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# Introduction to Process Capability

• Process capability enables the prediction of the ability of any process to produce products and services that meet their specifications. • This module focuses on typical manufacturing processes. Transactional and other manufacturing processes will be discussed in the Advanced Process Capability module. • The principles of process capability will be introduced - then Minitab will be used to calculate process capabilities.

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What We Will Learn
At the conclusion of this module participants will be able to: 1. Recognize the value of and uses for process capability. 2. Calculate and explain the capability of processes whose output is normally distributed. 3. Predict the probability that the output of a process will be within its specification limits.

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Basic Principle
• All measures of process capability are based on the concept of calculating the number of standard deviations between the process center and the specification limits. • A Six Sigma process has six units of standard deviation between the process center and both specification limits.

LSL

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USL

Visualizing Process Capability

Process width Specification width
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9544997 3 0. Process Sigma Yield 1 0.9999994 6 1.683 If we assume the process is centered on the target and does not shift or drift the yields would be.6826895 2 0.9999367 5 0.Quantifying Process Capability Yield of a one sigma process 0.9973002 4 0.0000000 LSL USL © 2012 ASQ Slide 6 .

© 2012 ASQ Slide 7 . so we substitute the sample statistics for the population parameters as shown. Then we can use the tables to look up the probability a value will be less than that number. Z  X X s In most cases we do not know  or . x  Z   If the specification limits are substituted for X we can determine the number of units of standard deviation between the process center and the specification limits on the standard normal curve. We also know any normal distribution can be converted to the standard normal using the equation for Z.Calculating Yield We know that Z is the number of units of standard deviation on a standard normal curve which has a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one.

What is the yield? USL-X ZUSL= s 1-0 ZUSL= =1 1 Using tables to look up the area under the curve when Z=1 we find . © 2012 ASQ Slide 8 . This means that 84.Calculating Yield Example Consider a process that has the following specification limits: Lower Specification Limit (LSL) of -1 Upper Specification Limit (USL) of 1. Data indicates the process is centered on 0 with a standard deviation of 1.8413.13% of the product has a value less than the upper specification limit.

1586. © 2012 ASQ Slide 9 .Calculating Yield Example .1586) or . which is 68.27% (recall area under the curve at ± 1 standard deviation). Thus the yield is (. The yield is the value that is less than or equal to the USL and greater than or equal to the LSL.86% of the product has a value less than the lower specification limit.continued Z LSL= LSL-X s -1-0 = -1 ZLSL = 1 Again using tables to look up the area under the curve when Z=-1 we find .8413 . This means that 15.6827..

Calculating the Yield in Minitab Graph > Probability Distribution Plot … © 2012 ASQ Slide 10 .

Calculating the Yield in Minitab © 2012 ASQ Slide 11 .

1 0.4 0.2 0.6827 Distribution Plot 0. StDev=1 0.3 Density 0.Calculating the Yield in Minitab Normal. Mean=0.0 -1 0 X 1 © 2012 ASQ Slide 12 .

Long-term process capability   Ppk .Long-term process capability index   See formulae on next page.Short-term process capability  For a limited period of time (not including shifts and drifts)   Does not consider process centering Also known as process entitlement For a limited period of time (not including shifts and drifts) Cpk .Process Capability Terms Measures of the ability of a process to produce compliant products/services: Cp .Short-term process capability index   Does consider process centering For an extended period of time (including shifts and drifts) Does not consider process centering For an extended period of time (including shifts and drifts) Does consider process centering Pp . © 2012 ASQ Slide 13 .

Capability Formulae Cp = Pp = Cpk= Ppk= Lesser of: Specification Width (s) Short-Term Process Width = USL-LSL ˆ 6σ ST USL-LSL ˆ 6σ LT Specification Width (s) Long-Term Process Width Lesser of: = USL-X or ˆ 3σ ST USL-X or ˆ 3σ LT X-LSL ˆ 3σ ST X-LSL ˆ 3σ LT © 2012 ASQ Slide 14 .

Capability Formulae _ ^ ^ where σST = R/d2*. based on subgroup size Statistics for Quality .Shewhart constant.2004 © 2012 ASQ Slide 15 . σLT = √ ∑((xi – x)2/(n – 1)) * d2 .

