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# LRFD Theory for

Geotechnical Design
Topic 3 – Part A
Deep Foundations
Session 3
LRFD for Highway Bridge Substructures
and Earth Retaining Structures
Course No. 130082A
A. State the performance limits that
should be evaluated when designing
a deep foundation
B. Be able to select a deep foundation
type
C. Be able to select the appropriate
resistance factor for each
performance limit evaluated
Learning Outcomes
Deep Foundation
Performance Limits
A
Start F.1 F.2 F.3 F.4 F.5
F.6 F.7 F.8 F.9 F.10
D.1
F.11
D.2
F.12
F.13
F.14
F.15
F.16
F.17
F.18 D.3 D.4 End
Detailed Flow Chart –
RM page 3.3.6
1. Decide deep foundation type
2. Select resistance factor
3. Compute resistances
4. Layout foundation group and
analyze at the strength limit state
5. Check the service limit state
Deep Foundation Design
Process
Structural
resistance
Axial geotechnical
resistance
Driven resistance
Structural
resistance
Axial geotechnical
resistance

Driven Piles Drilled Shafts
Strength Limit State Checks
Structural Axial Failure
Structural Flexure Failure
Structural Shear Failure
Axial Geotechnical Resistance
Pile damage
Driven Resistance
Driven Performance Limit
Driven Performance Limit
Global Stability
Vertical
Displacement
Horizontal
Displacement
Driven Piles Drilled Shafts
Global Stability
Vertical
Displacement
Horizontal
Displacement
Service Limit State Checks
Global Stability
Ax
Az
Displacement
Same
 Determining Resistance
 Determining Deflection
Different
 Comparison of load and resistance
 Specific separation of resistance and
deflection
LRFD Differences from ASD
Deep foundation type
selection
Method of support
Bearing material depth
Constructability
Cost
B
Deep Foundation Material
Driven X X X X X X X
Drilled or Bored -- X -- X X -- X
Jacked / Special X -- -- X X -- X
P
r
e
s
t
r
e
s
s
e
d

C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

P
o
s
t
-
t
e
n
s
i
o
n

C
o
c
n
r
e
t
e

P
r
e
-
c
a
s
t

C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

C
a
s
t
-
i
n
-
p
l
a
c
e

C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

S
t
e
e
l

W
o
o
d

S
p
e
c
i
a
l
t
y

/

C
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
e
s

Drilled Shafts
Driven Piles
Deep Foundation Types
End Bearing Side Friction Combined
Method of Support
Driven Low
Displacement Piles
Driven High
Displacement Piles
Drilled Shafts
Depth to Bearing/ Scour
Permanent/ Transient/ Cyclic
Horizontal or Vertical
Wood is better for transient
resistance than permanent
Steel pile better cyclic resistance
by stiffer piles or shafts
Deep foundation
type
Typical range of
nominal (ultimate)
resistance (kips)
Typical
length (feet)
Timber pile 75 – 200 20 – 40
Concrete pile 200 – 2,000 20 – 150
Steel H-pile 200 – 1,000 20 – 160
Pipe pile 175 – 2,500 20 – 100
Drilled shaft 750 – 10,000 20 – 160
Obstructions/ Rock

Use low displacement
steel piles
-or-
Drilled shafts
Constructability
Equipment access

Equipment size a function of pile/shaft size
Wrap Up
1. Decide deep foundation type
2. Select resistance factor
3. Compute resistances
4. Layout foundation group and analyze
at the strength limit state
5. Check the service limit state
Selection of
Resistance factors
Strength limit state
 Structural Resistance
 Geotechnical Resistance
 Driven Resistance (piles only)
Service limit state
 Resistance factor = 1.0
(except global stability)
C
Axial compression
Combined axial and flexure
Shear
LRFD
Specifications
Concrete – Section 5
Steel – Section 6
Wood – Section 8
Methods for determining
structural resistance
Concrete (5.5.4.2.1)
Axial Comp. = 0.75
Flexure = 0.9
Shear = 0.9

Steel (6.5.4.2)
Axial = 0.5-0.6
Combined
Axial= 0.7-0.8
Flexure = 1.0
Shear = 1.0
Timber (8.5.2.2)
Compression = 0.9
Tension = 0.8
Flexure = 0.85
Shear = 0.75
LRFD
Specifications
Structural resistance factors
Field methods
 Driving Formulae
Static analysis methods
Determining Geotechnical
Resistance of Piles
Determining Geotechnical
Resistance of Piles
S
e
t
t
l
e
m
e
n
t

