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C V Chandrashekara
Prof. & Head
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
JSS Academy of Technical Education,
Noida 201301
S P Singh & T K Kundra
Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
New Delhi 110016
3
rd
Asian Conference on Mechanics of Functional Materials and Structures  2012
5th to 8th Dec’ 2012
IITD, New Delhi, INDIA
• This paper address the issues related to dynamic design of structures
• Many attempts have been made in the past, focusing to obtain a desired
frequency. Earlier papers address the issues by adding mass or stiffness into
the system
• This paper address the dynamic design procedure for simple and builtup
structures
• Focus of the study is on obtaining a desired FRFs
• Receptance based FRFs is considered
• An earlier study was presented for a simple cantilever beam. It is extended
for an Lstructure
• An Optimization algorithm is developed and is used to obtain the desired
FRFs, while optimizing the different design variables
Main features of the present study
• Study has been conducted on Lstructure mounted with ‘UnConstrained
layer Damping (UCLD), ‘Passive Constrained Layer Damping (ACLD) and
‘Active Constrained Layer Damping (ACLD)’
Main features of the present study …..Contd.
Presentation Flow
• Structural dynamic Design
• Problem formulation
• Algorithm used for optimization
• Numerical Case studies and result analysis
• Experimental validation
• Concluding remarks
OBJECTIVE
DYNAMIC DESIGN
for Ltype structure via FRFs matching to get Desired Dynamic
Characteristics
The design would include using an optimal Minimum of
Structure Modification by the use of both Passive and Control Elements
Desired Dynamic Characteristics includes,
Reduced Vibration Levels,
Shifting of Natural Frequencies,
Higher Dynamic Stability and
Desired FRFs
STRUCTURAL DYNAMIC MODIFICATION (SDM)
“SDM Techniques are computer based methods by which
dynamic behavior
of a structure is improved by predicting its modified behavior
brought about
by making suitable modifications like lumped masses, stiffness
and dampers or
variations in the configuration parameters of the structure
itself”
STRUCTURAL DYNAMIC MODIFICATION (SDM) FE Model updating and structural modification based
Dynamic Design
Prototype Test
FE Model
An Initial
Design
Update FE Model
Using Test Data
Is Correction
Acceptable?
Validated FE
Model
Predict Dynamic
Characteristics
Perform
Structural
Dynamic
Modification
(SDM)
Are Predicted
Dynamic
Characteristics
Acceptable?
Desired Dynamic
Characteristics
A Dynamically
Sound Design
Yes
Yes
No
No
Experimental part NOT discussed here
Analytical Part discussed here
650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100
10
5
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
Frequency (Hz)
R
e
c
e
p
t
a
n
c
e
(
m
/
N
)
Initial FRF
Desired FRF
Achieved FRF
No
Generate the
matching FRFs
Minimize the error &
Evaluate the optimum values
For Passive / Control Elements
FE Model
Evaluate Dynamic
Characteristics
Evaluate the error
(Difference)
Structure
Define the Target
Dynamic
Characteristics
Modify on the FE Model
Is the error
minimum?
Yes
END
Select the design variables
For modification
Flow Chart showing Structural Dynamic Modification using FRFs matching
FRFs Matching
FRFs Matching
Problem Formulation
LType structures can be realized in many practical applications
• Drilling machine
• Milling machines
• Precision instruments
• Attachments in satellites
• Civil structures
• Solar Panel support
1
0
0
m
m
100 mm
10 mm
1 mm
Finite Element Formulation for L – Type Structure
Element Stiffness and Mass Matrix for Vertical Column
Element Stiffness and Mass Matrix for Horizontal Column
Formulation
. .
ve V V
K R K R
'
=
. .
ve V V
M R M R
'
=
. .
he H H
K R K R
'
=
. .
he H H
M R M R
'
=
Ref: (Kwon and Bang (1997) pp. 286)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
=
c L Lc c L Lc
Lc c Lc c
a a
c L Lc c L Lc
Lc c Lc c
a a
k
2 2
2 2
4 6 0 2 6 0
6 12 0 6 12 0
0 0 0 0
2 6 0 4 6 0
6 12 0 6 12 0
0 0 0 0
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷
=
d L Ld d L Ld
Ld d Ld d
f f
d L Ld d L Ld
Ld d Ld d
f f
m
2 2
2 2
4 22 0 3 13 0
22 156 0 13 54 0
0 0 2 0 0
3 13 0 4 22 0
13 54 0 22 156 0
0 0 0 0 2
3
/
/
L EI c
L EA a
=
=
6 /
420 /
AL f
AL d
µ
µ
=
=
Where,
Mass and Stiffness Matrix
(5)
(6)
Where,
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
cos sin 0 0 0 0
sin cos 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 cos sin 0
0 0 0 sin cos 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
v v
v v
V
v v
v v
R
u u
u u
u u
u u
(
(
÷
(
(
(
=
(
(
÷
(
(
¸ ¸
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
cos sin 0 0 0 0
sin cos 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 cos sin 0
0 0 0 sin cos 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
h h
h h
H
h h
h h
R
u u
u u
u u
u u
(
(
÷
(
(
(
=
(
(
÷
(
(
¸ ¸
/ 2
0
v
h
u t
u
=
=
(7)
(8)
0 1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
V
R
(
(
÷
(
(
=
(
(
(
÷
(
¸ ¸
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
H
R
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
/ 2
0
v
h
u t
u
=
=
R
V
& R
H
further reduces to, With
(9)
(10)
The equation of motion for an element can be written as,
  { }   { } { }
e e e e e
M q K q F + =
(11)
Mq Kq F + =
The global equations of motion are obtained by assembling the elemental equations
and applying appropriate boundary conditions as follows:
(12)
Equation (12) can be solved to extract any FRF element, such as
o
jk
(e) (Receptance), and express it explicitly in a series forms as follows,
( )
( )( )
2 2 2
1
N
jk
r
r r r
jr kr
i
 
