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c3.6 Differentiation

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Core 3

for Edexcel

C3.6 Differentiation

This icon indicates the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation.

1 of 56 Boardworks Ltd 2006

The chain rule The relationship between

Contents

dy dx

and

dx dy

Differentiating ln x and related functions The product rule

Differentiating trigonometric functions Examination-style question

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Review of differentiation

So far, we have used differentiation to find the gradients of functions made up of a sum of multiples of powers of x. We found that:

If y = x n then dy = nx n 1 dx

dy If y = kx then = knx n1 dx

n

Also:

dy If y = f ( x ) g( x ) then = f '( x ) g '( x ) dx

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Review of differentiation

We will now look at how to differentiate exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric functions. We will also look at techniques that can be used to differentiate: Compound functions of the form f(g(x)). For example:

x 1

2

3 x2

sin( x3 )

x ln x

xe 2 x

3 x 2 cos x

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x2 ln x

Boardworks Ltd 2006

The chain rule is used to differentiate composite functions. For instance, suppose we want to differentiate y = (2x + 1)3 with respect to x.

One way to do this is to expand (2x + 1)3 and differentiate it term by term. Using the binomial theorem:

(2 x +1)3 = 8 x3 + 3(4 x2 ) + 3(2 x) +1 = 8 x 3 +12 x 2 + 6 x +1 Differentiating with respect to x: dy = 24 x 2 + 24 x + 6 dx = 6(4 x2 + 4 x +1) = 6(2 x +1)2

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Another approach is to use the substitution u = 2x + 1 so that we can write y = (2x + 1)3 as y = u3. The chain rule states that:

If y is a function of u and u is a function of x, then dy dy du = dx du dx So if y = u3 dy = 3u 2 du where u = 2x + 1, du =2 dx

= 6(2 x +1)2

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Use the chain rule to differentiate y = 3 x 2 5 with respect to x. Let

y =u

1 2

where

u = 3x2 5

du = 6x dx

1 dy 1 2 = 2u du

= 3 xu

1 2

1 2

= 3 x(3 x 5)

2

=

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3x 3 x2 5

Boardworks Ltd 2006

dy 2 Find given that y = . 3 4 dx (7 x ) 2 where u = 7 x3 Let y = 4 = 2u 4 u dy du = 8u 5 = 3 x 2 du dx dy dy du Using the chain rule: = = 8u 5 3 x 2 dx du dx

= 24 x 2u 5

= 24 x2 (7 x3 )5

24 x 2 = (7 x 3 )5

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With practice some of the steps in the chain rule can be done mentally. Suppose we have a composite function y = g(f(x)) If we let y = g(u) where u = f(x)

dy du = g '(u ) = f '( x ) then and du dx dy dy du Using the chain rule: = = g '(u ) f '( x) dx du dx

But u = f(x) so

dy = g '(f ( x )) f '( x ) If y = g(f(x)) then dx

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All of the composite functions we have looked at so far have been of the form y = (f(x))n.

In general, using the chain rule, If y = (f (x))n

dy = n( f ( x ))n 1 f '( x ) then dx

If we use to represent f (x) and write this rule more visually as:

y=

dy =n dy

n 1

Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = (x4 3)3 at the point (1, 8).

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y= (x4 3)3

dy d 4 4 2 = 3( x 3) ( x 3) dx dx

= 3( x 4 3)2 4 x3 = 12 x3 ( x 4 3)2

When x = 1,

dy = 12(1 3)2 = 48 dx

Using y y1 = m(x x1) the equation of the tangent at the point (1, 8) is: y + 8 = 48(x 1) y = 48x 48 8 y = 48x 56 y = 8(6x 7)