Pile top settlement
Driving Formulas
Geotechnical Resistance
Factors for Piles
Method Site Variability |
Test
Low 0.8 – 0.9
Medium 0.7 – 0.9
High 0.55 – 0.8
AASHTO Table 10.5.5.2.2-2
 Site Variability Defined in NCHRP
Report 507
 Range of Values of Resistance
Factors Depends on Number of
Geotechnical Resistance
Factors for Piles
Method |
Dynamic Test w/Signal Matching (e.g.,
PDA + CAPWAP)
0.65
AASHTO Table 10.5.5.2.2-1 & 3
 Test 1% to 50% of Production
Piles, Depending on Site
Variability and Number of Piles
Driven
 Site Variability Defined in NCHRP
Report 507
Geotechnical Resistance
Factors for Piles
Method |
Wave Equation only 0.4
FHWA-Modified Gates 0.4
ENR 0.1
AASHTO Table 10.5.5.2.2-1
Geotechnical Safety
Factors for Piles
Basis for Design and Type
of Construction Control
Increasing Design/Construction Control
Subsurface Exploration
Static Calculation
Dynamic Formula
Wave Equation
CAPWAP Analysis
Factor of Safety (FS) 3.50
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
1.90
X
X
X
X
2.00
X
X
X
X
2.25
X
X
X
2.75
Computation of Static
Geotechnical Resistance
AASHTO 10.7.3.7.5-2
R
P
R
S
R
R
= |R
n

|R
n
= |
qp
R
p
+ |
qs
R
s
R
P
= A
P
q
P

R
S
= A
S
q
s
Static Analysis Methods
o method
| method
ì method
Nordlund -
Thurman
method
SPT-method
CPT-method
o method
| method
Side friction in
Rock
Tip Resistance in
Rock
Driven Piles Drilled Shafts
Pile Group Resistance
Static Geotechnical Resistance
Take lesser of
Geotechnical Resistance
Factors Pile Static
Analysis Methods
Method |
Comp
|
Ten
o - Method 0.35 0.25
| - Method 0.25 0.20
ì - Method 0.40 0.30
Nordlund-Thurman 0.45 0.35
SPT 0.30 0.25
CPT 0.50 0.40
Group 0.60 0.50
AASHTO Table 10.5.5.2.2-1
Driven Pile Time
Dependant Effects
Setup
Relaxation
R
P
R
S
R
P
R
S
R
P
R
S
R
P
R
S
Side Resistance
Tip Resistance
Total Resistance
A
B
C
D
R
P
R
S
R
R
= |R
n
= |
qp
R
p
+ |
qs
R
s
Displacement
R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

Drilled Shaft Resistance
For cohesive
soils use
equivalent pier
approach
For cohesionless
soils, use group
efficiency factor
approach
Drilled Shaft Group Resistance
R
n group
= q x R
n single
where:
q = 0. 65 at c-c spacing
of 2.5 diameters
q = 1.0 at c-c spacing of
6 diameters
Geotechnical Resistance Factors
Drilled Shafts
Method |
Comp
|
Ten
Shafts in Clay
o - Method (side) 0.45 0.35
Total stress (tip) 0.40 --
Shafts in Sand
| - Method (side) 0.55 0.45
O’Neill & Reese (tip) 0.50 --
Group (sand or clay) 0.55 0.45
AASHTO Table 10.5.5.2.3-1
Geotechnical Resistance Factors
Drilled Shafts
Method |
Comp
|
Ten
Shafts in Interm. Geomat’ls (IGMs)
O’Neill & Reese (side) 0.60
O’Neill & Reese (tip) 0.55 --
Shafts in Rock
Side (H&K, O&R) 0.55 0.40
Side (C&K) 0.50 0.40
Tip (CGS, PMT, O&R) 0.50 --
Load Test (all mat’ls) <=0.7 <=0.7
AASHTO Table 10.5.5.2.3-1
Axial
Geotechnical
Resistance of a
Drilled Shaft in
Clay

Reference
Manual
3.3.7.5
Example 9
50’
2.5’
Stiff Clay
S
u
= 1500 psf
E = 200 ksf
¸ = 125 pcf
e
50
= 0.007

Drilled Shaft
f’
c
= 4 ksi
E
c
= 3600 ksi

Determine Unit
Side Resistance

q
s
= o S
u

To find o, check
Su/pa = 1.5 / 2.12
Su/pa = 0.7 < 1.5
So
o = 0.55
q
s
= 0.55 x 1500 psf
q
s
= 0.825 ksf
50’
2.5’
Stiff Clay
S
u
= 1500 psf
E = 200 ksf
¸ = 125 pcf
e
50
= 0.007

Drilled Shaft
f’
c
= 4 ksi
E
c
= 3600 ksi

Determine Exclusion
Zones

Per AASHTO 10.8.3.5.1b
Top 5' non contributing
Bottom 1 diameter (2.5')
non contributing

L
s
= 50’ – 5’ - 2.5’ = 42.5’
2.5’
50’
2.5’
5’
42.5’