o e
e e q e
=
=
÷ +
¿
(13)
where,
 = Massnormalized eigenvectors of the system
r = Any mode of interest
e
r
= Resonance frequency at r
th
mode
e = Frequency of interest
N = Maximum mode of interest
j = Point of excitation
k = Point of response
q
r
= System modal loss factor at r
th
mode
Using equation (13), over a selected frequency range one can determine the frequency
response functions (FRFs) of the system covering any number of modes. The same equation
is used in the optimization routine to evaluate the optimum values of selected design
variables of the system to generate FRFs to match the desired FRFs.
Material characteristics and the dimensions
Details Value
Basebeam (mild steel)
Length (Vertical column) 0.100 m
Length (Horizontal column) 0.100 m
Width 0.01 m
Thickness 0.001 m
Mass density 7800 kg/m
3
Young's modulus 2.1 x 10
11
N/m
2
Mode 1 2 3 4
Frequency
(Hz)
27.9 76.0 375.6 550.6
First five natural frequency
Ltype base structure
Finite Element Formulation for L type structure with UCLD patches
Finite element formulation for Ltype structure mounted with UCLD patches is
developed.
The stiffness matrix of an element with UCLD patch is obtained by replacing
the stiffness terms ‘a and c’ in equation (5) by the term ‘a
v
, and c
v
’. These
equivalent stiffness terms ‘a
v
, and c
v
’ are now given as follows,
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
b b v v b n v bv n
v
E bt E bt E D E t D
a
L
(
+ + + ÷
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
(14)
where, ( )
( ) ( )
and
2
v v bv
b v
n bv
v v b b
E t t
t t
D t
E t E t
(
+
 
= =
(

+
\ . (
¸ ¸
3
c
v
D b
c
L
(
=
(
¸ ¸
(15)
c b v
D D D = +
( )
3
2
12
b b
b b b n
E t
D E t D
(
 
