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Saptarshi Basu – GL trainer
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010
Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012
ILL EFFECTS OF NOISE AND VIBRATION
• Excessive ship vibration is to be avoided for
passenger comfort and crew habitability.
• In addition to undesired effects on humans, excessive
ship vibration may result in the fatigue failure of local structural members or malfunction of machinery and equipment.
• For naval application noise and vibration means
decrease in stealth capability, increase in detectability and susceptibility.
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 2
• VIBRATION THOUGH HAS SEVERAL UNDESIRABLE
EFFECTS ITS CHARECTERISTICS CAN BE MONITORED TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT THE HEALTH OF THE MACHINERY AND ANY IMPENDING DISASTER OR HIDDEN DEFECT.
• ADVANCED ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES SUCH AS THE
FOURIER FAST TRANSFORM and INSTRUMENTS LIKE SHOCK PULSE METER.
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010
Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012
• Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) produces real-time vibration spectral data from critical components discrete spectral signatures. can be assessed at high speeds and utilized to mitigate potential catastrophic engine failures. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. VIBRATION MONITORING • The vibration source data (accelerometers) from the must be acquired at high sample rates in order to provide the best time and frequency resolutions in the frequency domain for performing enhanced engine health monitoring. which are prime indicators of machinery health. 4 .
5 .Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) • After the high-speed acquisition task is performed. • The DSP modules take the digital data. the data must be transferred rapidly to Digital Signal Processing (DSP) modules. perform a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to produce frequency spectral data. • The complexity of the DSP operations is dependent on the health algorithms being utilized © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. and summarily run the pertinent health algorithms on-board the DSP chips.
• The use of MPP operations allows a system to utilize multiple DSP‘s.Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) • The DSPs can act independently if the processing load is light or may be utilized as multiple parallel processors (MPP) if the processing tasks are heavy. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. The system is a real-time distributed processing system that performs Multiple Instructions on Multiple Data (MIMD). which communicate through the DSP communication ports. and act in parallel to perform immense processing tasks without any additional and harmful processing latency. 6 .
Health Management Computer Block Diagram © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 7 .
8 .HUMAN ERROR related human fatigue • Human error resulting from fatigue-impaired performance has been identified as the cause of numerous transportation mishaps. • Human Error – Any deviation from a system performance standard which is caused indirectly or directly by an operator and which has significant consequences to the system operation in which it was made © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. increase alertness. • Incorporating human factors into a ship‘s design can help combat fatigue. and decrease human error.
OSVs: Crew and Safe Operations
Late 90’s – Considerable increase of accidents, mostly in the North Sea:
- Supply vessels - Anchor handling vessels - Rescue vessels
14 12 10 8 6 4
Last days/hours of rotation/watch
2 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010
Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012
Sleep problems for OSV crews
What are the causes of your sleep problems at sea?
Noise Vibration in cabin Cabin temperature/humidity Wakened by alarms or other loud noises Bad mattress/pillow/duvet Need to get up to urinate Bothered by shift-working Conflicts/worries at home Other (write): Conflicts/worries at work Feel that something on board is not safe Physical problems (write): Snoring
12 11 8
4 3 0 10 20 30 Percentage 40 50 60
Reprinted with permission from Sintef
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012
Effects of human fatigue
• Fatigue drastically reduces human alertness levels and negatively affects job
• Although fatigue is difficult to define, it can be generalized as "impaired
• Fatigue affects humans in different ways, although most people suffer from: • decreased problem solving ability • increased risk taking • delayed reaction time • moodiness • inability to concentrate, and • inattentiveness. • Logical reasoning and decision-making are affected by fatigue and it impairs
human physical abilities such as strength, speed, coordination, and balance
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012
12 . • drug/alcohol use. It has also been described as a "fog" that comes over the brain at certain times of the day. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • Everyone has felt the effects of fatigue. Of importance is that fatigue lowers alertness levels and impairs performance.CAUSES OF FATIGUE • Fatigue may result from: • poor sleep quality • sleep deprivation • physical/mental exertion • emotional stress • disruption of circadian rhythms • poor physical condition. It is usually described as an uncontrollable urge to sleep or rest.
