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PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
Organising Management Defined Staffing Features of Directing Management Control Nature of Control Management Techniques Levels of Management Functions of Management PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education Planning
PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
MANAGEMENT Prof. Haimann has interpreted the term “management” in three distinct aspects:
(a) Management as a field of study or a subject. (b) Management as a team or class of people or a noun. (c) Management as a process.
PCTI Limited - A Unique Name For Quality Education
A Unique Name For Quality Education .prescribed.Management as a field of study or a subject refers to the principles and practices of management. Management as a team or class of people refers to the group of managerial personnel of an enterprise functioning in their supervisory capacity. It entails all the principles and practices as a knowledge and its application in its entirety. some yardsticks are PCTI Limited .
A Unique Name For Quality Education .Management as a process refers to different processes or steps of management—right from planning to organising. staffing. Management in this context has been defined as the process of getting things done by and in cooperation with others. PCTI Limited . supervising and controlling.
”Management is the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals.According to Harold Koontz and Cyrill O’Donnel. working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals.” PCTI Limited .A Unique Name For Quality Education .
”Management may be defined as the art of applying the economic principles that underline the control of men and material in the enterprise under consideration.According to Kimball and Kimball.A Unique Name For Quality Education .” PCTI Limited .
UNIVERSAL PROCESS: AN INTEGRATIVE PROCESS: DYNAMIC FUNCTION: SOCIAL PROCESS MANAGEMENT MAKES THINGS HAPPEN MANAGEMENT IS A MULTI-FACETED DISCIPLINE MANAGEMENT IS A SCIENCE AND AN ART INTANGIBLE FORCE PCTI Limited . 6.FEATURES OF MANAGEMENT Following are certain features that illustrate the wide breadth of scope of management. 3. 4. 5. 8. 7. 1. 2.A Unique Name For Quality Education .
the consistency of authority and responsibility are some of the important principles that helpPCTIdecide. theories experimentation and principles that are universal and true.” The unity of command.proper Name For Quality Education to Limited A Unique delegation of authority.NATURE OF MANAGEMENT The most dependable view regarding the nature of management is that management is a science and art. MANAGEMENT AS A SCIENCE Science is the systematised body of knowledge certaining to a particular field of enquiry. both. Such systematised body of knowledge contains. concepts. . The various concepts and principles of science are developed on the basis of observation and experiments.
(iv) Management is personalised—every man in this profession has his individual approach and technique in solving problems. character and knowledge. The success of managerial task is related with personality of the men.A Unique . management is creative in the sense that management creates new situations needed fo further improvement. (ii) The process of management is directed towards the accomplishment of concrete results (iii) Like any other art. we can conclude that management is both a science and an art. Name For Quality Education PCTI Limited . Thus.MANAGEMENT AS AN ART Art is about bringing out the desired results through the application of skill. Management is an art because: (i)The process of management does involve the use of know-how and skills.
Top management. . Thus. the term “Levels of Management” refers to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an organisation. The number of managers depends upon the size of the business and workforce. The number of levels of management increases when the size of the business and workforce increases.LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT The stage in the organisation where a particular type of function starts is called a level of management. In most of the organisations. 2. Levels of management are increased so as to achieve effective supervision. there are generally three levels of management: 1. Middle Limited .A Unique Name For Quality Education PCTI management. There is a limit to the number of subordinates a person can supervise.
They receive orders and instructions from top management and get the things done Limited .. General Manager. branch managers. Lower management. office superintendent. production manager. Secretaries and Treasurers. through lower level Quality Education PCTI .3. etc.A Unique Name Formanagement. TOP MANAGEMENT It establishes goals and policies for the enterprise and devotes more time on the planning and coordination of functions. etc. It approves the decisions of the middle level management and includes Board of Directors. 2. 1. MIDDLE MANAGEMENT It generally consists of heads of functional departments viz. Managing Director. chief cashier. sales manager.
foreman. etc. accounts officers.3.A Unique Name For Quality Education . sales officers. LOWER MANAGEMENT It is the lowest level of management and thus has a direct contact with the workers. TOP LEVEL MANAGEMENT MIDDLE LEVEL MANAGMENT LOW LEVEL MANAGMENT PCTI Limited . It includes supervisors.