= +
( 
(
\ .
¸ ¸
( )
( )
3
2
12
v v
v v v bv n
E t
D E t t D
(
 
= + ÷
( 
(
\ .
¸ ¸
where,
the elemental mass matrix of an element with UCLD patch is obtained by
replacing the inertial terms ‘d and f’ in equation (6) by the equivalent inertial
terms ‘d
v
, and f
v
’. These terms ‘d
v
, and f
v
’ are now given as follows,
6
c
v
r bL
d =
420
c
v
r bL
f =
( )
c b b v v
r r t r t = +
where,
(16)
(17)
t
v
= Thickness of the UCLD patch in m
E
v
= Complex modulus of UCLD patch in N/m
2
µ
v
= Mass density per unit length of UCLD patch in kg/m
3
The suffix ‘v’ in the derivations represents the viscoelastic material, i.e., UCLD
patch. Equation (13) holds good to evaluate the FRFs for Ltype structure with
UCLD patches.
Material characteristics and the dimensions of Unconstrained
Layer Damping (UCLD) – Viscoelastic material
Details Value
Width
Thickness
0.01 m
0.0015 m
Mass density 650 kg/m
3
Complex modulus 2.5x10
9
(1 + 0.5 i) N/m
2
22
650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100
10
5
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
Frequency (Hz)
R
e
c
e
p
t
a
n
c
e
(
m
/
N
)
Initial FRF
Desired FRF
Achieved FRF
METHODOLOGY
Initial and Desired Frequency Response Function (FRF)
ω
L
ω
U
23
,
Desired receptance
Achieved receptance
Lower frequency range
Upper frequency range
Number of frequency points on the FRFs
d
a
L
U
f
where
n
o
o
e
e
=
=
=
=
=
Notations used for the Optimization Algorithm Formulation
100
n
f
f(x) = ¿
n=e
U
n=e
L
o
d
 o
a
o
d
[ ]
The multiplication term 100 indicates the percentage
The objective function ‘percentage error’ is defined mathematically as,
24
Objective function to ‘minimize percentage error’
min f(x)
subject to,
c
1
(x) > 0,
c
2
(x) < n
e
,
c
3
(x) < c
n
Length of each element,
Number of elements and
Configuration number
x is the vector of variables, also called unknowns or parameters
f is the objective function, a function of x to be minimized*
c is the vector of constraints that the unknowns must satisfy
This is a vector function of the variables x
The number of components in c is the number of individual restrictions that we place on the
Variables
(* In this case, the area between the target FRFs and current FRFs over a specified frequency
range is sought to be minimized)
25
Frequency ranges:
Pre selected by the designer to cover the desired modes of interest
Set of design variables:
Location, length and thickness of patches, and displacement
and velocity gains considered for modifications
Choice of target FRFs:
Depends on the dynamic designer and is application specific
0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0
0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0
1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1
(a) (b) (c)
(d) (e) (f)
(g) (h) (i)
(j) (k) (l)
(m
)
(n) (o)
Figure Shows Fifteen possible configurations of ULCD patches
Example 1
l
3
l
2
ly
2
ly
1
=0
lx
1
l
1
ly
1
=0
l
3
lx
1
l
1
FRFs
Position (m) Length (m)
l
y1
l
y2
l
x1
l
1
l
2
l
3
Desired 0 0.075 0.05 0.025 0.025 0.05
Achieved 0 0 0.025 0.025 0 0.075
DYNAMIC DESIGN FOR LSTRUCTURE
Configuration set
for the desired FRFs
Configuration achieved
for the achieved FRFs
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
Frequency (Hz)
R
e
c
e
p
t
a
n
c
e

M
A
G
i
n
d
B
FRFs L type structure with UCLD Patch
Base beam FRFs
Desired FRFs
Achieved FRFs
Example 1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Number of Iterations
%
E
r
r
o
r
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
D
e
s
i
r
e
d
a
n
d
A
c
h
i
e
v
e
d
F
R
F
s
Optimization Path with UCLD Patch Example 1
Mode
Frequency (Hz) System loss factor
Desired Achieved
Error
(%)
Desired Achieved
Error
(%)
First 29 28 2 0.055865 0.045934 18
Second 79 77 3 0.061661 0.045145 27
DYNAMIC DESIGN FOR LSTRUCTURE WITH UCLD
Path involving 33 iterations followed by the
optimization algorithm is shown & Optimization
convergence occurs at 9
th
iteration onwards.
FRFs matching over a frequency range
0120Hz covering first two natural frequencies
Reduction in FRFs levels by specific percentage
Configurations considered
l
2
ly
2
ly
1
=0
l
3
l
1
Position (m) Length (m)
l
y1
l
y2
l
x1
l
1
l
2
l
3
0 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.08
Thickness of the viscoelastic material
is considered as design variable
Desired to reduce FRF response level by 45%
keeping the initial value of viscoelastic material’s
thickness as 0.01m, the algorithm achieved a reduction
of 43% at 0.002m at 23rd iterations.
Example 2
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
x 10
5
X: 30.24
Y: 2.024e005
X: 28.97
Y: 2.047e005
X: 28.97
Y: 3.721e005
X: 77.35
Y: 3.81e005
X: 77.35
Y: 2.096e005
X: 79.26
Y: 2.126e005
Frequency (Hz)
R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

(
m
/
N
)
Response v/s Frequency  L type structure with UCLD Patch
Initial Peak
Desired Peak
Achieved Peak
Example 3
Mode Parameter Initial Desired Achieved
1
Frequency (Hz) 29 29 30
Response (m/N) 3.721 2.047 2.024
2
Frequency (Hz) 77 77 79
Response (m/N) 3.810 2.096 2.126
Reduction in FRFs levels by specific percentage
0 5 10 15 20 25
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
x 10
3
Number of Iterations
T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
o
f
V
E
M

