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INSTRUCTOR

Aftab Iqbal

afi67uet@gmail.com

Bachelors Degree in Mechanical Engineering from WPUE&T,Lahore,1971 Experience Served POF / Def Prod Div for over 36 years. During the course of service, gained experience in Technologies, Processes and Procedures for the production of Artillery Ammunition, Small Arms & Ammunition. Research & Development. Maintenance Management, Erection & Commissioning of Plant & Machinery. Procurement, Storage and Control of materials. Technical Management, Safety and General Administration. Also went through trainings and management courses within country and abroad Besides, have Teaching experience 1978-79 as visiting lecturer, of three subjects, namely Theory of Machine, Machine Design, And Strength Of Materials, at Engineering college Taxila Since 2009, teaching in WEC . 1

CLASS INTRODUCTION
Name Domicile Qualification Future career aspirations Goals in life Hobbies Time you devote for your studies 1 weakness 1 strength Grade in F.Sc / B. Sc / DAE
2

WEC

INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HUMAN BEHAVIOUR HU - 221


Credit Hours Theory + Practical (2) (0)
3 01/26/13

WAH ENGINEERING COLLEGE CLASS SCHEDULE (w.e.f. 20th Feb 2012) CLASS: MECH. ENGINEERING 4TH SEMESTER
Sections A & B Industrial Psychology And human Behavior HU 221 Credit Hours (2 + 0)

TIME
8:00 9.00

MONDAY

TUESDAY

WEDNESDAY THURSDAY
INDUSTRIAL
(TH) LR-2 SECTION (4TH-A)

FRIDAY

INDUSTRIAL
(TH) R-5 SECTION (4TH-B)

PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY

11:00 12:00

INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY
(TH) R-5 SECTION (4TH-B)

INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY
(TH) LR-2 SECTION (4TH-A)

CLASS STRUCTURE & POLICIES


Attendance Assignments Regular home work and in class quizzes Home work due as specified 50% off for late home work Practicals Examinations As per university policies Mandatory

Attendance marked as absent after 5 minutes

WEIGHTAGE OF MARKS BSC. ENGINEERING


Theory: Assignments Quiz Midterm Final exam Practical Sessional Viva oral 15 10 10 10 20 50

75% 100%

25%

COURSE OUTLINE
INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HUMAN BEHAVIOUR HU-221

What is psychology and industrial psychology Nature , scope and application with special reference to Pakistan Different schools of psychology Methods of psychology Learning Intelligence and artificial intelligence Personality and its assessment Understanding maladjusted behavior Positive emotional states and processes Stress management and Anger management

INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY & HUMAN BEHAVIOUR

WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY

WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?
Psychology Psyche: Mind Logos: Knowledge or study

The science that seeks to understand behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organisms physical state, mental state, and external environment.
Behavior: Overt, i.e. can be directly observed (crying) Mental Processes: Covert, i.e. cannot be directly observed (remembering)

WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?

WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?
Because psychology is a science, psychologists

use scientific principles to present knowledge and draw inferences


Psychology is empirical. It relies on evidence

gathered by careful observation, experimentation, or measurement


Psychologists observe many aspects of human

functioning including overt behaviours, social relationships, mental processes, emotional responses, and physiological reactions

WHAT PSYCHOLOGY IS NOT?


Psychobabble
Self-help books Talk shows

Pseudoscience
Handwriting analysis Astrology

Common Sense
Your baby will be smarter if he/she listens to classical music Abused children will become abusive parents

BASIC AREAS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY


1. Biological Psychology: study the ways in which the nervous system and other organs provide the basis for behavior and mental processes. They also study nonhuman animal behavior, both to compare it with human behavior and to gain a better understanding of other species. 2. Sensation and Perception: concerned with how the sense organs operate and how to interpret incoming sensory information. 3. Learning and Memory: the ways in which we learn and remember new information and new skills. 4. Cognition: study thinking, perceiving, planning, imagining, creating, dreaming, speaking, listening, and problem solving.

