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Chapter 7-1

Cellular Structures and Function Bio 30 NWRC


Blood cell

Bone cell

Lung cell

Bacteria cell

Leaf cell
Nerve cell Sperm & Egg cells (Sex cells)

Cell Theory Nucleus Eukaryote Prokaryote

People knew nothing about cells until the discovery of the Microscope. 1665 ~Robert Hooke was the first person to see cells. He is known for making up the word Cell. (Cork plant material)

1683~Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first person to observe tiny living organisms in pond water.

Matthias Schleiden (1838) discovered that plants are composed of cells Theodor Schwann (1839) discovered that animals are composed of cells Rudolph Virchow (1855) stated that all cells come from other cells

Janet Plowe (1931) the cell membrane is a physical structure, not an interface between two liquids Lynn Margulis (1970) certain organelles were once free-living cells themselves

Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow

All living things are made up of cells. Cells are the basic units of all living things.

All cells are produced from existing cells.

Compound Light Microscope

Uses a series of glass lenses to magnify images up to about 1000X

Electron Light Microscope

Uses magnets to beam electrons at tissues is capable of much greater magnification than light microscopes

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the smallest functioning part of an organism.

vary in size and shape.

shape is related to function. most are microscopic. Unicellular = composed of ONE cell Multicellular = composed of MANY cells

Key Note:
ALL Cells have:

*a barrier called a Cell membrane *DNA

smallest & simplest cells

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have a nucleus


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lack a nucleus
lack organelles no specialized functions. Example: Bacteria

have organelles
Have specialized functions. Example: plant & animal cells


Prokaryotes are the single-celled organisms, such as bacteria.. Unlike Eukoryotes, prokaryotes do not have a nucleus that houses its genetic material. Rather, the genetic material of a prokaryote cell consists of a large DNA molecule in the cytoplasm


One differentiating characteristic is that prokaryotes are asexual, meaning their offspring nearly always bear the exact characteristics of the parent cell. (In fact, the cell essentially replicates itself according to its own DNA and then divides itself from the newly created cell.)


Eukaryotic cells - Can be unicellular (protists such as yeast, paramecium and amoebae) or multicellular (a system of division of labor such as fungi, animals, and plants).


Eukaryotic DNA is enclosed by a membrane making a well defined nucleus.


Cell division in eukaryotes is different from prokaryotes. There are two types of division processes. In mitosis, one cell divides to produce two geneticallyidentical cells. In meiosis, which is required in sexual reproduction, one diploid cell (having two instances of each chromosome, one from each parent) undergoes recombination of each pair of parental chromosomes.


Plant Cells

Animal Cells

have cell walls have chloroplasts have a large vacuole tend to be squared or rectangular

have only cell membranes

have smaller vacuoles tend to be round

Plant Cell
Cell wall Leucoplast Chloroplast Vacuole

Animal Cell
Lysosome Centriole

Both Plant & Animal Cells

Smooth & Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Nuclear Envelope

Golgi bodies
Ribosome Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Mitochondria







1. With

more sophisticated tools scientists have been able to learn more about the cell and its structures


2. Light

microscopes use glass lenses and visible light. Electron microscopes use beams of electrons and magnets


3. 1.

all known living things are made up of cells. 2. the cell is structural & functional unit of all living things. 3. all cells come from pre-existing cells by division. (Spontaneous Generation does not occur). 4. cells contains hereditary information which is passed from cell to cell during cell division. 5. All cells are basically the same in chemical composition. 6. all energy flow (metabolism & biochemistry) of life occurs within cells.


4. The plasma membrane helps control what goes into and out the cell The organelles carry cell out specialized function in the cell

Further Study

This website has an excellent review of all these topics