PRODUCTION The processes and methods employed to transform tangible inputs (raw materials, semi finished goods, or subassemblies) and intangible inputs (ideas, information, knowledge) into goods or services. According to Elwood Butta “production is a process by which goods or services are created”.

Production function is that part of an organization, which is concerned with the transformation of a range of inputs into the required outputs (products) having the requisite quality level. Production involves the step by step convertion of one form of material into another through chemical or mechanical process with a view to enhance the utility of the product or services.

Three ways of Production, they are: (i) Production by Disintegration: By separating the contents of Crude oil or a mixture the desired products are produced. For example the crude oil is disintegrated into various fuel oils. Similarly salt production is also an example for product produced by disintegrated. We can use Mechanical or Chemical or both technologies to get the desired product, so that it will have desired use value.

(ii) Production by Integration: In this type of Production various Components of the products are assembled together to get the desired product. In this process, Physical and Chemical Properties of the materials used may change. The examples are: Assembly of Two wheelers, Four wheelers and so on.

(iii) Production by Service: Here the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of materials are improved without any physical change. The example for this is Heat Treatment of metals. In real world, a combination of above methods is used. • In general production is the use of any process or procedure designed to transform a set of input elements into a set of output elements, which have use value and economic value.

PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT “Production management deals with the decision making related to production process of that the resulting goods and service is produced according to specifications in the amounts and at the scheduled demanded and at minimum cost” – Elwood Butta. • Production management is a process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling the activities of the production function. • It combines and transforms various resources used in the production subsystem of the organization into value added product in a controlled manner as per the policies of the organization.

Production management Planning, implementation, and control of industrial production processes to ensure smooth and efficient operation. Production management techniques are used in both manufacturing and service industries. Production management responsibilities include the traditional “five M's”: men and women, machines, methods, materials, and money

The difference between production management and operation management Production mgmt 1. It is concerned with manufacturing 2. Out put is tangible 3. In this, job use less labour and more equipment 4. There is no customer participation Operation mgmt 1. It is concerned with services 2. Output is intangible 3. In this, job use more labour andl ess equipment 4. Frequent customer participation

Objectives of Production Management • The objective of the production management is „to produce goods services of right quality and quantity at the right time and right manufacturing cost‟. 1. RIGHT QUALITY • The quality of product is established based upon the customers needs. • The right quality is not necessarily best quality. • It is determined by the cost of the product and the technical characteristics as suited to the specific requirements.

2. RIGHT QUANTITY • The manufacturing organization should produce the products in right number. • If they are produced in excess of demand the capital will block up in the form of inventory and • If the quantity is produced in short of demand, leads to shortage of products.

3. RIGHT TIME • Timeliness of delivery is one of the important parameter to judge the effectiveness of production department. So, the production department has to make the optimal utilization of input resources to achieve its objective. 4. RIGHT MANUFACTURING COST • Manufacturing costs are established before the product is actually manufactured. Hence, all attempts should be made to produce the products at pre-established cost, so as to reduce the variation between actual and the standard (preestablished) cost.

PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT FOCUSES on… • Production management focuses on two significant functions: • Responsibilities and • Planning and control. The production management‟s responsibility sees to the following areas; Men (labor), machines, methods, materials and money.

Men: • This refers to the labor force. This responsibility is often referred to as people management. • This is to build a workforce that can easily adapt to new equipment and schedules in production. Machines and Method: This involves choosing the machine and technology used in production of goods and services. The production manager must also choose the methods in using these machines to achieve efficiency. He/She must decide on the technology that best suits the operation.

Material: Material here includes both raw materials for production and the information needed in production. The production manager must manage the flow processes; that is, the smoothness of resource and data movement. Money: This deals with the financial matters involved in the day to day running of production. The production manager manages the inventory and production level and quantity with the returns on investment, on focus.