BASIC AREAS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY


5. Developmental Psychology: concerned with changes that take place in people during their life span, as we grow from birth through old age. 6. Motivation and Emotion: study the needs and states that activate and guide behavior, such as hunger, sex, and the need for achievement, and the need to have relationships with others. 7. Personality: focuses on the relatively consistent ways of behaving that characterize our individual personalities. 8. Social Psychology: study the influence of other people on our behavior; interpersonal attraction and intimate relationships; and attitudes and prejudice toward others.

APPLIED AREAS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY


1. Clinical Psychology: try to understand and treat serious emotional and behavioral problems. 2. Counseling Psychology: help people with personal or school problems and with career choices. 3. Educational Psychology: concerned with the ways children learn in the classroom and with the construction of psychological/educational tests. 4. School Psychology: consult with teachers about children who are experiencing learning or behavioral problems and test children to see whether they could benefit from special educational programs.

APPLIED AREAS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY


5. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: focuses on

ways to match employees to jobs, to train and motivate workers, and to promote job satisfaction and good relationships among workers. 6. Health Psychology: focus on the ways in which stress and other factors influence our health. They seek to prevent health problems such as heart disease by teaching people to relax, exercise, control their diets, and stop high-risk behaviors, such as smoking.

WHAT IS INDUSTRIAL /ORGANIZATIONAL (I/O) PSYCHOLOGY?


The application of psychological principles to the workplace (anywhere people work) Help people do their jobs Help employers treat employees fairly Help make jobs more interesting and satisfying Help workers be more productive Efficiency/productivity of organizations Health/well-being of employees

WHAT IS INDUSTRIAL /ORGANIZATIONAL (I/O) PSYCHOLOGY?

TREAT EMPLOYEES FAIRLY


Treat people from diverse backgrounds fairly Select people for jobs Provide training Reward promotions/raises Address harassment

WHAT IS INDUSTRIAL /ORGANIZATIONAL (I/O) PSYCHOLOGY?


MAKE JOBS MORE INTERESTING / SATISFYING Design jobs people will find satisfying Rewarding work Safe, efficient work areas (human factors) Motivate employees to perform Create teams that work well together Combine diverse talents and perspectives

WHAT IS INDUSTRIAL /ORGANIZATIONAL (I/O) PSYCHOLOGY? HELP WORKERS BE MORE PRODUCTIVE


Design work patterns that enhance efficiency Provide skills training and development Help to meet the challenges of competition Move past downsizing

Trainings

Recruitme nt & Selection

Effects of work on people Interperson al effects

Performanc e Appraisals Determining how people feel about work Determining why people act as they do at work

Application of I/O Psychology

How organizations are structured and function Designing work Designing Tools and equipment

Employee Health and Safety

SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS OF I / O

GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY

GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY

WHAT ARE THE GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY?


Description of Behaviors: Naming and classifying various observable, measurable behaviors Understanding: The causes of behavior(s), and being able to state the cause(s) Prediction: Predicting behavior accurately Control / Influence: Altering conditions that influence behaviors in predictable ways
Positive Use: To control unwanted behaviors, (e.g., smoking, tantrums, etc.) Negative Use: To control peoples behaviors without their knowledge

WHAT ARE THE GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY?


1. Description: answers the question What? 2. Explanation: answers the question Why? 3. Prediction: answers the question When? 4. Control/Change: answers the question How?

HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY

HOW DID PSYCHOLOGY BEGIN?


Socrates suggested an unexamined life is not worth living --- Know thyself Plato and Aristotle debated the nature of human knowledge, and the relationship between body, mind and soul Psychology

Aristotle : Psyche essence of life study of life


Descartes began critical examination of the mindbody distinction Empiricists such as Locke and Hume insisted that all of our knowledge is linked to experience and comes from our senses The psychological study of human behaviour began a little more than a century ago Different schools of psychological thought began to emerge

HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920). Founded the 1st scientific lab in (1879) Leipzig,Germany. - Used a method called introspection looking inward - Introspection is the objective selfexamination of ones thoughts and mental processes. - Example: What are the different sensations that you experience when you take a sip of coffee? Listen to music? Look at a rainbow? - Emphasized the scientific study of our mental processes by using laboratory experiments and the scientific method

