Solid State
Classification of Solids
Classification of crystalline
solids
Unit cells, two and three dimensional
lattices and number of atoms per unit
cell and
Number of Atoms in the unit cell :
Unit cell scc bcc fcc hcp
Number of
atoms
1 2 4 3
Packing efficiency :
scc bcc fcc hcp
52.4% 68 % 74% 74%
Relation between radius (r) of an
atom and edge length (a) of cubic
unit cell :
scc bcc fcc
=
a
r
2
=
3
r a
4
=
a
r
2 2
Packing in solids
Density of unit cell
Density of the crystal :
3
A
z M
d
a N
Packing in voids of ionic solids
Defects in crystal structure
Electrical properties
Magnetic properties
2. Solutions & Colligative
Properties
Types of solution
Concentration of solution of solids
in liquids
Number of moles, mol
Molarity = mol dm
3
(or M)
Normality = gram eq.dm
3
=
W
n
M
n
V
grameq.
V
Solubility of gases in liquids
Solid solution
Colligative properties and
molecular masses
Lowering of vapour pressure
Molality =
mol kg
1
(or m)
Raoults law: P
soln
= x
1
P
0
n
Wt. of solvent inkg
=
1 0 2
1 0 2
P P W M
P WM
Elevation of boiling point
AT
b
= K
b
m and AT
f
= k
f
m
AT
b
= K
b
2
1 2
W 1000
W M
Depression of freezing point
AT
f
= K
f
Osmotic pressure
At constant temperature :
At constant concentration :
2
1 2
W 1000
W M
t
=
t
2 2
1 1
C
C
t
=
t
2 2
1 1
T
T
vant Hoff equation : t = CRT
t =
WRT
MV
n
RT
V
t =
vant Hoff factor (i)
A A
t
= = = =
A A t
b(ob) f(ob)
ob th
th ob b(th) f(th)
T T
M
T T M
( )
(
o =
(
<
th ob
ob th
th
(For dissociation)
M M
1
(M M )
n 1 M
(
 
o =
 (
>
\ .
oh th
ob th
ob
(For association)
M M
1
(M M )
n 1 M
o =
i 1
(For dissociation)
n 1
 
o =

\ .
n
(1 i) (For association)
n 1
Abnormal molecular mass
Vant Hoff factor
3. Chemical Thermodynamics
& Energetics
Basic concepts in thermodynamics
Nature of Heat and Work
Internal Energy
W =  P (V
2
V
1
) = P A V
(For expansion)
W = P (V
2
V
1
) P A V
(For compression)
W
max
=  2.303 nRT log
10
W
max
=  2.303 nRT log
10
2
1
V
V
1
2
P
P
First Law of Thermodynamics
Enthalpy
AU = q + W
H = U + PV
AH = AU + PAV
AH = AU + AnRT
Enthalpy of physical changes
Thermo chemistry
Spontaneous processes
(Irreversible processes)
Gibbs free energy
G = H TS
rev
q H
S
T T
A
= =
AG = AH  TAS
A G
0
=  2.303 RT log
10
K
A G = 0, the system is at
equilibrium
A G < 0, the process is
spontaneous
A G > 0, the process is non
spontaneous.
Third law of thermodynamics.
4. Electrochemistry
Redox Reaction
Conductance in electronic
solutions
Resistance (R)
Electrical conductance (G)
or S
Resistivity
= O
Potential difference (V)
Electric current (I)
= O
1
1
R
= O
a
( ) R cm
1
Cell constant = cm
1
(or m
1
)
Conductivity (k)
Molar conductivity (
m
) = (k in
1
m
1
and C in mol m
3
) OR
a
=
Cell Constant
Resistance
k
C
m
(k in
1
m
1
and C in mol m
3
)
Kohlarauschs law :
0
Degree of dissociation
Dissociation constant (ka)
+
= +
0 0
.
o =
.
m
0
( )
=
k 1000
C
.
=
. . .
2
m
m
0 0
C
( )
Electrochemical cells
Electrolytic cells
Galvanic or voltaic cells
Electrode potentials and cells potential
=
0 0 0
cell red red
E E (cathode) E (anode)
+ +
+
=
n n
0
M /M
n
M / M 10
0.0592
E E log [M ]
n
=
0
10 cell cell
0.0592 [Pr oducts]
E E log
n [Reactants]
G = nFE
cell
G
0
=  RTln K
For spontaneous cell reaction :
E
cell
> 0; G < 0
A =
0 0
cell
G n FE
=
0
10 cell
0.0592
E log K
n
5. Chemical Kinetics
Rate of reaction
For a reaction, aA + bB cC + dD
Average rate =
Rate law : Rate = k [A]
a
[B]
b
A A A A
= = =
A A A A
1 [A] 1 [B] 1 [C] 1 [D]
a t b t c t d t
Dependence of rate on reactant
concentration
log
0
(for first order reaction)
t = (for first order
reaction)
=
2.303
k
t
0
t
[A]
[A]
0.693
k
k =
(For zero order reaction)
t = (For zero order reaction
Molecularity of elementary reactions
Collision theory and activation energy
0
[A]
2k
t
0
[A] [A]
t
Temperature dependence of
reaction rates (Arrhenius equation)
K = Ae
Ea/RT
(Arrhenius equation)
Log
10
k = log
10
A
Log
10
a
E
2.303RT
Effect of catalyst on rates of
reactions
=
a
1 2 2
1 1 2
k E (T T )
k 2.303R T T
6. General & Processes
of Isolation of Elements
Concentration of an ore
Oxidation reduction
Refining of crude metal
Extraction of Zinc
Extraction of Iron
Extraction of Aluminium
Extraction of Copper
7. pBlock Elements
Group 15 elements
Group 16 elements
Group 17 elements
Group 18 elements
Reference electrodes
Common types of cells
Fuel cells
Electrochemical series
Corrosion
Thank You