A
s
= t D L
s
A
s
= t (2.5’)(42.5’)
A
s
= 334 ft
2

R
s
= q
s
A
s
R
s
= (0.825 ksf)(334 ft
2
)
R
s
= 275 kips

2.5’
50’
R
s

=

2
7
5

k
i
p
s

Point Resistance

q
p
= N
c
S
u

N
c
= 6(1 + 0.2 (Z/D)) < 9
N
c
= 6(1 + 0.2 (50/2.5))
N
c
= 30
not less than 9 thus
N
c
= 9

q
p
= 9 (1.5 ksf)
q
p
= 13.5 ksf
2.5’
50’
R
s

=

2
7
5

k
i
p
s

Point Resistance

R
p
= q
p
A
p

A
p
= t D
2
/4

A
p
= t (2.5’)
2
/4
A
p
= 4.9 ft
2

R
p
= 13.5 ksf (4.9 ft
2
)
R
p
= 66 kips
R
s

=

2
7
5

k
i
p
s

R
p
= 66 kips
Combining Side and
Point Resistance

R
R
= ¢
qs
R
s
+ ¢
qp
R
p

¢
qs
= 0.45
¢
qps
= 0.4

R
R
= 0.45 (275) + 0.4 (66)
R
R
= 150 kips
R
s

=

2
7
5

k
i
p
s

R
p
= 66 kips
Combining Side and
Point Resistance
1.0 2.0
1.0
Az
t
/ D (%)
R
s
d

/

R
s

0 5.0 10.0
Az
t
/ D (%)
1.0
R
p
d

/

R
p

Az
t
/ D (%)
0
0
0
Check Relative Stiffness
S
R
= (Z/D) (E
soil
/E
shaft
) < 0.01
S
R
= (50’/2.5’) (1.39 ksi
l
/3600 ksi)
S
R
= 0.008 < 0.01
If
Shaft can be considered rigid
Shaft can be considered rigid
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Displacement (in)
D
e
v
e
l
o
p
e
d

R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

(
k
i
p
s
)
Developed Side Resistance Developed Base Resistance
Developed Nominal Resistance
R
s
= 256 kips
R
P
= 38 kips
0.3
R
R
= ¢
qs
R
s
+ ¢
qp
R
p
R
R
= 0.45 (256) + 0.4 (38)
R
R
= 131 kips
Driven Resistance
Ground
Surface
Ram
Cushion
Soft Layer
Dense
Layer
(a) (b) (c)
Permanent Set
(d)
Pile
elastic
elastic
v
o
c
c
c
c
Compressive
Force Pulse
(Incident)
Compressive
Force Pulse
(Attenuated)
Compressive
Force Pulse
Tensile or
Compressive
Force Pulse
(Reflected)
Wave
Equation
Results
Comp Str
ksi
30
20
10
Ult Cap
200
400
600
800
kips
0 160 320 480 Blows/ft
4.0
8.0
12.0
16.0
ft
Stroke
Tens Str
ksi
Concrete piles, | = 1.00
 AASHTO Article 5.5.4.2.1
Steel piles, | = 1.00
 AASHTO Article 6.5.4.2
Timber piles, | = 1.15
 AASHTO Article 8.5.2.2
Driven Resistance Factors
Participant Workbook
Page 3.3A.22
F
z
= 3594.0 kips
Method |
Q
n

(kips)
Q
r

(kips)
# of
Piles
o-method 0.4 550 220 17
PDA on 5% 0.65 550
Gates Formula 0.4 550
Structural Resistance 0.6 775 8 465
17 220
11 358
Comparison to ASD
Method FS
Q
n

(kips)
Q
r

(kips)
# of
Piles
o-method 3.5 550 157
18
(17)
PDA on 5% 2.25 550 244
12
(11)
Gates Formula 3.5 550 157
18
(17)
Structural Resistance
3
(0.33f
y
)
775 256
11
(8)
Wrap Up
1. Decide deep foundation type
2. Select resistance factor
3. Compute resistances
4. Layout foundation group and analyze at
the strength limit state
5. Check the service limit state
Participant Workbook
Page 3.3A.25
1. Geotechnical resistance
2. Structural resistance
3. Driven resistance
1. Horizontal deflection
2. Vertical deflection (settlement)
3. Global stability
Exercise 1: List the three strength limit
state checks for driven piles
Exercise 2: List the three service limit
state checks for drilled shafts
Exercise 3: Match the
deep foundation type to
the condition.

Condition
1) Deep granular material
2) Loose random fill
overlying rock
Type
A)Steel H-Pile
B) Closed end
pipe
C) Large diameter
drilled shaft
A
B
C
Exercise 4: What criteria should be
used to select the geotechnical resistance
factor for a driven pile?