(
m
)
Optimization Path L type structure with UCLD Patch
Example 3
ly
1
=0
l
3
lx
2
l
1
lx
1
l
2
configuration
Position (m) Length (m)
l
y1
l
x1
l
x2
l
1
l
2
l
3
Desired 0 0.02 0.08 0.04 0.04 0.02
Achieved 0 0.02 0.08 0.04 0.04 0.02
DYNAMIC DESIGN FOR LSTRUCTURE WITH PCLD
Configuration set
for the desired FRFs
Configuration achieved
for the achieved FRFs
Set of PCLD patches as design variable
Example 3
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
Frequency (Hz)
R
e
c
e
p
t
a
n
c
e

M
A
G
i
n
d
B
FRFs L type structure with PCLD patches Example 4
Base beam FRFs
Desired FRFs
Achieved FRFs
Mode
Frequency (Hz) System loss factor x 10
9
Desired Achieved
Error
Desired Achieved
Error
(%) (%)
1 25 25 0 2.35 2.35 0
2 68 68 0 1.13 1.13 0
3 345 345 0 24.00 24.00 0
DYNAMIC DESIGN FOR LSTRUCTURE WITH PCLD
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
Number of Iterations
%
E
r
r
o
r
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
D
e
s
i
r
e
d
a
n
d
A
c
h
i
e
v
e
d
F
R
F
s
Optimization Path L type structure with PCLD patches Example 4
FRFs matching over a frequency
range 0500Hz covering first three
natural frequencies are considered.
Converges starts at 16
th
and ends at
35
th
iterations
Reduction in FRFs levels by specific percentage
Core layer thickness as design variable
ly
1
=0
l
1
lx
2
l
2
lx
1
=0
l
2
l
1
ly
2
Position (m) Length (m)
l
y1
l
y2
l
x1
l
x2
l
1
l
2
l
3
l
4
0 0.04 0 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.04
Desired to reduce receptance response level by 35%,
Achieved reduction of receptance response level 34%
Initial value of viscoelastic material’s thickness 0.001m,
Optimized thickness 0.0009m.
Example 4
22 24 26 28 30 32
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
x 10
4
X: 27.53
Y: 0.0002925
X: 27.06
Y: 0.0002895
X: 27.06
Y: 0.0004454
Frequency (Hz)
R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

(
m
/
N
)
Response v/s Frequency  L type structure with PCLD Patch
Initial Peak
Desired Peak
Achieved Peak
Example 5
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5
10
10.5
11
x 10
4
Number of Iterations
T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
o
f
V
E
M

(
m
)
Optimization Path L type structure with PCLD Patch
Mode Parameter Initial Desired Achieved
1
Frequency (Hz) 27.1 27.1 27.5
Peak (m/N) 0.00045 0.00029 0.00029
2
Frequency (Hz) 72.4 72.4 73.8
Peak (m/N) 0.0013 0.00084 0.00085
Reduction in FRFs levels by specific percentage
Core layer thickness as design variable
35
Hybrid Layer Damping (HLD) configurations
on a Cantilever beam
Other configurations available in the literature to be explained
u
2
e
1
e
2
¸
1
u
1
u
2
u
1
Constraining layer
Viscoelastic layer
Base beam
¸
2
Piezoelectric Layer
PCLD patch
Passive Constrained layer
Controller
Amplifier
Base beam
Viscoelastic Layer
From Sensor
Fig. 1 Hybrid Layer Damping (HLD) configurations
36
Fig. 2 The Geometry and deformation of PCLD beam element
Kinematics relationships
u
s
u
¢
u
b
z
x
u
c
¸
Base Beam
Core Layer (VEM)
Constrained Layer
u
2
e
1
e
2
¸
1
u
1
u
2
u
1
Constraining layer
Viscoelastic layer
Base beam
¸
2
ly
1
=0
l
3
lx
2
l
2
lx
1
=0
l
4
l
1
ly
2
Position (m) Length (m)
l
y1
l
y2
l
x1
l
x2
l
1
l
2
l
3
l
4
0 0.075 0 0.075 0.025 0.025 0.05 0.025
DYNAMIC DESIGN FOR LSTRUCTURE WITH ACLD
Configuration set
for the desired FRFs
Configuration achieved
for the achieved FRFs
Example 5
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
Frequency (Hz)
R
e
c
e
p
t
a
n
c
e