005.Process Capability Using Minitab Consider an injection molding machine with 5 cavities that is producing plastic bottle caps with a target value of 1 inch and a tolerance of . we might look at this example as having a subgroup size equal to 5. The data is in Bottle Caps. If we are relatively confident that there is little variation between cavities. © 2012 ASQ Slide 16 .mtw. This practice is not a common one and should only be attempted with caution.

Check for a distribution that fits Stat>Quality Tools>Individual Distribution Identification No Box Cox transformation Stat>Control Charts>Box Cox Transformation Any distribution with a P value >.05 Yes No Data Normal? Stat >Basic Stat >Normality test P<.05 No Stat> Quality Tools >Process Capability Binomial Raw Data Yes Normal Non-Normal St at>Quality Tools>Process Capability Poisson Stat>Quality Tools>Process Capability> Normal Yes No Stratified 1. Yield can be modeled using e^(-dpu) 2. See Control Chart Selection for the appropriate charting method.05? Yes Stat>Quality Tools>Process Capability>Non-normal Select the distribution that matches No Yes Is the transformed data normal? Stat>Quality Tools>Process Capability Normal>Box Cox select optimal Lambda Stat>Quality Tools>Process Capability>Non-normal >Johnson Transformation © 2012 ASQ Slide 17 . Calc>Probability Distributions>Normal> Inverse 3.5 sigma Investigate causes and take action. To convert from long term to short term add 1. Defective (Attribute) Defects (Count) P.Decision Tree to Minitab Path Data Discrete Continuous Note: If possible plot the data in time sequence to determine stability before determining process capability. Process yield can be converted to process sigma using the standard normal distribution.

Using Minitab The data is continuous so test for normality Stat>Basic Statistics>Normality Test © 2012 ASQ Slide 18 .

01 0.996 0.998 1. Much more about this in week 2.992 0.619 P-Value 0. Worksheet: Bottle Caps.994 0.008 Caps The P value is > .MTW © 2012 ASQ Slide 19 .05 therefore do not reject the assumption of normality.000 1.002 1.107 80 50 20 5 1 0.000 StDev 0.004 1.The Normality Test Probability Plot of Caps Normal 99.001986 N 750 AD 0.006 1.99 99 95 Percent Mean 1.

Using Minitab to Calculate Process Capability © 2012 ASQ Slide 20 .

With Cpm.Using Minitab to Calculate Process Capability. Cp and Pp © 2012 ASQ Slide 21 .

995 1 1.83 0.19 Let’s examine this in detail © 2012 ASQ Slide 22 .00198431 0.005 1.84 C P L 0.54 % > U S L 0.83 C pk 0. 3 00 5 1.00006 750 0. 5 00 0 E xp. O v erall P erformance % < LS L 0.85 0.83 O v erall C apability Pp PPL PPU P pk C pm 0.65 % Total 1.84 0. O bserv ed P erformance % < LS L 0.85 C P U 0.67 % Total 1. 2 00 0 1.40 % > U S L 0. 9 99 0 1.64 % Total 1.83 0.18 E xp.00198636 Target USL Within Ov erall P otential (Within) C apability Cp 0.Minitab Results Process Capability of Caps LSL P rocess LS L Target USL S ample M ean S ample N S tD ev (Within) S tD ev (O v erall) D ata 0. Within P erformance % < LS L 0.07 4 99 5 0. 6 99 0 0.84 0. 0 00 5 1.54 % > U S L 0. 7 99 5 0.

0 35 1 0 .85 0.84 C P L 0.67 % Total 1.005 S ample M ean 1.40 % > U S L 0.0 05 1 0 .83 C pk 0.00198636 Target USL Within Ov erall P otential (Within) C apability Cp 0.64 % Total 1.54 % > U S L 0.84 0. Within P erformance % < LS L 0.00198431 S tDev (O v erall) 0.84 0 O bserv ed P erformance % < LS L 0.Process Data Calculated directly from the data. The within standard deviation is the pooled standard deviation of the subgroups.83 0. O v erall P erformance % < LS L 0.18 E xp.54 % > U S L 0.995 Target 1 USL 1. Process Capability of Caps LSL P rocess Data LS L 0.65 % Total 1.83 0.9 90 1 0 .9 45 0 9 .19 © 2012 ASQ Slide 23 .0 50 E xp.83 O v erall C apability Pp PPL PPU P pk C pm 0.00006 S ample N 750 S tDev (Within) 0.07 9 .9 60 0 9 .0 20 1 0 .9 75 0 9 .85 C P U 0.