Criteria of performance 3 aims of performance of the Production and Operations Management Systems: • Effectiveness – productive utilization of resources • Customer satisfaction • Efficiency

BENEFITS DERIVED FROM EFFICIENT PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT The efficient Production Management will give benefits to the various sections of the society. They are: (i) Consumer benefits from improved industrial Productivity, increased use value in the product. Products are available to him at right place, at right price, at right time, in desired quantity and of desired quality. (ii) Investors: They get increased security for their investments, adequate market returns, and creditability and good image in the society. (iii) Employee gets adequate Wages, Job security, improved working conditions and increased Personal and Job satisfaction. (iv) Suppliers: Will get confidence in management and their bills can be realized with out any delay. (v) Community: community enjoys Benefits from economic and social stability. (vi) The Nation will achieve prospects and security because of increased Productivity and healthy industrial atmosphere.

The functions of production mgmt 1. Production planning 2. Production control 3. Factory building 4. Provision of plant services 5. Plant layout 6. Physical Environment 7. Method study 8. Inventory control 9. Quality control 10. Product department

(i) Materials: • The selection of materials for the product. • Production manager must have sound Knowledge of materials and their properties, so that he can select appropriate materials for his product. • Research on materials is necessary to find alternatives to satisfy the changing needs of the design in the product and availability of material resumes. (ii) Methods: Finding the best method for the process, to search for the methods to suit the available resources, identifying the sequence of process are some of the activities of Production Management.

(iii) Machines and Equipment: Selection of suitable machinery for the process desired, designing the maintenance policy and design of layout of machines are taken care of by the Production Management department. (iv) Estimating: To fix up the Production targets and delivery dates and To keep the production costs at minimum, production management department does a thorough estimation of Production times and production costs. In competitive situation this will help the management to decide what should be done in arresting the costs at desired level.

(v) Loading and Scheduling: • The Production Management department has to draw the time table for various production activities, specifying when to start and when to finish the process required. • It also has to draw the timings of materials movement and plan the activities of manpower. • The scheduling is to be done keeping in mind the loads on hand and capacities of facilities available. (vi) Routing: This is the most important function of Production Management department. The Routing consists of fixing the flow lines for various raw materials, components etc., from the stores to the packing of finished product, so that all concerned knows what exactly is happening on the shop floor.

(vii) Despatching: • The Production Management department has to prepare various documents such as Job Cards, Route sheets, Move Cards, Inspection Cards for each and every component of the product. • These are prepared in a set of five copies. • These documents are to be released from Production Management department to give green signal for starting the production. • The activities of the shop floor will follow the instructions given in these documents. Activity of releasing the document is known as dispatching.

(viii) Expediting or Follow up: • Once the documents are dispatched, the management wants to know whether the activities are being carried out as per the plans or not. • Expediting engineers go round the production floor along with the plans, compare the actual with the plan and feed back the progress of the work to the management. • This will help the management to evaluate the plans.

(ix) Inspection: Here inspection is generally concerned with the inspection activities during production, but a separate quality control department does the quality inspection, which is not under the control of Production Management. This is true because, if the quality inspection is given to production Management, then there is a chance of qualifying the defective products also. For example Teaching and examining of students is given to the same person, then there is a possibility of passing all the students in the first grade. To avoid this situation an external person does correction of answer scripts, so that the quality of answers are correctly judged.

(x) Evaluation: • The Production department must evaluate itself and its contribution in fulfilling the corporate objectives and the departmental objectives. • This is necessary for setting up the standards for future. What ever may be the size of the firm • Production management department alone must do Routing, Scheduling, Loading, Dispatching and expediting. • This is because this department knows very well regarding materials, Methods, and available resources etc. • If the firms are small, all the above-mentioned functions (i to x) are to be carried out by Production Management Department.

