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3G CDMA - WCDMA and cdma2000

Rodger E. Ziemer IEEE Communications Society Distinguished Lecturer Program

Rules for Efficient Multiple Access


Three

laws

Know

the channel Minimize interference to others Mitigate interference received from others
Requirements
Channel

of wireless multiple access

measurement Channel control and modification Multiple user channel isolation


May 28-June1, 2001 R. Z. Ziemer, Colorado Springs, CO 2

Why CDMA?
Higher capacity Improved performance in multipath by diversity Lower mobile transmit power = longer battery life

Power control Variable transmission rate with voice activity detection

Allows soft handoff Sectorization gain High peak data rates can be accommodated Combats other-user interference = lower reuse factors

May 28-June1, 2001 R. Z. Ziemer, Colorado Springs, CO 3

What is Third Generation? [1]

Flexible support of multiple services


Voice Messaging email, fax, etc. Medium-rate multimedia Internet access, educational High-rate multimedia file transfer, video High-rate interactive multimedia video telecon-ferencing, telemedicine, etc.

Mobility: quasi-stationary to high-speed platforms Global roaming: ubiquitous, seamless coverage Evolution from second generation systems

May 28-June1, 2001 R. Z. Ziemer, Colorado Springs, CO 4

W-CDMA Versus cdma2000 [2]


Parameter
Carrier spacing Chip rate Data modulation Spreading Power control frequency Variable data rate implement. Frame duration Coding Base stations synchronized? Base station acquisition/detect Forward link pilot Antenna beam forming

W-CDMA
5 MHz 4.096 MHz BPSK Complex (OQPSK) 1500 Hz Variable SF; multicode 10 ms Turbo and convolutional Asynchronous 3 step; slot, frame, code TDM dedicated pilot TDM dedicated pilot

cdma2000
3.75 MHz 3.6864 MHz FW QPSK; RV - BPSK Complex (OQPSK) 800 Hz Repet., puncturing, multicode 20 ms (also 5, 30, 40) Turbo and convolutional Synchronous Time shifted PN correlation CDM common pilot Auxiliary pilot

May 28-June1, 2001

R. Z. Ziemer, Colorado Springs, CO

WCDMA Uplink Frame Structure [1]


I: data channel
N data 10 * 2 k bits (k 0, ,6)

DPDCH

Tslot 2560 chips

Q: sync & control

Pilot:

N pilot bits

TFCI

FBI

TPC

DPCCH

0.667 ms

slot 0 slot 1

slot i radio frame = 10 ms

slot 14

TFCI = transmit format combination indicator FBI = feedback information TPC = transmit power control

DPDCH = dedicated physical data channel DPCCH = dedicated physical control channel

May 28-June1, 2001

R. Z. Ziemer, Colorado Springs, CO

WCDMA Uplink Modulator Structure [1]


DPDCH1

cd ,1
DPDCH3

+ I

pulse shape filter (SRC)

c d ,3
DPDCH2

cos( c t )
+ +

cd , 2
DPCCH

Q + +

pulse shape filter (SRC)

cc

sin( c t )
c long,1
May 28-June1, 2001

c long,2
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R. Z. Ziemer, Colorado Springs, CO

Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor Codes


Cd, i selected from this tree Notes: 1) For fixed chip rate, desired information rate determines length of spreading sequence and therefore processing gain. 2) When a specific code is used, no other code on the path from that code to the root and or on the subtree beneath that code may be used. 3) All the codes at any depth into the tree are the set of Walsh Sequences. 4) Code phase is synchronous with information symbols. 5) FDD UL processing gain between 256 and 4 FDD DL processing gain between 512 and 4 TDD UL/DL processing gain between 16 and 1 6) Multicode used only for SF = 4

00000000 0000 00001111 00 00110011 0011 00111100 0 0101 01011010 01 01100110 0110 01101001 01010101

May 28-June1, 2001

R. Z. Ziemer, Colorado Springs, CO

WCDMA Downlink Frame Structure [1]


DPDCH DPCCH TFCI DPDCH Data2
N data 2

DPCCH Pilot

Data1 N data1 TPC

Tslot 2560 chips

0.667 ms

slot 0 slot 1

slot i radio frame = 10 ms

slot 14

N data 2 N data 2 10 * 2 k bits (k 0, ,7)

May 28-June1, 2001

R. Z. Ziemer, Colorado Springs, CO

WCDMA Downlink Modulator Structure [1]


dedicated traffic channels primary & secondary common pilot channels primary & secondary common control channels other channels
Primary Sync Code s/p

cd ,1
Clong
G1

s/p

cd , n
Clong
CP GP
CS

pulse shape filter (SRC)

Gn

e j t

Secondary Sync Code

c long,2

GS
May 28-June1, 2001 R. Z. Ziemer, Colorado Springs, CO 10

Transmit Diversity Strategy for Downlink

May 28-June1, 2001

R. Z. Ziemer, Colorado Springs, CO

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cdma2000 Uplink Frame Structure