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dx dy

Contents

dy dx

and

dx dy

Differentiating ln x and related functions The product rule

Differentiating trigonometric functions Examination-style question

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dx dy

x = 4y2

dx We can find dy by differentiating with respect to y: dx = 8y dy

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dx dy

Find the gradient of the curve with equation x = 2y3 3y 7 at the point (3, 2). x = 2y3 3y 7

dx = 6 y2 3 dy

At the point (3, 2), y = 2:

dx = 6(2)2 3 = 21 dy

dy 1 = dx We can now find the gradient using the fact that dx dy dy 1 = dx 21

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dy 1 The result = dx is particularly useful for differentiating dx dy inverse functions. For example:

d (sin1 x ) writing your answer in terms of x. Find , dy

Let y = sin1 x so x = sin y

dx = cos y dy

1 dy 1 = = dx cos y 1 sin2 y

But sin y = x so

d 1 1 (sin x ) = dy 1 x2

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The chain rule The relationship between

Contents

dy dx

and

dx dy

Differentiating ln x and related functions The product rule

Differentiating trigonometric functions Examination-style question

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The derivative of ex

A special property of the exponential function ex is that

dy If y = e then = ex dx

x

If y = ke x then dy = ke x dx

dy = 4e x 3 x 2 dx

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Suppose we are asked to differentiate a function of the form ekx, where k is a constant. For example, Differentiate y = e5x with respect to x. Let

y = eu

dy = eu du

where

u = 5x

du =5 dx

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We would just remember that in general,

If y = e kx then dy = ke kx dx

For example,

d 7x ( e ) = 7e 7 x dx d 2 x (e ) = 2e 2 x dx

d e (e ) = dx 3 We can use the chain rule to extend this to any function of the form ef(x).

x 3

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x 3

If y = ef(x) then we can let Let

then

y = eu

dy = eu du dy dy du = dx du dx

where

u = f(x)

du = f '( x ) dx

So in general,

If y = e

f ( x)

dy then = f '( x )e f ( x ) dx

In words, to differentiate an expression of the form y = ef(x) we multiply it by the derivative of the exponent.

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Using to represent f(x) and

y=e

to represent f (x):

dy = dx e

For example,

dy 5 x 4 (e ) = 5e 5 x 4 dx dy 3 x e3 x (e ) = dx dy x2 9 x2 9 x2 9 (5e ) = 5 2 xe = 10 xe dx

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The chain rule The relationship between

Contents

dy dx

and

dx dy

Differentiating ln x and related functions The product rule

Differentiating trigonometric functions Examination-style question

22 of 56

The derivative of ln x

Remember, ln x is the inverse of ex.

So, if then y = ln x x = ey

dy 1 = dx x dy 1 If y = ln x then = dx x

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Suppose we want to differentiate a function of the form ln kx, where k is a constant. For example: Differentiate y = ln 3x with respect to x. Let

y = ln u

dy 1 = du u

where

u = 3x

du =3 dx

1 = x

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When functions of the form ln kx are differentiated, the ks will always cancel out, so in general,

dy 1 If y = ln kx then = dx x

We can use the chain rule to extend to functions of the more general form y = ln f(x). y = ln u Let where u = f(x) du dy 1 = = f '( x ) then du u dx

Using the chain rule:

dy dy du f '( x ) = = dx du dx u

f '( x ) = f ( x)

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In general, using the chain rule

dy f '( x ) If y = ln f ( x ) then = dx f ( x )

Using to represent f(x) and to represent f (x):

y = ln

dy = dy

For example,

d 7 ln(7 x 4) = 7x 4 dx d 9 x2 ln(3 x 3 + 8) = 3 dx 3x + 8

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In some cases we can use the laws of logarithms to simplify a logarithmic function before differentiating it. Remember that, ln (ab) = ln a + ln b

a ln = ln a ln b b

ln an = n ln a

= ln x ln2

1 = 2 ln x ln2

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1 2

1 y = 2 ln x ln2

1 dy 1 1 = = dx 2 x 2x

x If we had tried to differentiate y = ln without simplifying it 2 first, we would have had: 1 1 x 2 1 dy 4 1 x2 y = ln 2 = 1 dx 1 x 2

2

1

1 2 1 2

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The chain rule The relationship between

Contents

dy dx

and

dx dy

Differentiating ln x and related functions The product rule

Differentiating trigonometric functions Examination-style question

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The product rule allows us to differentiate the product of two functions.

