Russia in 1917…
What reason might spark a civil war? Lenin and the Bolsheviks have
declared victory and control
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But some people do not agree with this takeover. Which groups of people were enemies of the Bolsheviks? • • Tsar Army officers Local peasants and villagers WHY?
Socialist Revolutionaries, Mensheviks
The Allies fighting in the First World War
Who were the leaders in the civil War?
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www.mrxists.org creative Commons Licence
www.mrxists.org creative Commons Licence
Courtesy of the David King Collection, London
Where were the Red and White armies?
British and American troops
Denikin French and British troops
Which side has the potential to win the Civil War?
Red Advantages: White Advantages
Russian Civil War Top Trumps. Play the game.
•The Object of the game is to reduce your opponents cards to zero! •Pick a category that you think might compare favourably and if you have a higher value, you win the opponents card. •Values are from 0 (weakest) to 10 (strongest). •If you lose, you lose the card and your opponent gets to choose the next category. •Won cards are placed at the bottom of your deck. •A draw results in the drawn cards being placed in a stack to be won on the next card. •The winner of the next comparison gets to choose.
Following slides are cards…
WHITES GENERAL KOLCHAK
5 Restore the Royal family to position as
Monarch of Russia, throw out the Bolsheviks.
1 0 1 0 5
Total Bolshevik control of all Russian territory Confident and disciplined. With Trotsky they devised a plan to pick off the White Armies one by one. Took over factories of Moscow and Petrograd, controlled the two key cities. Controlled communication and transport lines and troops could move quickly by rail. Forced peasants to hand over grain and other food to feed Red troops and people in the cities. Known as War Communism. Lenin kept population under control through making lots of arrests and executions. Known as the Red Terror. The Allies hated the Bolsheviks for taking Russia out of the war and signing a separate peace treaty with Germany.
4 It was difficult to communicate with other
White Generals leading other armies, because Whites were so spread out.
position: Peasant support
5 marched on Moscow from the South.
Captured a place called Ufa.
Peasant support Unity
0 Peasants thought the Whites would
make them give up their land and allow the landlords to return Tsarists and Socialist Revolutionaries who wanted different things. They didn’t want the Tsar back, just a change of government. America to help the Whites defeat the Reds.
3 There was lots of squabbling between
7 Troops sent from Britain, France and
WHITES GENERAL YUDENICH
Aims: 5 restore the Royal family to position as Monarch of Russia, throw out the Bolsheviks. It was difficult to communicate with other White Generals leading other armies, because Whites were so spread out. In western Russia. surrounded Petrograd in 1919, but did not succeed in invading. The Reds pushed Yudenich back Peasants thought the Whites would make them give up their land and allow the landlords to return His commanders were cruel and set a bad example, drinking, fighting and taking drugs. Allied troops and equipment was sent to help is army.
Thousands of loyal exTsarist officers
Aims: Leadershi p:
To make sure the Bolsheviks stay in power, get rid of any opposition. Trotsky ruled over his officers with an iron fist, he would shoot those who dared to question him. In central western Russia they could move quickly to attack, using the railways The Reds seized grain form peasants to feed themselves. ‘War Communism’. Trotsky wanted to use these officers to lead the Red Army. He would often kidnap their families to make sure they did a good job. No support. The Allies wanted to overthrow the Bolsheviks.
position: Peasant support Unity
COMMISSAR FOR WAR TROTSKY
1 0 1 0
Aims: 5 restore the Royal family to position as Monarch of Russia, throw out the Bolsheviks. Denikin was an excellent speaker, but treated his men with disrespect. In southern Russia. Got within 250 miles of Moscow, but did not succeed in taking control. Raided lots of villages and committed POGROMS (killing Jews) The Whites did not trust each other and would not co-ordinate their attacks, so the Reds could pick off the white armies one by one. Troops sent from Britain, France and America to help the Whites defeat the Reds.They sent him weapons and equipment worth £100 million.
Total Bolshevik control of all of Russia. Trotsky was an outstanding commander! Trotsky recruited nearly 5 million former Tsarist officers, workers, sailors and soldiers into the Red Army Occupied central Russia and controlled key cities, but were quickly surrounded by hostile White forces. Peasants had been given land by the Bolsheviks, but now they were seizing grain. Trotsky used his special train to quickly communicate with the Red Army and deliver orders.
Leadership: Geographical position: Peasant support Unity
The Allies wanted to stop Bolshevism from controlling Russia and spreading to other countries.
WHITES REDS Alexandra Kollontai
Aims: Leadership: 10 10
Total Bolshevik control of all of Russia. Lenin and Trotsky employed leaders that were fanatical and loyal, including 74, 000 women Central western Russia, in the industrial centres
The Bolsheviks had given peasants their own land, but were now seizing the grain they grew by force, to feed the Red Army Every leader was loyal and they all shared one aim. There were even some female machine gunners
The Allies (America, Britain, France) Aims: 8 Stop Bolshevism spreading to
Europe. Japan had its own idea to seize territory for itself.
4 0 3 6
position: Peasant support
Had to work with the White Generals and tried to control the decisions they made.
Allied troops scattered all over Russia. Peasants hated the Allies as much as the Whites because they were supported by the landowners Allied troops were sick of fighting and many mutinied. sent only 250,000 troops, mostly gave weapons and equipment worth £100 million.
position: Peasant support Unity Foreign support:
The Allies wanted to throw out Bolshevism in case it spread to the rest of Europe.
Why did the Reds win?
Unified and disciplined leaders Trotsky was personally courageous Single aim: to stay in power
The Reds held the central area of western Russia, which was where most large industries were
Main problems facing the Whites
Scattered around central Russia, hundreds of miles between armies Communication was difficult
Rivalry between generals Different aims amongst the Whites
Lacked good leaders Whites fought amongst themselves and didn’t trust each other
Controlled train and communication lines, so the Reds could act quickly
Exam style question:
‘It was inevitable that the Bolsheviks would win the
Is this a valid interpretation?
In your answer you must use exam technique and evidence from your own knowledge.
Test your partner…
Describe the following events in the Russian civil war to your partner, but without using the actual words! See how many they get right, then swap over. •Lenin •Socialism
•Trotsky •Reds •Peasants •Tsarist officers
•Allies •War Communism