WILHELM WUNDT (18321920)

HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
Edward Titchener (1867-1927) Brought Wundts ideas to the US at Cornell University and called it Structuralism. The focus of study was on the structure of the mind. - The idea of breaking things down into their most basic units reflects the many advances made around the same time in the hard sciences like chemistry Believed that introspection could be used on thoughts as well as perceptions. Allowed subjects to use imagined stimuli (e.g. imagine yourself taking a sip of coffee, listening to Beethoven. What are the different sensations and perceptions that you experience?). Wundt

Structuralism: School of psychology that sought to determine the structure of the mind through controlled introspection.
Wilhelm Wundt: Professor of biology in Germany who was fascinated by human consciousness. Edward Titchener: Wundts student, wanted to identify the basic elements of conscious experience. J. Henry Alston: Best known for his studies of the sensations of heat and cold.

HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
Gestalt Psychology. This field came about in reaction to introspection and the idea of breaking down our conscious experiences into basic units. - Theorists such as Wertheimer, Koffka, and Kohler believed: that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. - You can not break a beautiful sunset down into its basic units of perception. The sunset as a whole must be examined. The mind is designed to perceive wholes. - This school of thought has had a profound impact on

Gestalt Psychology: School of thought based on the belief that human consciousness cannot be broken down into its elements.

HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
The Gestalt emphasis on how we process information as wholes and not individual pieces is clearly illustrated in the following passage: Aoccrdnig to rscheearch at Cmabridge Uinervtisy, it doesnt mttaer in what order the ltteers in a word are, the olny iprmoetnt thing is that the first and lsat ltter be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a total mses and you can still raed woutiht porbelms.

1. the white silhouette figures of two heads 2. a black chalice

WHAT DO YOU SEE? 1. image of a womans


face 2. the profile of a jazzman saxophone player

Fig. 1.2 The design you see here is entirely made up of broken circles. However, as the Gestalt psychologists discovered, our perceptions have a powerful tendency to form meaningful patterns. Because of this tendency, you will probably see a triangle in this design, even though it is only an illusion. Your whole perceptual experience exceeds the sum of its parts.

HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
William James functionalism. - 1890 Principles of Psychology - Heavily Influenced By Darwins Theory Of Evolution - Originally studied introspection with Wundt - Most interested in understanding how different mental processes help an individual to survive and adapt. - Example: fear of heights; snakes; fire; etc - Genetic or biological pre-dispositions

Humanism - Emphasis on free-will - Conscious and rational decision making - Self-actualization is the goal - Innate goodness

HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY

Abraham Maslow and the hierarchy of needs pyramid Deficiency needs - physiological: food, water, sleep, sex - safety and security: shelter today and into the future - love and belonging - esteem and self-esteem Growth need Self-actualization: become the best person possible

MASLOWS HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

MASLOWS HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
Carl Rogers: Person-centered therapy - True-self and ideal-self - Self-actualization is the process of becoming your ideal self - Unconditional positive regard - Conditions of worth

WHICH FOUNDATION IS CORRECT?


No single point of view has emerged as the correct way of viewing human behavior and mental processes. Contemporary psychology combined the best ideas from all its founders.

ORIGINS OF I/O PSYCHOLOGY


Scientific Management Frederick W. Taylor Determine the most efficient methods for performing any work-related task Time and motion studies Assembly lines Selection and recruitment of military recruits

ORIGINS OF I/O PSYCHOLOGY


Ergonomics / Human Factors Intersection of engineering and psychology Focuses on safety and efficiency of humanmachine interactions Perception, attention, cognition, learning, social, and environmental psychology Applied psychology

BUILDING A BETTER MOUSE

ORIGINS OF I/O PSYCHOLOGY


Hawthorne Studies (1927-1932) How work conditions influence productivity The Hawthorne Effect Individual productivity increases when workers are singled out and made to feel important Performance is subject to social pressures and group norms Human Relations Approach

MAJOR PERSPECTIVES IN PSYCHOLOGY


FACTORS EFFECTING HUMAN BEHAVIORS

WHY ARE THERE DIFFERENT APPROACHES IN PSYCHOLOGY?