67 % Total 1.Observed Performance Process Capability of Caps LSL P rocess Data LS L 0.9 90 1 0 .83 O v erall C apability Pp PPL PPU P pk C pm 0.85 0.83 0.0 20 1 0 .19 © 2012 ASQ Slide 24 .00006 S ample N 750 S tDev (Within) 0.9 45 0 9 .0 50 E xp.0 35 1 0 .995 Target 1 USL 1.00198636 Target USL Within Ov erall P otential (Within) C apability Cp 0.84 The percent that was outside of the upper and lower specification limits in this data set.84 0.005 S ample M ean 1.9 60 0 9 .40 % > U S L 0.64 % Total 1.9 75 0 9 .84 C P L 0.85 C P U 0.0 05 1 0 . O v erall P erformance % < LS L 0. 0 O bserv ed P erformance % < LS L 0.54 % > U S L 0. Within P erformance % < LS L 0.83 C pk 0.07 9 .54 % > U S L 0.65 % Total 1.83 0.00198431 S tDev (O v erall) 0.18 E xp.

005 S ample M ean 1.65 % Total 1.64 % Total 1.00198636 Target USL Within Ov erall P otential (Within) C apability Cp 0.84 0.19 © 2012 ASQ Slide 25 .83 C pk 0.54 % > U S L 0.9 90 1 0 .0 50 E xp.83 0.18 E xp.84 0 O bserv ed P erformance % < LS L 0.85 0.Expected Within Performance Process Capability of Caps The percent that is expected to be outside of the upper and lower specification limits on an short term basis.07 9 . This projection is based on the within standard deviation and the process mean.00198431 S tDev (O v erall) 0.83 0.84 C P L 0. LSL P rocess Data LS L 0.54 % > U S L 0.00006 S ample N 750 S tDev (Within) 0.40 % > U S L 0.83 O v erall C apability Pp PPL PPU P pk C pm 0.0 05 1 0 .0 35 1 0 .9 45 0 9 .67 % Total 1. O v erall P erformance % < LS L 0.995 Target 1 USL 1.85 C P U 0. Within P erformance % < LS L 0.0 20 1 0 .9 60 0 9 .9 75 0 9 .

Expected Overall Performance Process Capability of Caps The percent that is expected to be outside of the upper and lower specification limits on an long term basis. Within P erformance % < LS L 0. O v erall P erformance % < LS L 0.9 45 0 9 .07 9 .9 90 1 0 .005 S ample M ean 1.85 0.83 O v erall C apability Pp PPL PPU P pk C pm 0.65 % Total 1.0 05 1 0 .64 % Total 1.67 % Total 1.0 50 E xp.9 75 0 9 .84 0 O bserv ed P erformance % < LS L 0.40 % > U S L 0.84 C P L 0.54 % > U S L 0.83 0.84 0.18 E xp.54 % > U S L 0.83 0.83 C pk 0.00006 S ample N 750 S tDev (Within) 0. LSL P rocess Data LS L 0.19 © 2012 ASQ Slide 26 .0 35 1 0 .00198431 S tDev (O v erall) 0. This projection is based on the overall standard deviation and the process mean.0 20 1 0 .00198636 Target USL Within Ov erall P otential (Within) C apability Cp 0.9 60 0 9 .85 C P U 0.995 Target 1 USL 1.

54 % > U S L 0.85 C P U 0.54 % > U S L 0.0 20 1 0 .0 05 1 0 .9 90 1 0 .64 % Total 1.995 Target 1 USL 1.19 © 2012 ASQ Slide 27 .00198636 Cpl and Cpu are calculated using the process mean.83 O v erall C apability Pp PPL PPU P pk C pm 0.07 9 .85 0.9 45 0 9 .00198431 S tDev (O v erall) 0. Within P erformance % < LS L 0.40 % > U S L 0.18 E xp.65 % Total 1.84 C P L 0. O v erall P erformance % < LS L 0.9 75 0 9 .Calculating Cpk and Ppk Process Capability of Caps LSL P rocess Data LS L 0. Within Ov erall P otential (Within) C apability Cp 0.0 35 1 0 .84 0.83 0.83 C pk 0. the respective specification limits and the within standard deviation.005 S ample M ean 1.00006 S ample N 750 S tDev (Within) 0.67 % Total 1.83 0.0 50 E xp.9 60 0 9 . Cpk is the lesser of Cpl or Cpu.84 Target USL 0 O bserv ed P erformance % < LS L 0.