A Unique Name For Quality Education .2 PCTI Limited .SESSION:.
organising. foresight and sound judgement. “functions of management are planning. staffing.” 1. The managers at the top level in an organisation devote more time on planning as compared to the managers at the lower levels.FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT All the managers have to perform certain functions in an organisation to get the things moving. directing and controlling.A Unique Name For Quality Education . PCTI Limited . PLANNING It is a mental process requiring the use of intellectual faculties. But there is never complete agreement among experts on what functions should be included in the management process. According to them. This function is performed by managers at all levels.
and (iv) Developing relationship in terms of authorities and responsibilities. The process of organising involves the following steps: (i) Determination of objectives.Planning includes: (i) determination of objectives. (ii) forecasting.A Unique Name For Quality Education ORGANISING . (ii) Division of activities. and (v) budgeting. (iii) Fitting individuals to specific jobs. PCTI Limited . 2. (iv) drawing policies and procedures. (iii) search of alternative courses of action and their evaluation.
(iii) Training and developing selected people to discharge organisational function. (ii) Fixing remuneration. Limited . STAFFING The managerial function of staffing includes manning the organisational structure through proper and effective selection process. and (iv) Appraisal of personnel. Every manager is continuously engaged in performing the staffing function.A Unique Name For Quality Education PCTI . The staffing function involves: (i) Proper recruitment and selection of the people. appraisal and the development of personnel to fill the roles designed into the structure.3.
A Unique Name For Quality Education . organising and staffing are merely preparations of the work.4. Direction is the interpersonnel aspect of management which deals directly with influencing. PCTI Limited . DIRECTING Planning. guiding. the work actually starts when managers start performing the direct functions. It consists of four subfunctions: (I) COMMUNICATION: It is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. supervising and motivating the subordinates for the accomplishment of the pre-determined objectives. A successful manager should develop an effective system of communication so that he may issue instructions and receive the reactions of the subordinates and motivate them.
direct and control the performance of subordinates. guide them and exercise leadership.A Unique Name For Quality Education .(II) LEADERSHIP: It is the process by which a manager guides and influences the work of his subordinates. PCTI Limited . In doing this they have to plan the work—give them directions and instructions. (III) MOTIVATION: Motivation means inspiring the subordinates to zealously work towards accomplishment and achievement of organisational goods and objectives. (IV) SUPERVISION: Managers have to personally watch.
A manager cannot control the past but can avoid mistakes in the future by taking actions in the light of past experiences.A Unique Name For Quality Education CONTROLLING . (iv) finding variances between the two and reasons for the variance. Controlling involves :(i) fixing appropriate standards. PCTI Limited . Controlling is visualising that actual performance is guided towards expected performance. (iii) comparing actual and planned performance. and (v) taking corrective actions.5. The most notable feature is that it is forward-looking. (ii) measurement of actual performance. It is the measurement and appraisal of the activities performed by the subordinates in order to make sure that the objectives and the plans devised to attain them are being accomplished.
The essence of planning is looking ahead. It involves a pre-determined course of action. . This action course is determined after a careful study of alternative courses. It is a continuous and integrated process. 4. In simple words. It has always a dimension of time.Unique Name For Quality results. how and by whom it is to be done. Thus. 5. . 6. when. The following are the important elements to planning: 1. 2. It is an attempt on the part of a manager to anticipate the future in order to achieve better performance. It is always concerned with future. 3. planning is deciding in advance what is to be done. Its main objectAis to achieve better Education PCTI Limited . where. a plan is a determined course of action.PLANNING Planning is a fundamental managerial function.
It provides rational approach to managerial activities.IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING “Planning is the foundation of most successful action of an enterprise. efficiency and stability in managerial actions and decisions. (i) Planning offsets future uncertainty and change (ii) Planning helps in management by objectives (iii) It helps in co-ordination (iv) Economy in operation (v) Helps in control PCTI in executive development (vi) HelpsLimited . The following are some important benefits of planning.A Unique Name For Quality Education .” It brings orderliness.
They are really the starting point of planning process. Objectives are basic plans and they are necessary for all types of planning and operation. personnel area or marketing area. master plans are the programmes that indicate the short-term or single-use plans. Another way to look at the scope of planning is to divide it into three groups— OBJECTIVES SETTING STANDING PLANS AND MASTER PLANS. PCTI Limited .A Unique Name For Quality Education .SCOPE OF PLANNING The scope of planning can be extended to every field of business—whether it is finance area. Standing plans provide a ready guide to action in solving recurring problems.
(v) Evaluation of Alternatives (vi) Selection of Plan and Development of Derivative Plans PCTI Limited . discussed below: (i) Establishing Objectives (ii) Collection of Information and Forecasting (iii) Development of Planning Premises (iv) Search of Alternatives. Operational Planning 3.TYPES OF PLANNING There are three types of planning: 1.A Unique Name For Quality Education . Strategic Planning 2. Tactical Planning The steps that are applicable to most types of plans.
