How can we recycle LCD monitor

Ana-Marija (Mia Viki)

LCD (liquid-crystal-display) monitors

LCD (liquid-crystal-display) monitors

LCD (liquid-crystal-display) monitors

Liquid crystalls
• Liquid crystalls can be found in nature around us, but also in many electronic devices and applications • It represents a state of materie which combines properties form both liquid and crystalls • We can divide liquid crystalls into three groups: thermotropic, liotropic and metallotropic

Liquid crystalls
• Thermotropic liquid crstalls are build from organic molecules and depending on temperature can exchibit in different phases

Thermotropic liquid crystalls
• Molecules are in so called nematic phase • Combines from cilinder organic molecules which can move freely • Although they do not posses arranged crystall structure , the cilinders are merging and trying to hold on arranged system in one direction

Smectic phase of liquid crystalls
In smectic phase , crystalls poses higher level of inner arrangment then in nematic phase It combines of layer that can slide across one another Phases between layers haves properties of liquid

Smectic phase

Chiral phase
• Chiral molecules are turning in parallel in one direction and in that way they are saving longterm arrangement • The consiquences of turning angle from center of rotation is optical propertie like Bragg reflexion

Chiral phase

Usage of liquid crystall
• The usage of liquid crystalls comes from the fact that we have permanent electrical dipoles whose orientation in space is determened by orientation of molecules • Using outside electrical field we can influence on inner arrangement of crystalls and consiquentually on their optical preferences

Main components of LCD monitor
• • • • • • • • • Liquid crystall Glass Thin transistor film Conducting electrodes Color filters Polarizators Background light Reflective background Plastical components

Components of LCD screen

LCD
• LCD-display is based on liquid crystalls that are bound between two glasses substrates with polarizator form outer side • On inner side of the glass substrate there is a thin transistor film on one part glass substrate and color filter on another glass substrate • Exeption transistor and color filter on inner side , we also have conducting electrodes and and orientation films

Making of picture
• Depending about presence or non –presence of electric currence , the liquid crystalls are arranging themselves in such matter that they combine with polarizators making light to pass or not to pass • The light that comes from background light source is regulated when passing through sample of color filter on inner side od the front glass substrate

Materials and chemical composits
• 1. Liquid crystalls • LCD display usually combines 10 -25 components because only one doesn´t fulfill complex properties that LCD demands • From first discovery of liquid crystalls , we have a knowledge for about more than 20 000 compounds that have nematic phase: some of them are anisiliden –para –aminophenylacetate (APAPA) and 4-n-penthyl -4´-ciano-biphenyl(PCB)

Materials and chemical composits
• 2008. , about 69 % of LC was made by german company Merck KggA which patented about 2500 LC mixtures • Compounds that have been used in LC mixtures are usually poliaromatic polimers with 14 to 30 carbon atoms on which we selectively add atoms of O, N, F, Br or Cl.

LCD –Electrodes
• Conductive electrodes are from inner part of glass substrates • Electrodes are made from transparent conducting layer made from indium-tin oxides (ITO) .ITO is a mixture of indium(III) oxide (In2O3) and tin(IV) oxide (SnO2) in relate to 90:10

LCD –Electrodes

The position of electrodes in shematics for LCD screen

Color filters
• Color filter are made from black matrix, surface layer,RGB pattern and conductive electrode (ITO)

Color filter

Color filter

Polarizators
• Polarizators are settled on outer side of glass substrate • These are special filters which allow only polarized light to pass, to be more acurate , fotons who are vibrating in only one plane • They are made from layer films , begining from layer of polyethilen tereftalate (PET) , then layer of celulose threeacetate, then layer of polyvinyl alcohole impregnated with iodine or nonspecific colors, then another layer of celulose threeacetate and ends up with PET layer

Polarizators

PET layer

Polarizators

Celulose threeacetate

Polarizators
• Polarizators with polyvinyl alcohole and impregnated iodine are also called H-cells • In later time , it is common to use polyvinyl chains which can be derived from dehydratation of polyvinyl alcohole –those are called K-cells • In LCD screens there is one vertical and one horizontal polarizator

Background lighthing
• In all LCD monitors there are fluorescent lamps, which are used to light up the background of screen and they represent the only active light source • Fluorescent light source is a glass tube which produces white light . In the inner part of glass tube there is a mercury sample under low pressure who is emitting UV radiance when being in ionized form

Background lighthing
• The inner part of flourescent source is painted by phosphor • Phosphore is capable of apsorbing energy and to emitt one in a form of visible radiance

Glass
• Glass is combined with many sodium and other alkali ions which can move freely on the surface of the glass • To avoid those kind of efects , we are using borsilicium glass or glass painted by a layer of silicium oxide • Silicium oxide is preventing ions to react with moisture from air

Plastical components
• The most simple solution is to use transparent plastical surfaces for lighter LCD • Plastical components will make screen easier , but cheap plastical components will disperse light more then glass and can react chemicaly with molecules of liquid crystalls • Plastical components are also used for making of outer screen frame

Recycle of LCD materials
• With growing production of LCD screens we also have growing amount of their disposal ,and to taking care of represents a large ecological issue • Liquid crystalls which are made of aromatic rings supstituited with halogen atoms produce very toxical products dangerous for enviroment (dioxanes, furans..etc..)