0 05 1 0 .83 0. O v erall P erformance % < LS L 0. Ppk is the lesser of PPL or PPU.07 9 .18 E xp.00006 S ample N 750 S tDev (Within) 0.9 75 0 9 .54 % > U S L 0.67 % Total 1.9 60 0 9 .0 50 E xp.85 0.65 % Total 1. Within Ov erall P otential (Within) C apability Cp 0.00198636 PPL and PPU are calculated using the process mean.83 0.0 35 1 0 . the respective specification limits and the overall standard deviation.19 © 2012 ASQ Slide 28 .995 Target 1 USL 1.64 % Total 1.40 % > U S L 0.83 C pk 0.84 Target USL 0 O bserv ed P erformance % < LS L 0.84 0.84 C P L 0.Calculating Cpk and Ppk Process Capability of Caps LSL P rocess Data LS L 0.54 % > U S L 0.0 20 1 0 .9 90 1 0 .9 45 0 9 .005 S ample M ean 1.83 O v erall C apability Pp PPL PPU P pk C pm 0.85 C P U 0.00198431 S tDev (O v erall) 0. Within P erformance % < LS L 0.

0 05 1 0 .84 0. Target USL Within Ov erall P otential (Within) C apability Cp 0.18 E xp.54 % > U S L 0.0 50 E xp.40 % > U S L 0.65 % Total 1.84 0 O bserv ed P erformance % < LS L 0. Within P erformance % < LS L 0.19 © 2012 ASQ Slide 29 .9 75 0 9 .83 0.Between Process Capability of Caps LSL P rocess Data LS L 0.83 0.005 S ample M ean 1.9 60 0 9 .83 O v erall C apability Pp PPL PPU P pk C pm 0.07 9 .67 % Total 1.Within .9 45 0 9 .83 C pk 0.54 % > U S L 0.0 20 1 0 .64 % Total 1.995 Target 1 USL 1. O v erall P erformance % < LS L 0.84 C P L 0.00198431 S tDev (O v erall) 0.85 0.9 90 1 0 .0 35 1 0 .85 C P U 0.00198636 This process is very stable as indicated by the Within and Between lines being very close together.00006 S ample N 750 S tDev (Within) 0.

Using the Assistant © 2012 ASQ Slide 30 .

Normality Test (Anderson-Darling) Results P-value Pass 0.Assistant Result Capability Analysis for Caps Diagnostic Report Xbar-R Chart Confirm that the process is stable. Note: stability and capability are evaluated independently.002 Mean Statistical Process Control chart indicates the process is stable.005 0.010 Range 0.000 0. 1. passes normality test © 2012 ASQ Slide 31 .000 1 16 31 46 61 76 91 106 121 136 Normality Plot The points should be close to the line.998 0. 1.107 Same result.

-.Bench % Out of spec Comments Conclusions -.0020 1.The defect rate is 1.84 0. 1.0050 © 2012 ASQ Slide 32 . Actual (overall) capability is what the customer experiences.05). which estimates the percentage of parts from the process that are outside the spec limits.9990 1.05 0.Bench = 2.0035 1.0019864 1.19%.995 Low Z.0005 1.5 Mean Standard deviation Actual (overall) capability Pp Ppk Z.26 1.19 0.26 High Yes P = 0.9945 0.9975 0.0001 0.005 1 0.9960 0.Assistant Result Capability Analysis for Caps Summary Report How capable is the process? 0 6 Customer Requirements Upper Spec Target Lower Spec Process Characterization Does the process mean differ from 1? 0 0.1 > 0.83 2.378 No Actual (overall) Capability Are the data inside the limits and close to the target? LSL Target USL 0.The process mean does not differ significantly from the target (p > 0.

mtw. Datafile/Caps Drift.A Process That Drifts Consider a similar process that does change over time. First test for normality… © 2012 ASQ Slide 33 .

0025 1.99 99 95 Percent Mean 1. 0.000 StDev 0.Normality Test Probability Plot of Caps Drift Normal 99.01 0.001291 N 720 AD 0.326 P-Value 0.9950 Do not reject the assumption of normality.520 80 50 20 5 1 0.0050 Worksheet: Caps Drift.9975 1.MTW © 2012 ASQ Slide 34 .0000 Caps Drift 1.