Psychology is a new science. To understand the complexity of human behaviour, psychology has taken different perspectives.

MAJOR PERSPECTIVES OF PSYCHOLOGY WHICH INFLUENCE HUMAN BEHAVIOR


Major perspectives that have developed on psychological issues include psychoanalytic, behaviourist, humanistic, cognitive, biopsychology, social and cultural, and evolutionary The purpose of studying these perspectives is to understand the factors which play roles to shape the human behaviours in personal life and at work

THE PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE


The psychoanalytic perspective assumes emotional anxiety is the product of unresolved conflicts from childhood Freud believed sexual energy fuels day-to-day behaviour and childhood experiences influence future adult behaviour Unconscious thoughts, desires, and conflicts

THE BEHAVIORIST PERSPECTIVE


Behaviourism is the school of

psychology that rejects the study of consciousness and cognitive processes


The focus is on describing and

measuring observable behaviour


B. F. Skinner explained behaviour by

describing the relations between stimuli (environmental events and responses (reactions to stimuli)
According to Skinner, our environment

determines what we do

The Humanistic Perspective


The humanistic psychology was developed

by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow The humanistic perspective emphasized each persons unique experiences According to Maslow, individuals are motivated by a need for self-actualization Self-actualized individuals attain superior perceptions of reality, feel a strong sense of self, and function fully as human beings

THE COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE

Cognitive psychology focuses on such processes as perception, memory, and thinking Psychological approach that emphasizes what goes on in peoples heads Cognitive psychology holds that humans engage in behavior because of ideas and thoughts Emphasizes mechanisms through which people receive, store, retrieve, and otherwise process information
Creativity Perception Thinking Problem Solving Memory Language

Examines internal mental processes

BIOPSYCHOLOGY PERSPECTIVE
Psychological approach that focuses on

how genes, hormones, brain function, and other biological factors affect behavior, feelings, perceptions, and thoughts
The biopsychology perspective says

behavior and biology interact in important ways

SOCIAL AND CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE


Sociocultural Perspective: states that it is necessary to understand a persons culture and other social influences to understand him/her. Psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural forces outside the individual Most psychologists realize that social and cultural factors affect both behaviour and mental processes. Many thoughts and behaviors are influenced by our culture What is acceptable in one culture might be unacceptable in another Cultural Relativity: Behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs Norms: Rules that define acceptable and expected behavior for members of various groups Addresses ethnicity, gender, culture, and socio-economic status and how peoples behavior and outlook differ because of these factors

EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY
Evolutionary psychology is based on

the ideas of Charles Darwin


The evolutionary perspective

assumes behaviours that help organisms adapt will be passed on to successive generations
Emphasizes the ways in which behavior and mental processes are adaptive for survival

INDUSTRIAL & ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY


THE PSYCHOLOGY AT WORK
IN DETAIL

I/O Psychology

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I/O Psychology
ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY/HUMAN FACTORS Person-machine systems Working conditions Equipment, tool, and machine design and function in recognition of operator limitations in strength, perception, reactiontime, etc.

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INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

I/O Psychology

Labor-union relations Employee/employer relations Cooperation & conflict resolution Arbitration, negotiation & bargaining

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INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY

INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY
Emphasis on how to use human resources to increase efficiency and productivity Job analysis and evaluation Employee selection Training Performance appraisal Engineering psychologists use psychological principles to help people design safe and efficient machines

JOB ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION


Job Analysis Generating a detailed job description Follow a systematic procedure Break the job into small units Create an employee manual Job-oriented description (Job description) Person-oriented description (Job Specification) KSAOs (Knowledge, skills, Abilities / Attitudes and Observations) Determination of Compensable factors

PERSONNEL SELECTION
Recruitment Selection Testing Integrity tests and biographical inventories Interviews Interviewer illusion Structured interviews Work Samples and Exercises

TRAINING
Orientation Acquaint employees with the organization and with other employees Formal Training Overlearning making the task automatic Employee development Mentoring Natural mentoring relationships