Recycle of LCD materials
• The background light source posses large amount of mercury , and batteries of small LCD often have mercury and cadmium • Both elements , mercury and cadmium have acumulative effect in human body and enviroment , and posses toxicity • Glasses used in LCD screen posses cadmium and arsenic compounds so their recycle becomes very important

Recycling flourescent lamps
• Flourescent lamps are made of 94% glass, 4% metals and 2% phosporus pouder • Mercury is settled inside phosporus pouder • Mercury element is suffiecient to create toxicity of 30 000 liters of water

Recycling flourescent lamps

Comparison between flourescent tube from laptop and plain pencil

Recycling flourescent lamps
• Mercury can be depleted on specific mercury deposits , but those places are very few • We can recycle mercury using vacuum destillation • Unpure mercury can be destillated in twohead pots and dried on 360 C , and using condenser we can extract , condense and assemble pure mercury in round pots

Recycling flourescent lamps

Simple aparature for mercury destillation

Glass recycling
• The amount of glass deposits which is collected on deposits in Taiwan in 2009. has reached 0,52 million tons • Glass deposits can be recycled to produce glass ceramics

Glass recycling

Kitchen assemblance made from glass ceramics

Glass recycling
• Deposit glass is drilled ,homogenized and set in chasement under pressure • Dust particles are assembled in solid mass using thermal process (the process of sinteration) • Heating glass deposits we are removing organic components and stabilize inorganic components incorporating oxides characteristic for glass ceramics

Glass recycling
• On temp. from 800-950 OC , in 6 hours and increasing temperature by 5C O /min we can get very qualitative glass ceramics

Recycling plastical components
• Most of plastical components are not biodegradible , but all plastical components can be recycled • We can recycle plastical components using pyrolithic procesess in pyrolithic reactors

Recycling plastical components

Pyrolithic reactor

Recycling plastical components
• The process of pyrolise is a proces where we have destillation of organic part from deposit with ripping of chemical bounds (crecking) of large molecules of material like plastics, rubber , leather and similar materials • With the same process we can gain gas and liquid fuels • Gases gained from pyrolithic processes are mixture of :hydrogen , methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide

Recycling plastical components
• Liquid phase from process of pyrolize has condensed burning oil whose composition depends from different deposit material

Recycling wires of electrical net
• Like any other electronic devices we can also recycle electric circle wires • Materials are first grinded to dust and then we use chemical and physical processes to dissolve nobel metals in process called smelting –very similar to dissolving mineral composits • Using temperature and reductive chemical agenses we can remove all components exception metals like copper, gold and silver

Rycling of liquid crystalls
• Liquid crystalls are not easly biodegradible • We don´t know much about recycling liquid crystalls because most of them are under patent protection and recycling tehniques are still developing • Merck company recomends industrial burning process for ecological measurment

Ecological background of producing LCD
• Main ecological problem is process of making LCD materials and their usage (they use lot of electrical energy) • Factories manufacture several million tons of waste waters • Those waste waters consists of large spectrum of organic solvents like :DMSO, MEA, TMAH and chrome residues..

Ecological background of producing LCD
• Chrome is extremly cancerogenetic supstance • We have many methods which can resolve organic solvents and can isolate dissolved chromium in a form of chromium oxide from waste waters • In the process of production we use large amount of SF6 (sulfur-flouride) gas and natural gases which also contributes to global warm effect...

How to change LCD materials – ecological issue
• Main problem is mercury in flourescent lamps • We have new generation of LCD monitors who doesnt have mercury , they are energetically more effective and higher quality • Monitors that are using LED lamps as background light source are capable off creating much cleaner white light

LIGHT EMITTING DIODE(LED)
• • • • • • • LED is a semiconducting light source They are available in many sizes and colors Very restistant and long life Recycling LED diode would mean to: induce more money for making glass Reduce the amount of toxic metals in glass New form of glasses donz have arsenic , antimon and barium resiudes , their are ligher and have better heat properties

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