Exercise 5: Where would you find the
structural resistance factors for a drilled
shaft?
The method used to determine the
ultimate resistance.
AASHTO Section 5 – Concrete Design
A. State the performance limits that
should be evaluated when designing
a deep foundation
B. Be able to select a deep foundation
type
C. Be able to select the appropriate
resistance factor for each
performance limit evaluated
Learning Outcomes
LRFD Theory for
Geotechnical Design
Topic 3 – Part B
Deep Foundations
Session 3
LRFD for Highway Bridge Substructures
and Earth Retaining Structures
Course No. 130082A
D. Apply the rigid cap method to
evaluate the strength limit state
checks
Learning Outcome
1. Decide deep foundation type
2. Select resistance factor
3. Compute resistances
4. Layout foundation group and analyze at
the strength limit state
Compute load effects in piles using rigid
cap method
resistances for piles
5. Check the service limit state
Where We Are Going …
X
Y
Z
Centroid of
Pile group
Rigid Cap Model
X
Y
Z
M
x
M
y
F
z
-x
i
y
i
P
i
¿ ¿
= =
+ + =
n
1 i
2
i
i y
n
1 i
2
i
i x z
i
x
x M
y
y M
n
F
P
X
Y
Z
F
x
H
i
Distribution of
H
t
Q
t
M
t
y

P

y

y

Properties
A, E, I

Horizontal Response
P-y Curve development
Typical required
soil parameters
S
u
|
f
¸
k
c
50
k – coefficient of variation of subgrade reaction
c
50
- strain at 50% of ultimate strength
10.1 k
1740 k
8000 in-k
D
e
p
t
h
,

f
t
50
40
30
20
10
-0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 20 40 60 80 -60 -40 -20 0 20
Deflection,
in.
Moment,
in. -kx10
2
Shear,
k
0.84
8640
65.5
P-y Results for Single Element
0.0E+00
2.0E+06
4.0E+06
6.0E+06
8.0E+06
1.0E+07
1.2E+07
1.4E+07
1.6E+07
1.8E+07
7
9
.
4
2
7
0
4
5
9
5
8
2
6
7
7
1
1
0
0
1
3
0
0
1
3
5
0
1
3
7
0
1
3
8
0
Moment (in-kip)
S
t
i
f
f
n
e
s
s

E
I

(
k
i
p
-
i
n
^
2
)
Reinforced
Concrete Shaft
Variation of Stiffness (EI)
Ax Ax
Service Limit State
Moment
Moment
Strength Limit State
F
x
H
1
H
2
Group Effects
P
y
P
m
* P
P
P-y Interaction Effects
Applied
Horizontal
Resulting
Deflection
Maximum
Moment
-2.00E+03
-1.50E+03
-1.00E+03
-5.00E+02
0.00E+00
0 0.5 1
0.00E+00
1.00E+01
2.00E+01
3.00E+01
0 0.5 1
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l

L
o
a
d

(
k
i
p
s
)

Deflection (in)
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

M
o
m
e
n
t

(
i
n
-
k
i
p
s
)

Computer P-y Modeling
F
x
H
1
H
2
Ax Ax
M
1
M
2
Pile Moment
1. Decide deep foundation type
2. Select resistance factor
3. Compute resistances
4. Layout foundation group and analyze at
the strength limit state
Compute load effects in piles using rigid
cap method
resistances for piles
5. Check the service limit state
Where We Are Going …
Guided Walk Through…
Participant Workbook
Page 3.3B.7
12’-0”
4’-6”
5’-0”
5’-0”
6’-0”
15’-0”
3’-6”
46’-6”
15’-6”
23’-0”
15’-6”
18” 60” 18” 60” 60” 60”
18”
18”
36”
36”
36”
HP 12x53
Centroid
F
z
F
y
F
x
-M
y
M
x

F
x
= 38.4 kips
F
y
= 109.1 kips
F
z
= 3594.0 kips

M
x
= 3196.5 k-ft
M
y
= -8331.9 k-ft
¿ ¿
= =
+ + =
n
1 i
2
i
i y
n
1 i
2
i
i x z
i
x
x M
y
y M
n
F
P
Example calculation, pile 9:
F
z
= 3594.0 kips M
x
= 3196.5 k-ft
n = 20 piles y
i
= 18 in (1.5 ft)
E x
i
2
= 1000 ft
2
M
y
= -8331.9 k-ft
E y
i
2
= 225 ft
2
x
i
= 60 in (5 ft)
P
9
= 243 kips
160 k
Y
X
202 k 244 k 285 k 327 k
118 k 159 k 201 k 243 k 284 k
75 k 117 k 158 k 200 k 242 k
32 k 74 k 116 k 157 k 199 k
Ay
Ay assumed to be 0.15”
F
y
-200
-400
-600
10
8
6
4
2
0
0.1 0.2
L
o
a
d

(
k
i
p
s
)

M
a
x
.