A Unique Name For Quality Education . The Plan should be Capable of being Controlled PROCESS OF PLANNING It is difficult to specify the steps in the planning process for all organisations because of their differences in size PCTI Limited . The Plan should be Logical 3. The Plan should be Complete and Integrated 4.Essential Requirements of an Effective Plan An effective plan is one that helps in the better management of the enterprise. The Plan should be Flexible 5. The Plan should be Specific 2. In order to be effective. a plan should possess the following characteristics: 1.
But a number of other courses of future action are also plans. (2) objectives. In fact. (3) strategies. a plan can encompass any course of future action. Limited . (4) policies. It is easy to see that a major program.A Unique Name For Quality Education PCTI . which clearly shows that plans are varied. They are classified here as (1) purposes or missions.TYPES OF PLANS The failure of some managers to recognise that there are a number of different types of plans has often caused difficulty in making planning effective. is a plan. such as one to build and equip a new factory.
PURPOSES OR MISSIONS The mission or purpose identifies the basic function or task of an enterprise or agency or of any part of it. 1. (7) programs. and (8) budgets. (6) rules.(5) procedures. may have a social purpose of producing and distributing goods and services. it can accomplish this by fulfilling a mission of producing certain lines of products. such as Exxon. For Quality Education PCTI Limited A Unique Name . and market petroleum and a wide variety of petroleum products. refine. from diesel fuel to -chemicals. Some writers distinguish between purposes and missions. While a business. The missions of an oil company. are to search for oil and to produce. for example.
Its goals naturally contribute to the attainment of enterprise objectives. a department may also have its own objectives. staffing.2.A Unique Name For Quality Education . but the two sets of goals may be entirely different. leading. OBJECTIVES Objectives are the end toward which activity is aimed — they are the results to be achieved. While enterprise objectives are the basic plan of the firm. and controlling are aimed. PCTI Limited . They represent not only the end point of planning but the end toward which organising.
and policies governing the acquisition. STRATEGIES (1) general programs of action and deployment of resources to attain comprehensive objectives (2) the program of objectives of an organisation and their changes. and (3) the determination of the basic long-term objectives of an enterprise and the adoption of courses of action and allocation of PCTI Limited .A Unique Name For Quality Education . and disposition of these resources. resources used to attain these objectives.3. use.
SESSION:.A Unique Name For Quality Education .3 PCTI Limited .
is to determine and communicate.The PURPOSE OF STRATEGIES. then. a picture of the kind of enterprise that is envisioned. justify the separation of strategies as a type of plan for the purpose of analysis Limited . But they furnish a framework for guiding thinking and action.A Unique Name For Quality Education PCTI . Strategies do not attempt to outline exactly how the enterprise is to accomplish its objectives. Their usefulness in practice and their importance in guiding planning do. since this is the task of countless major and minor supporting programs. through a system of major objectives and policies. however.
4. POLICIES Policies define an area within which a decision is to be made and ensure that the decision will be consistent with. and contribute to. but within limits.A Unique Name For Quality Education . The amount of freedom will naturally depend upon the policy and in turn will reflect position and PCTI the organisation. authority in Limited . They may be related to functions such as sales and finance or merely to a project such as the design of a new product to meet a specified competition. Policy is a means of encouraging discretion and initiative. Policies help decide issues before they become problems. an objective. make it unnecessary to analyse the same situation every time it comes up. and unify other plans. thus permitting managers to delegate authority and still maintain control over what their subordinates do.
through its decentralising influence. to widespread participation in policymaking and interpretation. Third. with almost certain variations among individuals. Second. Making policies consistent and integrated enough to realise enterprise objectives is difficult for many reasons. it is not always easy to control policy because actual policy may be difficult to ascertain and intended policy may not always be clear.A Unique Name For Quality Education . PCTI Limited . First. policies are too seldom defined in writing and their exact interpretations are too little known. the very delegation of authority that policies are intended to implement leads.The president of a company with a policy of aggressive price competition has a broad area of discretion and initiative in which to interpret and apply this policy.
5. and the traffic department (for determination of shipping means and route). in a manufacturing company. the procedure for handling orders will almost certainly involve the sales department (for the original order). PROCEDURES Procedures are plans that establish a required method of handling future activities. the accounting department (for recording the transaction).A Unique Name For Quality Education . the finance department (for acknowledgment of receipt of funds and for customer credit approval). Procedures often cut across department lines. For example. PCTI Limited . the production department (for the order to produce goods or authority to release them from stock).
PCTI Limited . Be sure you can distinguish rules from policies. RULES Rules spell out specific required actions or non-actions.6. The purpose of policies is to guide decision making by marking off areas in which managers can use their discretion.A Unique Name For Quality Education . They are usually the simplest type of plan. allowing no discretion. may or may not be part of a procedure. however. A rule.