It states that if y = uv, where u and v are functions of x, then

dy dv du =u +v dx dx dx Find dy given that y = x 4 3 2 x . dx

Let So

u=

x4

and

v = (3 2 x )

1 2

du = 4 x3 dx

1 dv 1 2 = (3 2 x ) 2 dx 2

= (3 2 x )

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1 2

Using the product rule: 1 1 dy 2 4 3 2 = x (3 2 x ) + 4 x (3 2 x ) dx 1 1 4 3 2 2 x 4 x (3 2 x ) (3 2 x ) = 1 + 1 2 2 (3 2 x ) (3 2 x )

= = =

x 4 + 4 x3 (3 2 x ) (3 2 x ) (3 2 x ) 12 x3 9 x 4 (3 2 x )

1 2 1 2

x 4 +12 x3 8 x 4

1 2

3(4 x3 3 x 4 ) = 3 2x 31 of 56

Give the coordinates of any stationary points on the curve y = x2e2x.

Let So u = x2 du = 2x dx and v = e2 x dv = 2e2 x dx

Using the product rule: dy = 2 x 2e2 x + 2 xe2 x dx = 2 xe2 x ( x +1) dy = 0 when 2 xe2 x = 0 or x +1= 0 dx 2 xe2 x = 0 x = 0 x +1= 0 x = 1

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When x = 0, y = (0)2e0

=0

The point (0,0) is a stationary point on the curve y = x2e2x. When x = 1, y = (1)2e2

= e2 The point (1, e2) is also a stationary point on the curve y = x2e2x.

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The chain rule The relationship between

Contents

dy dx

and

dx dy

Differentiating ln x and related functions The product rule

Differentiating trigonometric functions Examination-style question

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The quotient rule allows us to differentiate the quotient of two functions. It states that if y = u , where u and v are functions of x, then v

dv dy v du u dx = dx 2 dx v

Let So

u = 2x + 1

du =2 dx

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and

v = 5x2

dv = 10 x dx

Boardworks Ltd 2006

dy (5 x 2 )(2) (2 x +1)(10 x) = dx 25 x 4 10 x 2 20 x 2 10 x = 25 x 4

2x 4x 2 = 5 x3 2 x 2 = 5 x3 = 2( x +1) 5 x3

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Find the equation of the tangent to the ln x 4 at the point (1, 0). curve y = x2

u = ln x4 and v = x2 dv du 4 x3 1 = 2x = 4 = 4x So dx dx x Using the quotient rule: dy x 2 4 x 1 ln x 4 2 x = dx x4 Let

4 x 8 x ln x = x4 4(1 2ln x ) = x3

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Using ln x4 = 4 ln x

When x = 1, dy = 4(1 2 ln 1) dx 1 =4 The gradient of the tangent at the point (1, 0) is 4.

Use y y1 = m(x x1) to find the equation of the tangent at the point (1, 0). y 0 = 4(x 1) y = 4x 4

Remember that ln 1 = 0

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The chain rule The relationship between

Contents

dy dx

and

dx dy

Differentiating ln x and related functions The product rule

Differentiating trigonometric functions Examination-style question

39 of 56

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By plotting the gradient function of y = sin x, where x is measured in radians, we can deduce that

dy If y = sin x then = cos x dx

Functions of the form k sin f(x) can be differentiated using the chain rule.