M
o
m
e
n
t

(
k
-
i
n
)

Deflection (in)
0
.
1
5

i
n

7.2 kips
5.9 kips
4.5 kips
-340 k-in
-390 k-in
-450 k-in
Row P
m
H
y
M
max
1 0.35 4.5 kips -340 k-in
2 0.35 4.5 kips -340 k-in
3 0.5 5.9 kips -390 k-in
4 0.7 7.2 kips -450 k-in
Sum of H
y
forces times piles per column =
(22.1 kips/column) (5 columns) = 110.5 kips
110.5 kips close to 109.1 kips
Ax
Ax assumed to be 0.05”
F
x
-33
-66
-100
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
0.025 0.075
L
o
a
d

(
k
i
p
s
)

M
a
x
.

M
o
m
e
n
t

(
k
-
i
n
)

Deflection (in)
0
.
0
5

i
n

2.2 kips
2.0 kips
1.8 kips
-75 k-in
-80 k-in
-90 k-in
2.5
Column P
m
H
x
M
max
1 0.7 1.8 kips -75 k-in
2 0.7 1.8 kips -75 k-in
3 0.7 1.8 kips -75 k-in
4 0.85 2.0 kips -80 k-in
5 1.0 2.2 kips -90 k-in
Sum of H
x
forces times piles per row =
(9.6 kips/row) (4 rows) = 38.4 kips
38.4 kips = 38.4 kips
100
200
300
D
e
p
t
h

(
i
n
)

Shear (kips)
-2 0 2 4 6 8
Max. shear = 7.2 kips in y-direction
(Piles 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 at the top of pile)
Max. axial load (Pile 5) = 326 kips
Min. axial load (Pile 16) = 32 kips

Moment (x-direction) = -37.5 kip-ft
Moment (y-direction) = -7.5 kip-ft
(no uplift)
1. Decide deep foundation type
2. Select resistance factor
3. Compute resistances
4. Layout foundation group and analyze at
the strength limit state
Compute load effects in piles using
rigid cap method
resistances for piles
5. Check the service limit state
Where We Are Going …
Loose
Silty sand
Hard Clay
Driven
HP 12 x 53
4’
35’
>100’
|
f
= 31
o
¸
sat
= 110 pcf

S
u
= 8000 psf

¸
sat
= 125 pcf
OCR = 10

Structural Resistance –
Axial compression

A
s
= 15.5 in
2

(after corrosion loss)
F
y
= 50 ksi
ì = 0 in
P
n
AASHTO Articles 6.9.4.1-1, 10.7.3.12.1
P
n
= 0.66
ì
F
y
A
s
= 0.66
0
(50)(15.5)
P
n
= 775 kips
Structural Resistance –
Flexure Resistance

z
x
= 74 in
3

z
y
= 32.2 in
3
F
y
= 50 ksi
M
ny
M
nx
= (50 ksi)(74 in
3
) =
M
ny
= (50 ksi)(32.2 in
3
) =
3700 k-in
1610 k-in
y
x
M
nx
Structural Resistance –
Shear Resistance
D = 11.78 in
t
w
= 0.435 in
F
y
= 50 ksi
C = 1.0
V
ny
AASHTO Articles 6.10.7.2-1,6.10.7.2-2,6.10.7.3.3a
V
p
= (0.58)(50 ksi)(11.78 in)(0.435 in)
V
p
C = 149(1.0) = 149 kips
y
x
Axial Compression
| = 0.6 for P
r
Combined Compression and Flexure
| = 0.7 for P
r
, 1.0 for M
r
Shear
| = 1.0 for V
r
Geotechnical Resistance – Axial compression

Use the beta method fro axial resistance in sand
and clay.

q
s
= | o'
v
and q
p
= N
t
o'
v

For
Sand
0.28
For
Sand
28
For
Clay
1.5
Tip resistance in clay

q
p
= 9 S
u

Depth
(ft)
Average
o'
v
(ksf)
Cum.
side
friction
(kips)
Q
p
=
q
p
A
p

(kips)
Total
Resistance
(kips)
0 0 0 0 0
5 0.12 0.67 6.6 7.3
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Resistance (kips)
D
e
p
t
h

(
f
t
)

Side Friction
Point Resistance
Total Resistance
Axial
Geotechnical
Resistance
vs. Depth
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Resistance (kips)
D
e
p
t
h

(
f
t
)

Side Friction
Point Resistance
Total Resistance
Estimate
Required Length
Assume
E ¸ Q = ¢ P
n