Capability Analysis © 2012 ASQ Slide 35 .

63 C P L 1. Plot this data using a control chart.29 1.Capability Analysis Process Capability of Caps Drift LSL P rocess D ata LS L 0. 0.29 This process is changing over time as indicated by the difference between the Within and Between lines.29 1.29 1.00 % Total 0.29 1.63 O v erall C apability Pp PPL PPU P pk C pm 1.999998 S ample N 720 S tD ev (Within) 0.9990 1.00 % Total 0.00129055 Target USL Within Ov erall P otential (Within) C apability Cp 1.00 E xp.995 Target 1 USL 1.00 % > U S L 0.0005 1.00 % > U S L 0.01 © 2012 ASQ Slide 36 .9975 0. Within P erformance % < LS L 0.63 C P U 1.00 E xp.01 % Total 0.005 S ample M ean 0.63 C pk 1.0035 1.0050 O bserv ed P erformance % < LS L 0.01 % > U S L 0. O v erall P erformance % < LS L 0.00102066 S tD ev (O v erall) 0.9960 0.0020 1.

© 2012 ASQ Slide 37 . Control Charts will be covered in detail later in the course.Control Chart Stat>Control Charts>Variable Charts for Subgroups Note: Any point outside of the control limits indicates an assignable cause (non-random event). Control charts are only used here to assess process stability.

MTW © 2012 ASQ Slide 38 .998629 8 0.Control Charts Shows Process Drift Xbar-R Chart of Caps Drift 1.0045 Sample Range UCL=0.001368 _ _ X=0.0015 0.0030 0.002 Sample Mean 1 1 22 1 2 5 5 22 2 22 2 5 2 22 2 2 2 2 2 2 622 2 6 2 6 22 2 2 22 1 57 71 Sample 1.000 1 5 5522 22 5 55 2 5 2 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 6 22 2 5 5 2 222 2 55 1 1 11 1 127 141 UCL=1.999998 LCL=0.002374 2 LCL=0 Worksheet: Caps Drift.0000 1 15 29 43 57 71 Sample 85 99 113 127 141 _ R=0.005020 0.998 1 15 29 5 5 1 43 85 99 113 1 0.

Assistant Setup © 2012 ASQ Slide 39 .

002 0. Normality Test (Anderson-Darling) Results P-value Pass 0. 1.004 0.520 Same result.000 0. passes normality test © 2012 ASQ Slide 40 .002 Mean Statistical Process Control chart indicates the process is stable. 1.000 1 15 29 43 57 71 85 99 113 127 141 Normality Plot The points should be close to the line.Assistant Result Capability Analysis for Caps Drift Diagnostic Report Xbar-R Chart Confirm that the process is stable. Note: stability and capability are evaluated independently.998 Range 0.

The parts were created in subgroups of 5 and the specification limits are: LSL 14.mtw © 2012 ASQ Slide 41 .Comparing Two Processes Two suppliers have submitted sample parts.2 Use the Minitab’s Assistant to compare the processes Data file = Compare Suppliers.Exercise 1 .8 USL 15.

Assistant Dialog © 2012 ASQ Slide 42 .

21 -69.16 1.51343 0.69 0.1 No > 0.05).5 Yes P = 0.52 69.17 4.46167 1.05 0.The process standard deviation was reduced significantly (p < 0.051757 1.74% to 0.29 1.05 0.998 0.000 Did the process mean change? 0 0.970 0.028137 -0. Lower Spec 14.The process mean did not change significantly (p > 0.136 Actual (overall) Capability Are the data inside the limits and close to the target? LSLTarget SL U No Mean Standard deviation Capability Pp Ppk Z.74 697373 After 14.Assistant Output Before/After Capability Comparison for Supplier 1 vs Supplier 2 Summary Report Reduction in % Out of Spec 100% % Out of spec was reduced by 100% from 69.5 Statistics Before 14. -.8 Customer Requirements Target 15 Upper Spec 15.1 > 0.28 3.73 -697260 Yes P = 0.11 -0.05). Actual (overall) capability is what the customer experiences.Bench % Out of spec PPM (DPMO) Comments Before: Supplier 1 After: Supplier 2 Before Conclusions -.01%. After © 2012 ASQ Slide 43 .01 113 Change 0.2 Was the process standard deviation reduced? 0 0.13 0.