Radio Configuration 3
modulation symbol

channel bits

CRC

encoder tail bits

Convolutional or Turbo Coder

symbol repetition

symbol puncture

block interleaver

Bits/ Frame 16 40 80 172 350 744 1512 3048 6120

CRC bits 6 6 8 12 16 16 16 16 16

tail bits 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

Data Rate kbps 1.5 2.7 4.8 9.6 19.2 38.4 76.8 153.6 307.2

Code Rate 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/2

Repeats 16 8 4 2 1 1 1 1 1

Delete 1 of 5 1 of 9 none none none none none none none

Symbols 1536 1536 1536 1536 1536 3072 6144 12288 12288

C.S.0002-A-1 Fig 2.1.3.1.1.1-8

May 28-June1, 2001

R. Z. Ziemer, Colorado Springs, CO

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cdma2000 Uplink Modulator


Secondary Traffic 2 C

wS 2
Pilot A

+ _

pulse shape

cos( c t )
Control B

wC
Primary C Traffic

c
d
+ +

+ +

wD1
Secondary Traffic 1 C

pulse shape

wS 1
May 28-June1, 2001

c long,I

c long,Q

sin( c t )
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R. Z. Ziemer, Colorado Springs, CO

cdma2000 Downlink Frame Structure


Radio Configuration 9
channel bits modulation symbol

CRC

encoder tail bits

Convolutional or Turbo Coder

symbol repetition

symbol puncture

block interleaver

Bits/ Frame 21 55 125 267 552 1128 2280 4584 9192 20712

CRC bits 6 8 10 12 16 16 16 16 16 16

tail bits 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

Data Rate kbps 1.8 3.6 7.2 14.4 28.8 57.6 115.2 230.4 460.8 1036.8

Code Rate 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2

Repeats 8 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Delete none none none none none none none none none 2 of 18

Symbols 576 576 576 576 1152 2304 4608 9216 18432 36864

Other similar tables in specification.

May 28-June1, 2001

R. Z. Ziemer, Colorado Springs, CO

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cdma2000 1X DL Modulation Processing


W modulation symbol rate

channel gain

power control symbol puncture

01 1 -1 power control bits

YI

fwd pwr ctrl gain

YQ

I/Q scrambling bit extract

puncture timing 800 Hz

long code mask

long code

decimate

pwr ctrl bit pos

C.S.0002-A-1 Fig 3.1.3.1.1.1-18

May 28-June1, 2001

R. Z. Ziemer, Colorado Springs, CO

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cdma2000 1X Downlink Modulation


other channels

XI

pulse shape

YI
Walsh code

cos( c t )

QOF code

YQ

+ other channels +

pulse shape

XQ
I channel pilot PN May 28-June1, 2001 Q channel pilot PN

sin( c t )

R. Z. Ziemer, Colorado Springs, CO

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cdma2000 3X DL Modulation Processing


W
modulation symbol rate

channel gain

power control symbol puncture

01 1 -1 power control bits

YI1 YI2 YI3

YQ1
YQ2 YQ3

fwd pwr ctrl gain

I/Q scrambling bit extract

puncture timing 800 Hz

long code mask

long code

decimate

pwr ctrl bit pos

May 28-June1, 2001

R. Z. Ziemer, Colorado Springs, CO

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cdma2000 3X Downlink Modulation


YI1 same as below YQ1 output carrier 1

YI2 YQ2

output carrier 2

YI3 same as above YQ3 May 28-June1, 2001 R. Z. Ziemer, Colorado Springs, CO

output carrier 3

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cdma2000 vs WCDMA
Chip

rate Coherent Pilot Channels Transmit Diversity Underlying Network Single Carrier versus Multicarrier Spreading Cell Site Synchronization

May 28-June1, 2001

R. Z. Ziemer, Colorado Springs, CO

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References
[1] R. L. Peterson, Third Generation Personal Communications: Physical Layer Status, Presentation at Clemson University, Feb. 1, 2001 [2] Manjit Singh and Manoneet Singh, 3G Wireless with Respect to IMT-2000 and Beyond, Telecom 99 [3] Harri Holma and Antti Toskala, WCDMA for UMTS: Radio Access for Third Generation Mobile Communications, New York: Wiley, 2000 [4] CDMA Evolution from IS-95, IS-2000, to 1XTREME, Technology Transfer Training Class, Motorola, Inc., July 2000 [5] R. Ziemer and R. Peterson, Introduction to Digital Communications, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Chapter 10, 2001

May 28-June1, 2001

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WCDMA: More Information?

http://www.3gpp.org
21.101 guide to all other documents 25.XXX series radio access network (RAN)

25.211 25.212 25.213 25.214 25.321 25.322

frame structure etc. channel coding etc. spreading and modulation physical layer procedures (tx diversity, etc.) medium access control (MAC) radio link control (RLC)

26.XXX series voice coding


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May 28-June1, 2001

GSM/GPRS/EDGE: More Information?


http://www.3gpp.org
3GPP 45.001 ETSI 05.01 description general description

45.002
45.003 45.004 45.005 45.008 45.009 44.060
May 28-June1, 2001

05.02
05.03 05.04 05.05 05.08 05.09 04.60

multiple access, logical channels, etc


channel coding modulation radio transmission and channel models radio link control link adaptation RLC/MAC
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R. Z. Ziemer, Colorado Springs, CO

cdma2000: More Information?


http://www.3gpp2.org

Specification Group C cdma2000 C.S0002-A-1 Physical Layer Standard C.S0003-A-1 Medium Access Control (MAC) C.S0004-A-1 Signaling Link Access Control C.S00024 1XEV-DO (high speed packet) C.S0005 Upper Layer Signaling (L3)
Technical

May 28-June1, 2001

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3G Information Sources

Third Generation Partnership Projects http://www.3gpp.org http://www.3gpp2.org CDMA Development Group (CDG) http://www.cdg.org International Mobile Telecommunications for the year 2000 http://www.tiaonline.org/standards/sfg/imt2k/ Japan ARIB IMT-2000 proposal http://www.arib.or.jp/IMT-2000/ARIB/Document/
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