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Evaluating a persons success at their job Sources of Bias Halo effect Distributional error Leniency errors Severity errors Central tendency errors

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
360-Degree Feedback Collect evaluations of employee from numerous sources Variability suggests that ratings reflect performance, not general impressions (liking) Other Performance Measures Thinking outside the box Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)

360-DEGREE FEEDBACK

ORGANIZATIONA L PSYCHOLOGY

ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
Emphasis on research and practice involving human relations 1. Management Approaches 2. Job Satisfaction 3. Employee Commitment 4. Meaning of Work 5. Leadership Styles

MANAGEMENT APPROACHES
The Japanese Management Style Theory X and Theory Y Theory X managers motivate by exerting control and threatening punishment Theory Y managers motivate by allowing workers to participate in problem solving Strengths-Based Management

MANAGEMENT STYLES

JOB SATISFACTION
Measuring Work Attitudes Important Factors Fairness of compensation Personality characteristics of individuals Cultural influences

CRITICAL CONTROVERSY: HAPPY WORKERS


Long-term happiness is related to Financial independence Occupational attainment Favorable evaluations Job Withdrawal Organizational Spontaneity Approach Motivation

EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT
Affective Commitment Emotional attachment to the organization Continuance Commitment Perception of economic and social costs of leaving the organization Normative Commitment Sense of obligation to the organization

MEANING OF WORK
Jobs, Careers, and Callings Job No training, personal control, freedom Career Work as opportunity for advancement Calling Work has value beyond economics Relationship to Psychological Well-Being Job Crafting Physical and cognitive changes that individuals make within existing task constraints

LEADERSHIP STYLES
Transactional Leadership Emphasizes exchange relationship between workers and leader Believes people are motivated by rewards and punishments Provides clarity and structure to employees

LEADERSHIP STYLES
Transformational Leadership Emphasizes vision for an organization Four key elements 1. Providing idealized influence 2. Inspiring others to achieve 3. Intellectually stimulating employees 4. Showing concern for employees well-being Promotes organizational identity

ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
Positive Organizational Culture Positive Reinforcement Reward good work and acknowledge contributions Incorporate fairness and safety Compassion Empathize with and alleviate suffering Virtuousness Do the right thing

ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
Toxic Workplace Factors Workplace Incivility Sexual Harassment Quid pro quo sexual harassment Hostile work environment sexual harassment Workplace Violence

HUMAN BEHAVIOR S

HUMAN BEHAVIOR
Human beings are biological creatures Every person is different, yet much the same Can fully understand people in their social context Human life is continuous process of change Behavior is motivated Humans are social animals People are active in creating experiences Behavior can be adaptive or maladaptive

FOUR RECURRING THEMES IN PSYCHOLOGY


1. There is a relationship between the brain and behaviour 2. Nature and nurture both have important roles in shaping

human thought and behaviour


3. Human diversity such as gender, ethnicity, social class,

sexual orientation, age and religion must be accounted for when studying psychological processes
4. Psychologists generate ideas then put those ideas to use

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HUMAN DIVERSITY AND PSYCHOLOGY


Are all people essentially the same? Sociocultural factors shape peoples experiences and what they learn from them e.g., social identity, gender, ethnicity, social class, and culture These variables can lead to many significant differences in behavior and mental processes, especially across cultures

PERCEPTION
What Is Perception?
The process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.

Why Is It Important?
Because peoples behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important.

WHY WE STUDY PERCEPTIONS


To better understand how people make attributions about events. We dont see reality. We interpret what we see and call it reality. The attribution process guides our behaviour, regardless of the truth of the attribution.

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PERCEPTION


The Situation
Time W ork setting Social setting

The Perceiver

Attitudes Motives Interests Experience Expectations

Perception

The Target
Novelty Motion Sounds Size Background Proximity

WHY DO PERCEPTIONS AND JUDGMENT MATTER?


Self-Fulfilling Prophecy A concept that proposes a person will behave in ways consistent with how he or she is perceived by others. Perceptions often affect productivity more than the situation does. Personality can help match people to jobs, to some extent at least.

