely controlled in manufacturing. .

• The compressive strength is typically ten times the tensile strength. • Plastic deformation in crystalline ceramics is by slip. stone blocks in the pyramids). but not in conditions of tensile stress. . which is difficult due to the structure and the strong local (electrostatic) potentials. This makes ceramics good structural materials under compression (e. bricks in houses. There is very little plastic deformation before fracture.g.. such as under flexure.

.• Non-crystalline ceramics. Viscosity decreases strongly with increases temperature. like common glass deform by viscous flow (like very high-density liquids).

it is difficult to prepare and test specimens having the required geometry. it is difficult to grip brittle materials without fracturing them.1% strain. . • First.Stress-strain of behavior • The stress-strain behavior of brittle ceramics is not usually ascertained. ceramics fail after only about 0. • Second. • Third.

Flexural strength • The stress at fracture using this fractural text is known as flexural strength. modulus of rapture. an important mechanical parameter for brittle ceramics . or the bend strength. fracture strength.

which is often utilized when an abrasive or grinding action is required. • Ceramic materials are known as the hardest material. .Hardness • One beneficial mechanical property of ceramics is their hardness.

It coincides to the direction in which atoms are most closely packed. . There is an irreversible shear displacement of one part of the crystal relative to another in a definite crystallographic direction. This process is known as slip.Mechanisms of plastic deformation • plastic deformation is a result of permanent distortion of lattice by extensive rearrangement of atoms within it. Slip follows the path of least energy.

Why ceramic materials are harder yet more brittle than metal? • One reason for the hardness and brittleness of ceramic materials is the difficulty of slip or dislocation motion. Reasons why slip’s also difficult and why they are brittle • the covalent bonds are relatively strong • There are also limited numbers of slip system • Dislocation structures are complex .

Application and processing of ceramics .

Types and application of ceramics Ceramics materials glasses Clay products refractories abrasives Advance ceramics glass Structural clay products fireclay Glass-ceramics White ware silica basic special .

The glass is cooled down and is then reheated in a second step. In this heat treatment the glass partly crystallizes . a glass is formed by a glass manufacturing process.Glasses • Glass-ceramics have an amorphous phase and one or more crystalline phases and are produced by a so called "controlled crystallization" in contrast to a spontaneous crystallization • Glass-ceramics are mostly produced in two steps: First.

.• Two prime characteristics of glass are their optical transparency and the relative ease with which they may be fabricated.

roofing tile. Typical structural clay products are building brick. . resistance to wear. and fired in a kiln in order to give the clay mixture a permanent bond. terra-cotta facing tile. which are mixed with water. These objects are made from commonly occurring natural materials. paving brick. resistance to chemical attack. and an ability to take a decorative finish. and drainage pipe. Finished structural clay products display such essential properties as load-bearing strength. attractive appearance.Clay products • Structural clay product -ceramic products intended for use in building construction. formed into the desired shape.

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white wares all depend for their utility upon a relatively small set of properties: imperviousness to fluids. or glassy. and an ability to be formed into complex shapes. chemical inertness. Including products as diverse as fine china dinnerware.• White ware . and spark-plug insulators. dental implants.any of a broad class of ceramic products that are white to off-white in appearance and frequently contain a significant vitreous. as well as by the forming and firing processes employed in their manufacture. low conductivity of electricity. These properties are determined by the mixture of raw materials chosen for the products. . component. lavatory sinks and toilets.

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with many nations having deposits of clays suitable for use in high temperature applications. although other natural deposits are also available as potential sources. This type of clay is commonly mined from areas around coal mines.Refractories • Fireclay . . Fire clay can also be refined and treated to make it suitable for specialty applications.is a type of clay which is used in the production of heat resistant clay items. such as the crucibles used in metals manufacturing.

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They are chemically bonded with 3to3. . Silica refractories have good load resistance at high temperatures.• Silica . are abrasion-resistant.5 percent lime. and are particularly suited to containing acidic slags.are made from quartzites and silica gravel deposits with low alumina and alkali contents. which has particularly low impurity contents. Of the various grades coke-oven quality. is used in the superstructures of glass-melting furnaces. and super-duty the super-duty. conventional.

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• Basic refractories • Special refractories .

• Abrasives . reflective surface it can also involve roughening as in satin. matte or beaded finishes. and sanding . cutting.is a material. honing. that is used to shape or finish a work piece through rubbing which leads to part of the work piece being worn away. drilling. buffing. lapping. While finishing a material often means polishing it to gain a smooth. sharpening. often a mineral. polishing. • Common uses for abrasives include grinding.

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actuators. with dimensions from tens of micrometres to a few hundred micrometres (millionths of a metre). . and processcontrol units.Advance ceramics • microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mechanical parts and electronic circuits combined to form miniature devices. typically on a semiconductor chip. Common applications for MEMS include sensors.

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or "light pipe". to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber. flexible.• Optical fibers . The field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers is known as fiber optics.is a thin. transparent fiber that acts as a waveguide. .

• The purpose of a ball bearing is to reduce rotational friction and support radial and axial loads. . It achieves this by using at least two races to contain the balls and transmit the loads through the balls. As one of the bearing races rotates it causes the balls to rotate as well. Because the balls are rolling they have a much lower coefficient of friction than if two flat surfaces were rotating on each other.• Ceramic ball bearings -A ball bearing is a type of rolling-element bearing that uses balls to maintain the separation between the moving parts of the bearing. Usually one of the races is held fixed.

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Fabricating and processing of ceramics .

Glass and Glasses-ceramics • Glass properties – Melting point – Working point – Softening point – Annealing point – Strain point .

Glass forming • There are four different method of forming a glass .

The process may be carried out in a temperature-controlled kiln known as a Lehr. . it will retain many of the thermal stresses caused by quenching and significantly decrease the overall strength of the glass.Heating glasses • Annealing .is a process of slowly cooling glass to relieve internal stresses after it was formed. If glass is not annealed. Glass which has not been annealed is liable to crack or shatter when subjected to a relatively small temperature change or mechanical shock. Annealing glass is critical to its durability.

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Clay products .

Fabricating techniques • Hydro plastic forming – consists in the creation of component by manual or mechanized manipulation of the hydroplasticised clay – Extrusion is used for forming prismatic section by applying pressure on the stiff clay mass and forcing it through a shaped die orifice by an auger. .

. etc.A process for making thin sheets of ceramics using a ceramic slurry consisting of binders.Forming a hollow ceramic part by introducing a pourable slurry into a mold. plasticizers. The slurry is cast with the help of a blade onto a plastic substrate. • Tape casting .• Slip casting .