• In medium sized firms in addition to Routing, Scheduling and Loading, Dispatching and expediting, some more functions like Methods, Machines may be under the control of Production Management Department. • In large firms, there will be Separate departments for Methods, Machines, Materials and others but routing, loading and scheduling are the sole functions of Production Management


• The person responsible for developing, in conjunction with the Project Sponsor, a definition of the project. Role • The Project Manager then ensures that the project is delivered on time, to budget and to the required quality standard (within agreed specifications). • He/she ensures the project is effectively resourced and manages relationships with a wide range of groups (including all project contributors). • The Project Manager is also responsible for managing the work of consultants, allocating and utilising resources in an efficient manner and maintaining a co-operative, motivated and successful team

Duties A PM's duties usually include the following: • Preparing the budget by breaking down the script into its essential elements • Bearing the responsibility for most of the financial negotiations, such as for equipment procurement and concerning stage costs • Preparing a preliminary shooting schedule; the 1st Assistant Director takes over this responsibility while discussing changes with the UPM • Hiring the crew, except for those recommended by the director

Management duties PMs also have management duties to perform, which include the following: • Approving all production expenditures, usually submitted via purchase order, check request or petty cash envelopes • Negotiating the crews' salaries and approving time cards • Negotiating equipment procurement (for example, cameras, film stock and lights), while attempting to use the preferred vendors of the Director or the PM • Approving each day's "call sheet" and "production report" • Resolving/mediating personality conflicts among crew members (as needed)

Responsibilities • Provide overall Management of the ongoing Production operations including Inventory Control, Scheduling, Documentation, Equipment Maintenance, Calibration, Shipping, and Quality Control/Inspection.

• Assist in creation of efficient processes through hands-on development and training. • Track quality of all processes through analysis of recorded data and formation of additional testpoints. Correlate results with requirements/ specifications. • Report directly to COO

SUPERVISOR Roles of Supervisors – Coach – Mentor – Advocate for Organization – Advocate for Employee

COACH • A good supervisor places a high priority on coaching employees. • Good coaching involves working with employees to establish suitable goals, action plans and time lines. • The supervisor delegates and also provides ongoing guidance and support to the employee as they complete their action plans.

• Rarely can job goals be established without considering other aspects of an employee's life Ex:
– – – – Time available for training, Career preferences, Personal strengths and Weaknesses, etc.

• A supervisor is sometimes confronted with walking a fine line between being a supervisor and the employee's confidant

Mentor • Usually the supervisor understands the organization and the employee's profession better than the employee. • Consequently, the supervisor is in a unique position to give ongoing advice to the employee about job and career. • The employee can look to the supervisor as a model for direction and development. • An effective mentor-mentee relationship requires the supervisor to accept the responsibility of mentorship. • A good supervisor can be a priceless addition to the career of an employee.

Advocate for Organization • Often, the supervisor is the first person to tell employees about new policies and programs from management. • It's not uncommon that employees are confused or frustrated by these new actions, and need further clarification and support from supervisors. • In the rapidly changing world of today's organizations, it can be a major challenge to present new programs to employees without their being frustrated or even cynical. • The supervisor must be authentic, yet tactful.

Advocate for Employee • The supervisor is often responsible to represent the employee's requests and to management, along with also representing the employee's case for deserving a reward. • For example, if an employee deserves a promotion, the supervisor often must justify the case for promotion to the supervisor's supervisor, as well. • If the employee has a rather unique personal situation that warrants special consideration by the rest of management, the supervisor must explain this situation and how it can be handled. • It's not unusual for employees to sometimes see the supervisor as part of "management" while at other times seeing the supervisor as a personal friend.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF SUPERVISORS • Personnel Policies and Procedures • Staffing • Employee Training and Development • Employee Performance Management

SUPERVISORY DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES • Keeping maintenance operations running smoothly and efficiently • Promoting teamwork • Maintaining discipline • Keeping morale high • Getting the right person time on the job at the right • Maintaining the quality and the quantity of work • Checking and inspecting jobs and personnel • Preventing accidents and controlling hazards and hazardous material • Using and storing materials economically

• Maintaining good housekeeping on the job Keeping records and preparing reports • Planning and scheduling work • Training personnel Procuring the supplies and equipment to perform the work • Inspecting, caring for, and preserving equipment • Giving orders and directions • Maintaining liaison with other units, departments, and divisions

The following major areas are common to all supervisory positions: 1. Production 2. Safety, health, and physical welfare of subordinates 3. Development of cooperation 4. Development of morale 5. Training and development of subordinates 6. Records and reports 7. Balanced supervision

Ref: 1. _manager

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