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1.

Solid State
Classification of Solids

Classification of crystalline
solids

Unit cells, two and three dimensional
lattices and number of atoms per unit
cell and
Number of Atoms in the unit cell :



Unit cell scc bcc fcc hcp
Number of
atoms
1 2 4 3
Packing efficiency :





scc bcc fcc hcp
52.4% 68 % 74% 74%
Relation between radius (r) of an
atom and edge length (a) of cubic
unit cell :

scc bcc fcc
=
a
r
2
=
3
r a
4
=
a
r
2 2
Packing in solids
Density of unit cell
Density of the crystal :

3
A
z M
d
a N
Packing in voids of ionic solids

Defects in crystal structure

Electrical properties

Magnetic properties

2. Solutions & Colligative
Properties
Types of solution
Concentration of solution of solids
in liquids
Number of moles, mol
Molarity = mol dm
-3
(or M)
Normality = gram eq.dm
-3

=
W
n
M
n
V
grameq.
V
Solubility of gases in liquids
Solid solution
Colligative properties and
molecular masses
Lowering of vapour pressure


Molality =
mol kg
-1
(or m)

Raoults law: P
soln
= x
1
P
0





n
Wt. of solvent inkg

=
1 0 2
1 0 2
P P W M
P WM
Elevation of boiling point

AT
b
= K
b
m and AT
f
= k
f
m

AT
b
= K
b

2
1 2
W 1000
W M
Depression of freezing point

AT
f
= K
f


Osmotic pressure

At constant temperature :

At constant concentration :

2
1 2
W 1000
W M
t
=
t
2 2
1 1
C
C
t
=
t
2 2
1 1
T
T
vant Hoff equation : t = CRT


t =
WRT
MV
n
RT
V
t =

vant Hoff factor (i)






A A
t
= = = =
A A t
b(ob) f(ob)
ob th
th ob b(th) f(th)
T T
M
T T M
( )
(

o =
(
<


th ob
ob th
th
(For dissociation)
M M
1
(M M )
n 1 M







(

| |
o =
| (
>

\ .

oh th
ob th
ob
(For association)
M M
1
(M M )
n 1 M

o =

i 1
(For dissociation)
n 1
| |
o =
|

\ .
n
(1 i) (For association)
n 1
Abnormal molecular mass

Vant Hoff factor

3. Chemical Thermodynamics
& Energetics
Basic concepts in thermodynamics

Nature of Heat and Work

Internal Energy


W = - P (V
2
V
1
) = -P A V
(For expansion)
W = P (V
2
V
1
) P A V
(For compression)
W
max
= - 2.303 nRT log
10


W
max
= - 2.303 nRT log
10





2
1
V
V
1
2
P
P
First Law of Thermodynamics
Enthalpy
AU = q + W
H = U + PV
AH = AU + PAV
AH = AU + AnRT


Enthalpy of physical changes
Thermo chemistry
Spontaneous processes
(Irreversible processes)
Gibbs free energy


G = H TS

rev
q H
S
T T
A
= =
AG = AH - TAS
A G
0
= - 2.303 RT log
10
K
A G = 0, the system is at
equilibrium
A G < 0, the process is
spontaneous
A G > 0, the process is non-
spontaneous.
Third law of thermodynamics.

4. Electrochemistry
Redox Reaction

Conductance in electronic
solutions


Resistance (R)

Electrical conductance (G)
or S

Resistivity


= O
Potential difference (V)
Electric current (I)

= O
1
1
R
= O
a
( ) R cm
1
Cell constant = cm
-1
(or m
1
)

Conductivity (k)

Molar conductivity (
m
) = (k in
-1


m
-1
and C in mol m
-3
) OR


a
=
Cell Constant
Resistance
k
C


m


(k in
-1
m
-1
and C in mol m
-3
)

Kohlarauschs law :
0

Degree of dissociation

Dissociation constant (ka)


+
= +
0 0
.
o =
.
m
0
( )

=
k 1000
C
.
=
. . .
2
m
m
0 0
C
( )
Electrochemical cells

Electrolytic cells

Galvanic or voltaic cells

Electrode potentials and cells potential










=
0 0 0
cell red red
E E (cathode) E (anode)
+ +
+
=
n n
0
M /M
n
M / M 10
0.0592
E E log [M ]
n
=
0
10 cell cell
0.0592 [Pr oducts]
E E log
n [Reactants]

G = nFE
cell

G
0
= - RTln K



For spontaneous cell reaction :
E
cell
> 0; G < 0



A =
0 0
cell
G n FE
=
0
10 cell
0.0592
E log K
n
5. Chemical Kinetics
Rate of reaction
For a reaction, aA + bB cC + dD


Average rate =
Rate law : Rate = k [A]
a
[B]
b

A A A A
= = =
A A A A
1 [A] 1 [B] 1 [C] 1 [D]
a t b t c t d t
Dependence of rate on reactant
concentration

log
0

(for first order reaction)

t = (for first order
reaction)
=
2.303
k
t
0
t
[A]
[A]
0.693
k

k =
(For zero order reaction)

t = (For zero order reaction

Molecularity of elementary reactions
Collision theory and activation energy

0
[A]
2k

t
0
[A] [A]
t
Temperature dependence of
reaction rates (Arrhenius equation)
K = Ae
Ea/RT
(Arrhenius equation)

Log
10
k = log
10
A

Log
10


a
E
2.303RT
Effect of catalyst on rates of
reactions

=

a
1 2 2
1 1 2
k E (T T )
k 2.303R T T
6. General & Processes
of Isolation of Elements
Concentration of an ore
Oxidation reduction
Refining of crude metal

Extraction of Zinc

Extraction of Iron

Extraction of Aluminium

Extraction of Copper

7. pBlock Elements
Group 15 elements

Group 16 elements

Group 17 elements

Group 18 elements
Reference electrodes

Common types of cells

Fuel cells

Electrochemical series

Corrosion

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