So if y = 2 sin u

dy = 2cos u du

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where

u = 3x

du =3 dx

Boardworks Ltd 2006

Using the chain rule:

dy dy du = 2cos u 3 = dx du dx = 6cos3x

dy If y = sin f ( x ) then = f '( x )cos f ( x) dx

Using

to represent f (x):

y = sin

dy = dy

cos

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By plotting the gradient function of y = cos x, where x is measured in radians, we can deduce that

dy If y = cos x then = sin x dx dy Find given that y = x2 cos x. dx

Let So

u = x2

du = 2 x dx

and

v = cos x

dv = sin x dx

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Using the product rule: dy = x 2 ( sin x ) + cos x( 2 x ) dx = x 2 sin x 2 x cos x

= x( x sin x 2cos x )

Functions of the form k cos f(x) can be differentiated using the chain rule. Differentiate y = 3 cos (x3 4) with respect to x. So if y = 3 cos u

dy = 3 sin u du

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where

u = x3 4

du = 3 x2 dx

Boardworks Ltd 2006

Using the chain rule:

dy dy du = = 3 sin u 3 x 2 dx du dx = 9 x2 sin( x3 4)

dy If y = cos f ( x ) then = f '( x )sin f ( x) dx

Using

to represent f (x):

y = cos

dy = dy

sin

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We can differentiate y = tan x (where x is in radians) by writing it as sin x y= cos x Then we apply the quotient rule with u = sin x and v = cos x :

dy cos x cos x sin x( sin x ) = dx cos2 x

= sec 2 x

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We can differentiate y = sec x (where x is in radians) by writing it as 1 y= = (cos x )1 cos x Then using the chain rule we get: dy = (cos x )2 ( sin x ) dx sin x = cos2 x 1 sin x = cos x cos x = sec x tan x

dy If y = sec x then = sec x tan x dx

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We can differentiate y = cosec x (where x is in radians) by writing it as 1 y= = (sin x )1 sin x

Then using the chain rule we get: dy = (sin x )2 (cos x ) dx cos x = 2 sin x 1 cos x = sin x sin x = cosec x cot x

dy If y = cosec x then = cosec x cot x dx

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We can differentiate y = cot x (where x is in radians) by writing it as cos x y= sin x Then we apply the quotient rule with u = cos x and v = sin x:

dy sin x( sin x ) cos x cos x = dx sin2 x

= co sec 2 x

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In summary, if x is measured in radians, then

y = sin x dy = cos x dx y = sec x dy = sec x tan x dx

When learning these results, it is helpful to notice that all of the trigonometric functions starting with co have negative derivatives.

51 of 56 Boardworks Ltd 2006

Examination-style question

The chain rule The relationship between

Contents

dy dx

and

dx dy

Differentiating ln x and related functions The product rule

Differentiating trigonometric functions Examination-style question

52 of 56

Examination-style question

Given that f ( x ) =

2x , 2 x +4

a) find f (x), b) find the coordinates of any stationary points and determine their nature, c) sketch the curve y = f(x). a) Using the quotient rule: f '( x ) =

v du u dv dx dx v2

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Examination-style question

2(4 x 2 ) =0 b) When f(x) = 0, 2 2 ( x + 4)

2(4 x2 ) = 0

4 x2 = 0

x = 2

When x = 2, y =

4 1 = 8 2

4 1 When x = 2, y = = 8 2 2x f( x ) = 2 Therefore, the graph of the function has turning x +4 1 1 points at (2, 2 ) and (2, 2).

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Examination-style question

Looking at the gradient just before and just after x = 2:

x dy 2(4 x 2 ) = 2 Value of dx ( x + 4)2 Slope 1.9 0.01

+ive

2 0

0

2.1 0.01

ive

x dy 2(4 x 2 ) = 2 Value of dx ( x + 4)2 Slope 2.1 0.01

ive

2 0

0

1.9 0.01

+ive

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Examination-style question

2x c) The curve y = 2 crosses the axes when x = 0 and when x +4 y = 0.

When x = 0, y = 0.

Therefore the curve has one crossing point at the origin, a 1 1 minimum at (2, 2 ) and a maximum at (2, 2 ):

y

1 2

Also,

y=

2

2x x2 + 4

x

as x , y 0

0

1 2

and,

as x , y 0+.

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