¢ P
n
= 0.6 (775 kips)
¢ P
n
= 465 kips

E ¸ Q = ¢
stat
R
nstat
¢
stat
= 0.25
R
nstat
= 465 kips/0.25
R
nstat
= 1860 kips
1860 kips
D
est
= 108’
Steps to perform drivability analysis:
 Estimate total soil resistance and
distribution
 Select hammer
 Model driving system and soil resistance
 Run wave equation analysis
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Resistance (kips)
D
e
p
t
h

(
f
t
)

Side Friction
Point Resistance
Total Resistance
Estimate Resistance
Distribution
E ¸ Q = ¢
dyn
R
n
¢
stat
= 0.65
R
n
= 465 kips/0.65
R
n
= 715 kips
715 kips
D
est
= 70’
EB = 10%
20%
40%
80%
100%
60%
Skin quake = 0.1 default per WEAP
manual
Skin damping = 0.2 From WEAP manual
Toe quake = 0.1 1/120 of pile width
Toe damping = 0.15 per FHWA NHI-05-042
page 17-68
Select dynamic properties of soil
Identify pile properties (HP12x53)
A
s
= 15.5 in
2

E
s
= 300000 ksi
¸
s
= 490 pcf
Identify hammer properties
(Delmag 30-23)
Helmet weight = 2.15 kip
Cushion Area = 283.5 in
2

Cushion E = 280 ksi
Cushion Thickness = 2 in
715 kips
715 kips
58 ksi
Bigger hammer (Delmag 46-13)
Evaluate driving stress
o
dr
= 0.9 ¢
da
f
y
(permissible driving stress)

¢
da
= 1.0
o
dr
= 0.9 (1.0) 50 ksi
o
dr
= 45 ksi

45 ksi < 58 ksi (driving stress exceeded)
What is the maximum resistance that can
be developed without exceeding the
permissible driving stress?
550 kips
45 ksi
17 BPI
Factored resistance limited by driving
stress (driven resistance)
R
R
= ¢
dyn
R
n
¢
dyn
= 0.65
R
R
= 0.65 (550 kips)
R
R
= 358 kips
*AASHTO Eqn. 6.9.2.2-2
Axial geotechnical performance ratio =
326/465 = 0.7
Axial structural performance ratio =
326/465 = 0.7
Combined axial and flexural performance
ratio = 0.78*
Driven performance ratio
326 / 358 = 0.91
Shear performance ratio =
7.2 / 256 = 0.03
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Resistance (kips)
D
e
p
t
h

(
f
t
)

Side Friction
Point Resistance
Total Resistance
Estimate
Required Length
for Actual
E ¸ Q = 326 kips

E ¸ Q = ¢
stat
R
nstat
¢
stat
= 0.25
R
nstat
= 326 kips/0.25
R
nstat
= 1304 kips
1304 kips
D
est
= 91’
1. Decide deep foundation type
2. Select resistance factor
3. Compute resistances
4. Layout foundation group and analyze at
the strength limit state
Compute load effects in piles using rigid
cap method
resistances for piles
5. Check the service limit state
Wrap Up
T-z
t-u
P-y (& P-x)
Q-z
Non-linear Pile
Material
Flexible
Membrane
Pile Cap
Non-linear Soil
Response
Non-linear
Column and
Cap Beam
F
z
F
y
F
x
-M
y
M
x
Beam seat elevation
Rock
Loose Sand
Pile 5

Pile 16
Rigid Cap Results
Shear Results
0.0 ft
2.0 ft
4.0 ft
6.0 ft
8.0 ft
10.0 ft
12.0 ft
14.0 ft
16.0 ft
18.0 ft
20.0 ft
22.0 ft
24.0 ft
26.0 ft
28.0 ft
30.0 ft
32.0 ft
-
7
.
5
9

k
i
p
s
1
.
8
7

k
i
p
s
Shear = 7.2 kips
Moment = - 37.5 k-in
0.0 ft
2.0 ft
4.0 ft
6.0 ft
8.0 ft
10.0 ft
12.0 ft
14.0 ft
16.0 ft
18.0 ft
20.0 ft
22.0 ft
24.0 ft
26.0 ft
28.0 ft
30.0 ft
32.0 ft
-
3
0
.
1

k
i
p
-
f
t
1
5
.
3

k
i
p
-
f
t
Moment Results
Axial Results
0.0 ft
2.0 ft
4.0 ft
6.0 ft
8.0 ft
10.0 ft
12.0 ft
14.0 ft
16.0 ft
18.0 ft
20.0 ft
22.0 ft
24.0 ft
26.0 ft
28.0 ft
30.0 ft
32.0 ft
-
3
2
4

k
i
p
s
-
1
8
.
2

k
i
p
s
Max. Axial = 327 kips
Min. Axial = 32 kips
*AASHTO Eqn. 6.9.2.2-2
Axial geotechnical performance ratio =
327/465 = 0.7
Axial structural performance ratio =
327/465 = 0.7
Combined axial and flexural performance
ratio = 0.73*
Driven performance ratio
327 / 358 = 0.91
Shear performance ratio =
7.59 / 256 = 0.03
(0.7)
(0.78)
(0.91)
(0.03)
(0.7)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Resistance (kips)
D
e
p
t
h