72 0.51061 After 750 5 14.17 4.17 4.01 0 113 1.Assistant Output Before/After Capability Comparison for Supplier 1 vs Supplier 2 Process Performance Report Capability Histogram Are the data inside the limits and close to the target? LSL TargetUSL Process Characterization Before Total N Subgroup size Mean StDev (overall) StDev (within) 750 5 14.051757 0.11 -0.0 16.970 0.0 14.4 Actual (overall) capability is what the customer experiences.46167 -0.30 1.6 16.4 14. © 2012 ASQ Slide 44 .28 3.00 0.11 -0.028137 -0.27 -69.01 100 Change 1.998 0.51343 0.74 702667 697373 0.051383 Change Before 0.52 70.73 -702667 -697260 1.58 695792 13.8 15.28 3.57 -695692 Actual (overall) Pp Ppk Z.Bench % Out of spec (obs) % Out of spec (exp) PPM (DPMO) (obs) PPM (DPMO) (exp) Potential (within) Cp Cpk Z.45923 Capability Statistics Before After 1.17 1.2 15. Potential (within) capability is what could be achieved if process shifts and drifts were eliminated.13 0.27 69.29 1.51 69.Bench % Out of spec (exp) PPM (DPMO) (exp) After 0.69 0.23 -69.16 1.21 -70.6 14.13 0.

33.mtw. Parts A and B are made on different machines in lots (subgroups) of 5. graphically and analytically.1 and requires a Ppk of 1. The customer has established specification limits of 10 ± . © 2012 ASQ Slide 45 . Prepare a brief presentation to describe your analysis and recommendations? Remember to present data practically.Exercise 2 Assume a process owner has asked you analyze the data in Process Capability Exercise 1.

Exercise 2 .Normality Tests Graph > Probability Plot > Multiple © 2012 ASQ Slide 46 .

05647 750 0.01 9.Exercise 2 .752 99 95 Percent 80 50 20 5 1 0.2 No reason to reject the assumption of normality for either part.324 0.Normality Tests Probability Plot of Part A. Part B Normal 99.420 0.248 0.05049 750 0.8 9.00 10.0 Data 10. © 2012 ASQ Slide 47 .99 Variable Part A Part B Mean 10.9 10.1 10.00 StDev N AD P 0.

Prepare the Control Charts © 2012 ASQ Slide 48 .Exercise 2 .

1154 0.0675 10.2441 Sample Range 0.9343 1 16 31 46 61 76 Sample 91 106 121 136 UCL=0.0 1 16 31 46 61 76 Sample 91 106 121 136 LCL=0 Worksheet: Process Capability Exercise 1.2 4 0.MTW © 2012 ASQ Slide 49 .00 _ _ X=10.0009 9.1 4 4 4 _ R=0.Control Chart Shows Process Stability Xbar-R Chart of Part A UCL=10.05 Sample Mean 10.95 LCL=9.

95 9.1154 0.9330 1 136 UCL=0.00 9.2441 Sample Range 0.9996 5 1 16 31 46 5 1 61 76 Sample 91 106 1 1 121 LCL=9.Control Chart Shows Variation Over Time Xbar-R Chart of Part B 1 1 10.0 1 16 31 46 61 76 Sample 91 106 121 136 LCL=0 Worksheet: Process Capability Exercise 1.0662 10.90 1 _ _ X=9.MTW © 2012 ASQ Slide 50 .05 Sample Mean 1 11 1 1 5 UCL=10.2 4 0.1 4 4 4 _ R=0.

Process Capabilities © 2012 ASQ Slide 51 .Exercise 2 .

MTW © 2012 ASQ Slide 52 .28 % > USL 2.10 % > USL 2.87 % > USL 2.0496334 StDev(Overall) 0.9 Target 10 USL 10.67 CPL 0.40 Worksheet: Process Capability Exercise 1.68 CPU 0.80 % Total 4.92 9.66 0.00 10.Part A Process Capability of Part A LSL Process Data LSL 9.66 9.67 0.49 % Total 4.08 10.67 Cpk 0.77 Exp.04 10.65 0.0504922 Target USL Within Overall Potential (Within) Capability Cp 0. Overall Performance % < LSL 2.65 0.67 Overall Capability Pp PPL PPU Ppk Cpm 0.67 9.1 Sample Mean 10.0009 Sample N 750 StDev(Within) 0.96 10.Process Capability.30 % Total 4.12 Exp. Within Performance % < LSL 2.88 Observed Performance % < LSL 1.