7. policies. they are ordinarily supported by budgets. task assignments. A program for providing the maintenance and operating bases with spare parts and components must be developed in detail. procedures. Some programs. steps to be taken. PROGRAMS Programs are a complex of goals. rules. and other elements necessary to carry out a given course of action. can be accomplished too soon as well as too late. resources to be employed. particularly those involving hiring and training of personnel.A Unique Name For Quality Education . needless expense results when employees are available and trained before their services are PCTI Limited .
as the cash budget does.A Unique Name For Quality Education . or any other numerically measurable term. It may be referred to as a "numberised" program. In fact. It may deal with operations. the financial operating budget is often called a "profit plan. as the capital expenditures budget does." A budget may be expressed either in financial terms or in terms of labour-hours. or it may show cash flow. it may reflect capital outlays. PCTI Limited . BUDGETS A budget is a statement of expected results expressed in numerical terms. as the expense budget does. units of product.8. machine-hours.
description and analysis of such planning premises become imperative. one of the major ADVANTAGES OF BUDGETING is that (I) it makes people plan. (II) it forces precision in planning.A Unique Name For Quality Education . detail. and purpose. these are called variable or flexible budgets. In fact. PCTI Limited . (III) Budgets vary considerably in accuracy. because a budget is in the form of numbers. Hence. the definition.Although a budget usually implements a program. Some budgets vary according to the organisation's level of output. it may in itself be a program. (IV) Planning Premises Effective planning is largely dependent upon the knowledge and accurate choice of planning premises.
The management cannot successfully plan without their knowledge. The manager tries to forecast only those factors which are strategically important and which have material bearing on his business.A Unique Name For Quality Education own planning.PLANNING PREMISES are those basic assumptions upon which the process of planning proceeds. The established background environment or framework within which a firm operates is called planning premises. . It is neither possible nor practical for a manager to research for and analyse all these factors. There basic planning premises are called building stones as they will form the foundation on which the managers can do theirPCTI Limited .
CLASSIFICATION OF PLANNING PREMISES Planning premises can be classified in several ways: 1. Tangible and intangible premises 3.A Unique Name For Quality Education . External and internal premises 2. semi-controllable and uncontrollable premises PCTI Limited . Controllable.
which individuals or groups have to perform with the facilities necessary for its execution. that the duties so performed provide the best channels for the efficient. Grouping and assigning of activities 3.ORGANISING Organisation is the process of so combining the work. identification and enumeration of activities 2. Delegation of authority PCTI Limited . positive. systematic. and coordinated application of the available effort. Determination. Steps in Organisation 1.A Unique Name For Quality Education .
the interdependency is reduced to a minimum. the conflicts between individuals over jurisdiction are kept to minimum.BENEFITS OF A GOOD ORGANISATION Some of the beneficial outcomes are: 1. the responsibility of performing that job rests solely with him. A good organisation facilitates attainment of objectives through proper coordination of all activities. Since each person is assigned a particular job to perform. In a good organisation.A Unique Name For Quality Education . PCTI Limited . 2. Hence. It has a built-in system of “checks and balances” so that the progress towards the attainment of objectives is evaluated along the way and any new decisions required are taken.
However. It decreases likelihood of “runarounds. PCTI Limited . It eliminates overlapping and duplication of work. such duplication of work is eliminated.” The “run-arounds’ occur when we do not know who is responsible for what and we are sent to wrong people for getting some work done. 4. Duplication only exists when the work distribution is not clearly identified and the work is performed in a haphazard and disorganised way. Since a good organisation demands that the duties be clearly assigned. this Name Fornot occur.A Unique does Quality Education . in a well organised company where the responsibilities are clearly established.3.
If these be clearly established and the yearly increments or cost of living increment for each type of job is properly understood then compensation administration For Quality Education PCTI Limited . 6. A fair and equitable wage and salary schedule is based on the premise that jobs with similar requirements should have similar benefits. the promotional stages can be more clearly established. It facilities promotions. it is easier to know as to which level is reached.5. Since each job is well described in terms of qualifications and duties.A Unique Name policies are easier . It aids in wage and salary administration. Since the organisational chart clearly pinpoints the positions of all individuals relative to one another.
8. Name For Quality Education PCTI Limited . Since good organisation is basis for effective planning in the short run as well as in the long run. the intercommunication is both clearer and easier and it eliminates ambiguity. such planning has the provision to permit changes to be made in the right direction including expansion and contraction of operations and activities when necessary.7. Communication is easier at all levels of the organisational hierarchy.A Unique . Since the lines of communication and the flow of authority is quite clear in the organisational chart.