(
f
t
)

Side Friction
Point Resistance
Total Resistance
Accounting for
Scour
E ¸ Q = 358 kips

E ¸ Q = ¢
stat
R
nstat
¢
stat
= 0.25
R
nstat
= 326 kips/0.25
R
nstat
= 1432 kips

R
S scour
= 20 kips
1432 kips
D
est
= 96’
20 kips
Scoured
Accounting for Scour
Required driven resistance during construction

E ¸ Q = 358 kips

E ¸ Q = ¢
dyn
R
ndr
– R
S scour
R
ndr
= E ¸ Q / ¢
dyn
+ R
S scour
¢
dyn
= 0.65
R
ndr
= 326 kips/0.65 + 20 kips
R
ndr
= 571 kips
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Resistance (kips)
D
e
p
t
h

(
f
t
)

Side Friction
Point Resistance
Total Resistance
Accounting for
Downdrag
E ¸ Q = 358 kips +
¸
DD
DD

¸
DD
= 1.8
R
S scour
= 20 kips
DD = 20 kips

E ¸ Q = 394 kips
R
nstat
= 394 kips/0.25
R
nstat
= 1576 kips

1576 kips
D
est
= 100’
20 kips
Settling
Accounting for Downdrag
Required driven resistance during construction

E ¸ Q = 358 kips + ¸
DD
DD
¸
DD
= 1.0
Since resistance in downdrag zone determined by
signal matching
E ¸ Q = 358 kips + 1.0 (20 kips) = 378 kips
E ¸ Q = ¢
dyn
R
ndr
– R
S downdrag
R
ndr
= E ¸ Q / ¢
dyn
+ R
S downdrag
¢
dyn
= 0.65
R
ndr
= 378 kips/0.65 + 20 kips
R
ndr
= 602 kips
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Resistance (kips)
D
e
p
t
h

(
f
t
)

Side Friction
Point Resistance
Total Resistance
Accounting for
Set up
E ¸ Q = 358 kips
R
nstat
= 358 kips/0.25
R
nstat
= 1432 kips

1432 kips
D
est
= 95’
S
e
t

u
p

Accounting for Set Up
Required driven resistance during construction

E ¸ Q = 358 kips
R
ndr
= E ¸ Q / (¢ S
2
) - R
1dr
S
1
/ S
2
+ R
1dr
S
1
= 1.0 (no strength change expected in layer 1)
S
2
= 1.5 (50% strength gain in layer 2)
¢ = 0.25 (static analysis only)
R
1dr
= 25.6 kips (resistance in layer 1)

R
ndr
= 358 kips/(0.25 x1.5) – 25.6 kips (1.0)/1.5 +
25.6 kips
R
ndr
= 963 kips
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Resistance (kips)
D
e
p
t
h

(
f
t
)

Side Friction
Point Resistance
Total Resistance
Accounting for
Set up

R
1dr
= 25.6 kips
R
ndr
= 963 kips

963 kips
D
est
= 95’
S
e
t

u
p

25.6 kips
End Bearing on Hard Rock
Assume structural resistance is much less than
geotechnical resistance.

Assume potential damage to pile

R
R
= ¢ P
n
P
n
= 775 kips
¢ = 0.5 (due to potential for damage)
R
R
= 0.5 (775 kips) = 388 kips
• Estimate length based on depth to rock
• Control driving to prevent damage
Participant Workbook
Page 3.3B.29
X
Y
Z
a. Which pile will have
b. Which pile will have
c. Which pile will be
subject to the highest
d. Which pile will be
subject to the highest
bending moments?
directions as depicted in the
M
x
M
y
F
x
F
z
F
y
1 2
3
4
5D c-c
1
4
2
2
D. Apply the rigid cap method to
evaluate the strength limit state
checks
Learning Outcome
LRFD Theory for
Geotechnical Design
Topic 3 – Part C
Deep Foundations
Session 3
LRFD for Highway Bridge Substructures
and Earth Retaining Structures
Course No. 130082A
E. Be able to perform a rigid cap
analysis of a driven pile group at
Service Limit State
Learning Outcome
1. Decide deep foundation type
2. Select resistance factor
3. Compute resistances
4. Layout foundation group and
analyze at the strength limit state
5. Check the service limit state
Where We Are Going …
Q
top
L