66 © 2012 ASQ Slide 53 .67 C P U 0.67 C P L 0.59 9.77 % Total 7.59 0. O v erall P erformance % < LS L 3.39 E xp.90 9.67 C pk 0.59 0.59 0.99961 S ample N 750 S tDev (Within) 0.13 9.0564727 Target USL Within Ov erall P otential (Within) C apability Cp 0. Within P erformance % < LS L 2.Part B Process Capability of Part B LSL P rocess Data LS L 9.1 S ample M ean 9.13 % > U S L 4.02 10.24 % > U S L 2.Process Capability.84 O bserv ed P erformance % < LS L 4.9 Target 10 USL 10.59 0.0496334 S tDev (O v erall) 0.08 10.67 O v erall C apability Pp PPL PPU P pk C pm 0.00 % Total 8.89 % > U S L 3.96 10.16 % Total 4.14 E xp.

Using Minitab Assistant © 2012 ASQ Slide 54 .

65 1.001 0.66 0.05).43 7.77% to 7.07 -0.1 Was the process standard deviation reduced? 0 0.24 2.050492 0. This shows negative improvement.67 4.999 Did the process mean change? 0 0. Let’s reverse the order to make interpretation easier.9996 0. Before/After Capability Comparison for Part A vs Part B Summary Report Lower Spec 9. -.1 > 0.1 > 0.05).89 Yes No P = 0.636 Actual (overall) Capability Are the data inside the limits and close to the target? LSL Target USL Mean Standard deviation Capability Pp Ppk Z.5 Statistics Before 10.66 Change -1.59 0.59 1.07 -0.Assistant Output Reduction in % Out of Spec 61% % Out of spec increased by 61% from 4.0059805 -0.Bench % Out of spec Comments Before: Part A After: Part B Before Conclusions -.31E-03 0.05 0.The process standard deviation was not reduced significantly (p > 0.056473 0. After © 2012 ASQ Slide 55 .77 After 9.9 Customer Requirements Target 10 Upper Spec 10.5 Yes No P = 0.66%. Actual (overall) capability is what the customer experiences.05 0.The process mean did not change significantly (p > 0.

Reversing Entries in Minitab Assistant © 2012 ASQ Slide 56 .

001 0.98E-03 0.24 -2. Lower Spec 9.1 > 0.05).9996 0.07 0.Exercise 2 Assistant Output Capability Comparison for Part B vs Part A Summary Report Part A has less Defectives than Part B 38% % Out of spec was reduced by 38% from 7.Bench % Out of spec Comments Before: Part B After: Part A Before After Conclusions -. Actual (overall) capability is what the customer experiences.5 Yes No P = 0.1 Was the process standard deviation reduced? 0 0.77 Change 0.The process mean did not change significantly (p > 0.001 Did the process mean change? 0 0.050492 0.05).65 1.66 0.0013091 -5.77%.05 0.9 Customer Requirements Target 10 Upper Spec 10.The process standard deviation was reduced significantly (p < 0.07 0.05 0.59 0.1 No > 0. -.056473 0.89 Yes P = 0.66% to 4.5 Statistics Before 9.59 1.636 Actual (overall) Capability Are the data inside the limits and close to the target? LSL Target USL Mean Standard deviation Capability Pp Ppk Z.67 4.43 7. © 2012 ASQ Slide 57 .66 After 10.

752 Part A Pass 0.0 1 16 31 46 61 76 91 106 121 136 1 16 31 46 61 76 91 106 121 136 Normality Plots The points should be close to the line.324 © 2012 ASQ Slide 58 .1 0. Part B 10.05 Mean Note: “Before” and “After” were changed to “Part B” and “Part A” by double clicking on the field and typing the modified data.00 9.95 0. Part A 10. Part B Part A Normality Test (Anderson-Darling) Part B Results P-value Pass 0.2 Range 0.Exercise 2 Assistant Output Capability Comparison for Part B vs Part A Diagnostic Report Xbar-R Charts Confirm that the Before and After process conditions are stable.

What We Have Learned 1. 2. Predicted the probability that the output of a process will be within its specification limits. 3. Calculated and explained the capability of processes whose output is normally distributed. Recognized the value of and uses for process capability. © 2012 ASQ Slide 59 .