M
A
G
i
n
d
B
L type structure with ACLD
Base beam FRFs
Desired FRFs
Achieved FRFs
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
5
10
15
20
25
Number of Iterations
%
E
r
r
o
r
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
D
e
s
i
r
e
d
a
n
d
A
c
h
i
e
v
e
d
F
R
F
s
Optimization Path  Ltype structure with ACLD
Mode
Frequency
(Hz)
g
d
g
v
System loss factor
(x 10
9
)
1 23 50 14 0.00539
2 63 25 10 1.41
3 314 17 8 2.13
DYNAMIC DESIGN FOR LSTRUCTURE WITH ACLD
Path involving 29 iterations followed by the
optimization algorithm is shown & Optimization
convergence occurs at 11
th
iteration onwards.
FRFs matching over a frequency range
0500Hz covering first three natural frequencies
Reduction in FRFs levels by specific percentage
ly
1
=0
l
1
lx
2
l
2
lx
1
=0
l
2
l
1
ly
2
10 15 20 25 30 35
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
x 10
5
X: 23.87
Y: 4.563e005
X: 23.87
Y: 2.282e005
Frequency (Hz)
R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

(
m
/
N
)
Response v/s Frequency  L type structure with ACLD Patch
X: 23.4
Y: 2.461e005
Initial Peak
Desired Peak
Achieved Peak
Position (m) Length (m)
l
y1
l
y2
l
x1
l
x2
l
1
l
2
l
3
l
4
0 0.04 0 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.04
Feedback gains as design variables
Example 6
For first modal 35%
reduction desired
Achieved
reduction 34%
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
x 10
4
Number of iterations
V
a
l
u
e
o
f
g
d
Optimization path for gd
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
Number of iterations
V
a
l
u
e
o
f
g
v
Optimization path for gv
Optimization path for displacement gain Optimization path for velocity gain
Mode 1 2 3
FRFs
Frequency
(Hz)
Response
(m/N)
Frequency
(Hz)
Response
(m/N)
Frequency
(Hz)
Response
(m/N)
Initial 23.87 4.56E05 66.05 0.00011 324.5 0.00053
Desired 23.87 2.28E05 66.05 5.7E05 324.5 0.00026
Achieved 23.4 2.46E05 66.21 5.8E05 324.5 0.00027
Reduction in FRFs levels by specific percentage
Conclusions
• A technique has been presented and applied for modification
of structures, so as to obtain the desired dynamic
characteristics.
• The optimization strategy includes the varied parameters, of
actively controlled structures, including the position of patches
( a digital variable) , no of patches as well as control gains.
• It is proved that the strategy works very well for getting the
desired system behavior since
FRF encompasses the resonance frequencies and damping
effects.
• The output gives the final size, thickness and number of
patches and where to place them and should be useful for
designers of smart structures.
Thank You for Your Patience
FRFs matching approach can successfully be used in dynamic design to obtain desired
FRFs for a builtup structure other than beam structure mounted with different kinds of
damping treatment. Design variables can be position, length and thickness of the
damping treatment considered, as well as the control parameters for the active elements.
The use pattern formation which was explained for cantilever beam structure can be
extended for Lstructure and used for quick results of getting desired fundamental
frequencies.
In the case of Lstructure mounted with PCLD patches, reduction in receptance levels
by specific percentage for a given configuration can be extended involving the thickness
of both core layer and constraining layer as design variables.
1. Formulation of Finite Element Model
2. Developing the Computer Code
3. Evaluate initial Frequency Response Functions Matrix
4. Choose a Desired FRFs (D_FRFs)
5. Select Desired Design Variable –
For Structural Dynamic Modification
6. Evaluate the Difference in area formed by the (I_FRF) & (D_FRF)
over a selected range of frequency and termed it as “error”
METHODOLOGY
STRUCTURAL DYNAMIC MODIFICATION (SDM) via FRFs MATCHING
Methodology
8. Minimize the “error”
leads to an optimum value for the Selected Design Variable
9. Repeat the step (7) to (9) for next selected design variable
Passive Controlled Structures,
m, k and c –As Design Variables
Actively controlled Structures,
Actuator Size(Area) / thickness/ location etc.,
Displacement/ Velocity Gain – As Design Variables
10. Suggest the best suited Structural Dynamic Modification Configuration
METHODOLOGY (Cont…..)
STRUCTURAL DYNAMIC MODIFICATION (SDM) via FRFs MATCHING
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