Az
top
Az
p
Point bearing only
Az
top
=

Az
p
+ Q
top
L/ (A E)
Constant side friction only
Az
top
=

Az
p
+ Q
top
L/ (2 A E)
Linear increasing friction
only
Az
top
=

Az
p
+ Q
top
L/ (3 A E)
Pile Properties A, E
Axial Response of a Single Element
(Approximate method)
Axial Response of a Group
Perform Rigid Cap
Analysis, Driven Pile
E
18” 60” 18” 60” 60” 60”
18”
18”
36”
36”
36”
HP 12x53
Centroid
F
z
F
y
F
x
-M
y
M
x

F
x
= 31.8 kips
F
y
= 86.1 kips
F
z
= 2794 kips

M
x
= 2547.7 k-ft
M
y
= -6306.9 k-ft
128 k
Y
X
159 k 191 k 222 k 254 k
94 k 125 k 157 k 188 k 220 k
60 k 91 k 123 k 154 k 186 k
26 k 57 k 89 k 120 k 152 k
M
x
F
z
F
y
P
B
P
C
P
B
= 88.8 kips
P
C
=190.6 kips
1

2

3

4

F
y
= 86.1 kips / 5 rows
F
y
= 17.2 kips/row
Assume deflection = 0.11”
P
m
0.35 0.35 0.5 0.7
F
y
= H
1
+ H
2
+ H
3
+ H
4
F
y
= 3.7+3.7+4.6+5.5
F
y
= 17.5 kips
10
8
6
4
2
0
0.1 0.2
L
o
a
d

(
k
i
p
s
)

Deflection (in)
0
.
1
1

i
n

5.5 kips
4.6 kips
3.7 kips
HP 12x53 in loose sand, fixed x-x axis
Q
P
Q
top
L

=

3
8
4

i
n

Az
top
Az
p
Estimate Az
p
=0.03 in @ Q
p
=500 k
( )( )
( )( ) 29000 15.5
384 500
0.03 Δz
top
+ =
Az
top
= 0.46 in
= 0.00092(Q
top
)
Assume point bearing:
AE
L Q
Δz Δz
top
p top
+ =
 Az
top, Pile B
= 0.00092 (88.8 kips)
= 0.082 in.
 Az
top, Pile C
= 0.00092 (190.6 kips)
= 0.175 in.
Ay for both piles is 0.11 in.
+y
+z
A
B
C
D
Given coordinates:
A = (72 , -333)
B = (18.11 , Az
top, Pile B)
C = (126.11 , Az
top, Pile C
)
D = (72.11 , z
D
)
1. Find z
D
by similar triangles
2. Find o of line BC
3. Use trigonometry to find:
Ay
A
, Az
A
A
B
C
D
Initial coordinates, A
(72, -333)
Final coordinates, A
(72.40, -332.87)
Displacement of A
Ay
A
= 0.40 in
Az
A
= 0.13 in
+y
+z

0.23 in
0.50 in
0.13 in
FB Pier Analysis
Ay
A
= 0.50 in
Az
A
= 0.13 in
Rigid Cap
Ay
A
= 0.40 in
Az
A
= 0.13 in
1. Decide deep foundation type
2. Select resistance factor
3. Compute resistances
4. Layout foundation group and
analyze at the strength limit state
5. Check the service limit state
Wrap Up
Participant Workbook
Page 3.3C.10
1

2

3

4

P
m
0.7 0.7 0.7 0.85 1.0
5

Deflection (in.)
L
o
a
d

(
k
i
p
s
)

0.01 0.03 0.05
2.0
1.6
1.2
0.8
0.4
0.0
1.0
0.85
0.7
HP 12x53 in loose sand, fixed y-y axis
P
B
= (26+60+94+128)/4 = 77 kips
P
C
= (152+186+220+254)/4 = 203 kips
Horizontal Reactions
Displacement assumed to be 0.04 in
F
x
= 31.8 kips / 4 rows = 8 kips/row
H
1
+H
2
+H
3
+H
4
+H
5
=
1.5+1.5+1.5+1.7+1.8 = 8 kips, OK
Settlement as a Function of Q
top
Az
top
= 0.00092Q
top
Pile B: Az
top
= 0.071 in, Ax = 0.04 in
Pile C: Az
top
= 0.187 in, Ax = 0.04 in
Displaced Geometry
z
D
= 3 (0.129)
o = 0.02769
o
Final coordinates, A = (138.20, -332.87)
Displacement

Ax
A
= 0.20 in, Az
A
= 0.13 in

0.23 in
0.50 in
0.13 in
FB Pier Analysis
Ax
A
= 0.23 in
Az
A
= 0.13 in
Rigid Cap
Ax
A
= 0.20 in
Az
A
= 0.13 in
Results
E. Be able to perform a rigid cap
analysis of a driven pile group at
Service Limit State
Learning Outcome