PERCEPTION EXERCISE
In the new OB project team, two members obviously have different perceptions on just about everything the team does. Kevin sees the project one way; Kim sees it differently. They have different perceptions about team goals, methods, values, and the roles team members should play. Kevin gives the impression he wants to be in charge and he argues aggressively to get his way. Kim, who is more reserved, offers thoughtful ideas in rebuttal, and usually consults with the other group members for their views and support. Privately, Kevin bad-mouths Kim to anyone who will listen. He says that he has been on successful teams many times and knows the best ways to operate the team. He says that Kim is a control freak and the only one on the team holding up progress.Kim, on the other hand, only conveys her feelings about Kevin when team members are present, but she has repeatedly said out loud, There are more ways of getting this team started than just yours! Too bad you have a closed mind! For the most part, the other team members perceive Kim and Kevin to have a personality conflict, and they are avoiding getting involved. The team is ineffective so far, and theres pressure to get the team on track because of the impending class assignment deadline.

IN GROUPS
Agree on answers to the following questions, and then report back on your groups conclusions. Time: 30 minutes.

What main factors may account for the different perceptions held by Kevin and Kim?
In each perceiver? In the targets? In the current situation?

What are some short cuts each may be taking in judging the other? Are these judgements correct? To what extent might the current situation be affecting the different perceptions? To what extent might each persons apparent personality be the cause for the current conflict? Define their respective personalities. If behaviour such as this happens often, how can perceptions be changed to that people in conflict like Kevin and Kim can reach consensus? List some ideas.

MAJOR PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR


1. Locus of Control 2. Machiavellianism 3. Self-Esteem 4. Self-Monitoring 5. Risk-Taking 6. Type A Personality 7. Type B Personality 8. Proactive Personality

LOCUS OF CONTROL
The degree to which people believe they are in control of their own fate. Internals Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them. Externals Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.

Condition

THE EFFECTS OF LOCUS OF CONTROL ON PERFORMANCE


Performance
Internals perform better Internals perform better than externals Internals perform better Externals perform better Internals perform better

Information Processing The work requires complex information processing and complex learning The work is quite simple and easy to learn Initiative The work requir es initiative and independent action The work requires compliance and conformity Motivation The work requires high motivation and provides valued rewards in return for greater effort; it offers incentiv e pay for greater productivity The work does not require great effort and contingent rewards are lacking; hourly pay rates are determined by collective bargaining

Externals perform at least as well as internals

MACHIAVELLIANISM
Degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.

SELF-ESTEEM
Individuals degree of liking or disliking of themselves. 1 Living consciously: Be aware of everything that affects your values and goals, .
and act with awareness. 1 Self -acceptance: Accept who you are without criticism and judgment. . 1 Personal responsibility: Take responsibility for the decisions you make an d the . things you do. 1 Self -assertiveness: Honour your wants, needs, and values, and dont be afraid . to speak up for things that are important to you. 1 Living purposefully: Develop short - and long-term goals, and make realistic . plans to achieve your g oals. 1 Personal integrity: Live up to your word and your values. .

Brandons Six pillars of self - esteem

SELF-MONITORING
A personality trait that measures an individuals ability to adjust behaviour to external situational factors.

RISK-TAKING
Refers to a persons willingness to take chances or risks.

TYPE - A PERSONALITY
Moves, walks, and eats rapidly Impatient Multitasks Dislikes leisure time Obsessed with numbers, measures success in terms of how many or how much of everything is acquired

TYPE - B PERSONALITY
Never suffers from a sense of time urgency Doesnt need to display or discuss achievements or accomplishments Plays for fun and relaxation, not to win Can relax without guilt

PROACTIVE PERSONALITY
A person who identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres until meaningful change occurs.

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
Non-cognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person's ability to interact with others. Five dimensions Self-awareness Self-management Self-motivation Empathy Social skills
Emotions can hinder performance, especially when they are negative. They can also enhance performance.

NEGATIVE WORKPLACE EMOTIONS


Negative emotions can lead to negative workplace behaviors: Production (leaving early, intentionally working slowly) Property (stealing, sabotage) Political (gossiping, blaming co-workers) Personal aggression (sexual harassment, verbal abuse)