Tachometers – An Overview | Speed | Electricity

TACHOMETERS – AN OVERVIEW

NOUMAN MUSHTAQ - 12002001016 SAJID NADEEM - 12002001004

RPM-METERS IN AIRCRAFTS

TACHOMETER, WHAT’S THAT?
• To measuring rotational speed. • To measure speed of a rotating shaft (in cars etc. ) • To measure flow of liquid by attaching a wheel with inclined vanes.

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DIFFERENT TYPES OF TACHOMETERS:
• Tachometers can be classified on the basis of data acquisition – contact or non contact types. • They can also be classified on the basis of the measurement technique – time based or frequency based technique of measurement. • They can also be classified as analog or digital type.
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COMPARISON BETWEEN ANALOG AND DIGITAL TACHOMETERS
Analog Tachometer • Has a needle and dial type of interface. • No provision for storage of readings. • Cannot compute average, deviation, etc. Digital Tachometer • Has a LCD or LED readout. • Memory is provided for storage. • Can perform statistical functions like averaging, etc.

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DIGITAL TACHOMETERS

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SOME FEATURES OF DIGITAL TACHOMETER
• Accurate in all conditions
• Easy to install

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON DATA ACQUISITION TECHNIQUE
• Contact type – The wheel of the tachometer needs to be brought into contact with the rotating object. • Non Contact type – The measurement can be made without having to attach the tachometer to the rotating object.

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CLASSIFICATION BASED ON MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE
• Time Measurement – The tachometer calculates speed by measuring the time interval between the incoming pulses. • Frequency Measurement – The tachometer calculates speed by measuring the frequency of the incoming pulses.

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COMPARISON BETWEEN CONTACT AND NON CONTACT TACHOMETERS
Contact Type • The tachometer has to be in physical contact with the rotating shaft. • Preferred where the tachometer is generally fixed to the machine. Non Contact Type • The tachometer does not need to be in physical contact with the rotating shaft. • Preferred where the tachometer needs to be mobile.

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COMPARISON BETWEEN TIME AND FREQUENCY BASED MEASUREMENT
Time Based • The tachometer calculates speed by measuring the time interval between pulses. • More accurate for low speed measurement. • Time to take a reading is dependent on the speed and increases with decrease in speed. Frequency based • The tachometer calculates speed by measuring the frequency of pulses. • More accurate for high speed measurement. • Time to take a reading is independent of speed of rotation.

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TYPICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF A NON CONTACT TYPE TACHOMETER
Display 5 digits large LCD Range: 2.5 - 99,999 RPM Distance: 50 to 1,000 mm; 12 to 40 inches. Resolution: 0.1 RPM<1000 RPM (2.5 to 9,999 RPM) 1.0RPM >1000 RPM • Range selection: Auto • • • •

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TYPICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF A CONTACT TYPE TACHOMETER
• • • • • • Display 5-digit LCD Display Automatic range selection Operating Temperature 32 to 122F Power supply 9V Battery Battery Life 40 hours (approx.) Weight 461700: 4.0 oz. (114g)

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BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A DIGITAL TACHOMETER

Display

Optical / Magnetic Sensor

Signal Conditioning

Microcontroller

External Port (to controller)

Memory

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OPTICAL SENSING
• It is used to generate pulses proportional to the speed of the rotating shaft. • no physical contact between the tachometer and the engine

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MAGNETIC SENSING
To generate pulses proportional to the speed of the shaft.

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MICROCONTROLLER
• Compute the speed • Can store the readings • Can output values to a display unit • Give out warning signal when speed reduces / increases beyond set margins • Transfer data to external controller

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DISPLAY UNIT
• Used to output the values to the operator. • Can be used to view the stored values.

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ANALOG TACHOMETERS

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ANALOG MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES
• Generally speed is converted to voltage through the use of an external frequency to voltage converter.

• This voltage is then displayed by an analog voltmeter.

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CALIBRATION
• Why calibrate !
• Wrong calibration = Wrong readings • Calibration compensates for ageing, wear and tear and other degrading effects.

• How to calibrate !
• Calibration is done by comparing the reading from tachometer to a standard speed. • Necessary changes are made so that the actual reading is accurate.

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ANY QUESTIONS !

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