13 .FACTORS AFFECTING SLEEP © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
and recreational environments. • The design factors that create a good sleeping environment also impact the watch station. and quantity. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. working. namely quality. continuity.RESTORATIVE SLEEP ENVIRONMENT • The sleeping environment determines a person‘s ability to get three of the four factors of restorative sleep. 14 . Quantity and time of day are impacted by work schedules and operational commitments.
SLEEP DEPRIVATION & ALTERNESS Effects of Reduced Sleep on Alertness Levels Effect of Successive Days of Reduced Sleep on Alertness Levels © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 15 .
and • ship motions • These all can be incorporated through the preliminary design of a vessel and maintained throughout ships post-production life © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • These factors determine how comfortable the working and sleeping environments are aboard a ship: • lighting • noise • vibrations • ventilation • temperature. all of which naval architects and marine engineer‘s can directly control.DESIGN FACTORS AFFECTING SLEEPING ENVIRONMENT • The foundation of the diagram is the six design factors. 16 .
It makes it difficult to fall asleep. can wake a person throughout the night. 17 .NOISE AND SLEEP • Noise affects sleep patterns. and pulls a person from deeper to lighter sleep stages. • Nightly interruptions can get so frequent that a person may begin to forget that they were awoken and return to sleep very quickly. which greatly contributes to fatigue. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • This pattern is particularly dangerous because the person is not getting enough deep sleep and will be drowsy the next day.
• As the sound levels increase it becomes more difficult to fall asleep. Finding the optimal location for sleeping quarters and crew recreation compartments is critical. Levels of 40 to 50 dBA (lower than a casual conversation) have caused difficulty in falling asleep and has extended the time of falling asleep to one hour.NOISE LEVEL AND SLEEP DISTURBANCE • The noise levels at which sleep disturbances occur are low. Noise is an important factor and is not usually considered with fatigue in mind © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • Long-term exposure to noise affects sleep. 18 . The effect that noise has on sleep challenges designers of shipboard general arrangements. • Short sound duration awakens more than long and steady noise. • Three other important findings are listed: • 70 dBA is enough to significantly change the sleep patterns of most subjects.
• Noise comes from numerous sources including engines.HEALTH EFFECTS OF NOISE • Noise can be defined as unwanted or undesirable sound. pumps. and air conditioners. generators. • Noise also affects sleep patterns and decreases the restorative quality of rest. It is present in most compartments of a ship and it is difficult to avoid. 19 . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. There are many human physiological and physical impacts of noise in the workplace that cause fatigue and negatively impair human performance.
• Temporary loss of hearing is the result of short-term exposure to noise and can lead to permanent hearing loss. • The extent of the hearing damage is dependent upon noise intensity and frequency. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.NOISE AND HEARING LOSS • Long-term exposure to excessive noise can result in permanent hearing loss. 20 .
even at low noise levels and while a person is asleep © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • The physiological changes that occur due to noise are the result of the natural "fight or flight" response of the human body.PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF NOISE • There are also physiological impacts of noise and these have not been adequately addressed in the guidelines used to establish acceptable noise levels. The body perceives all noise as a threat or warning of danger and continuously responds to it accordingly. they have a considerable impact on human performance and this makes them the most dangerous cause of noise induced fatigue. Although the physiological effects are less perceptible. 21 .
irritable. and a low-level muscular tension takes over the body ("fight or flight" effects). increases heart and breathing rates. and unable to effectively deal with minor frustrations. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • Noise causes blood pressure to go up. • The physiological changes described above also occur when a person is asleep. accelerates the metabolism. affecting their ability to get restorative sleep and leading to fatigue. 22 .PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF NOISE • Mariners working in a noisy environment tend to be moody.
PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF NOISE • Problems caused by this type of stress are listed below: • (a) Neuropsychological disturbances: headaches. irritability. hypotension. neuroticism • (b) Cardiovascular system disturbances: hypertension. 23 . cardiac disease • (c) Digestive disorders: ulcers. fatigue. insomnia. colitis • (d) Endocrine and biochemical disorders • (e) Sleep disturbance © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. The factors increase as the noise levels increase.NOISE EXPOSURE • Noise levels that cause the human body to respond in these ways vary with individuals. • The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and numerous human factor design guidelines have prescribed values for intensities and exposure duration at which operators can safely be subjected to noise. 24 . the factors compound and it becomes harder to relax. • If the noise continues for long periods.
the daily noise exposure level is the time weighted average of the noise level experienced.8h is a direct replacement of the old LEP. • Weekly Noise Exposure Level • This is simply the time weighted average of daily noise exposure levels for a standard 40 hour working week.Definitions • Peak Sound Pressure (Ppeak) • This is measured in units of pressure (pascals) and not decibels. • The LEX.d and is measured in dBA.8h) • Because noise exposure depends on both the amplitude of noise and the duration of exposure. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 'C' weighting is used as it is almost a linear weighting which is incorporated in many commercial sound level meters. 25 . • Daily Noise Exposure Level (LEX. the noise level to which an employee is exposed must be reduced. It is the maximum instantaneous noise pressure measured on a 'C' weighted frequency scale. It is normalized for an 8 hour working day so that if for example the exposure time per day is more than 8 hours.
Noise exposure control • There are two action values and a limit value: • Action Value • The two action values are: • 1. • These 'Action Values' do not take into account the attenuating effect of ear protectors that employees would be wearing.8h and peak pressure Ppeak of 112 pascals. The Lower Exposure Action Value • 2. • (2) The Upper Exposure Action Value is 85dBA LEX. The Upper Exposure Action Value • (1) The Lower Exposure Action Value is 80dBA LEX. 26 .8h and peak pressure. Ppeak of 140 pascals. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
Noise exposure control • Limit Value • The exposure limit value is similar to the action value except that the attenuation provided by ear protection is taken into account. The exposure limit value is 87dBA Lex. When this the case. the Directive suggests the use of a weekly noise exposure level. • Variable Daily Exposure • In some industries particularly where production is of a batch rather than continuous nature. noise exposure varies greatly from day to day. 27 .8L and peak pressure Ppeak of 200 pascals. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
• The employer should reduce noise using suitable techniques depending on whether noise is predominantly air borne or structure borne. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. In particular the employer should use quiet working methods and equipment. 28 . Work places and work stations should be designed to minimize the noise exposure. Also equipment should be well maintained as it is know that poorly maintained equipment tends to be noisier.Reducing Noise Exposure • Wherever possible. reduction of noise at source is preferred.
29 . • There are no circumstances in which employees can be allowed to exceed the Exposure Limit Value. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.Reducing Noise Exposure • Work should be planned so that times spent in noisy situations is limited and that rest from noise is provided. Warning signs must be displayed and if possible access to these noisy areas restricted. • Ear Protection • Once the possibility of noise reduction by technical or organisational means has been eliminated. if the upper action value is exceeded the employer is to reduce noise by either technical means and or organizational means. The employer must see that this is done. efficient ear protection must be made available and must be used. • Upper Action Value • In particular.
TIME EXPOSURE OF NOISE The sound levels and permissible duration exposure time per day given by OSHA are listed below and are a good generalization of standards used by the military: Sound Level and Duration per day © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 30 .
NOISE LIMITS AS PER SPACE © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 31 .
000 μPa 50 dB 40 dB Library Bedroom 1.000 μPa 110 dB Pneumatic chipper Street traffic .Jet engine Sound pressure at 25 meters distance 140 dB(A) Threshold of Pain 130 dB 120 dB 100.000.000 μPa Jet take-off at 100 meters distance 100 dB SOUND PRESSURE Heavy truck Conversation 1.000 μPa 30 dB 20 dB 100 μPa 20 μPa © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 10 dB SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL Pop group 10.000.000.000 μPa 90 dB 80 dB 100.000 μPa 70 dB 60 dB Business office Living room Woods 0 dB (A) Threshold of Hearing 10.
Sound pressure Airborne + 62 dB = Waterborne © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 .
IMO on underwater noise The Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) July 2009: ―The committee urged governments to review their commercial fleets to identify the ships that contribute most to underwater noise pollution‖ IFAW estimates that the noisiest 10% of ships contribute the majority of the noise problem © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 .
generators. gears Water flow © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 .Noise sources Propellers. thrusters Diesel engines. electric motors.
iucn.Underwater Sound Levels Ships underway Tug and barge Supply ship Large tanker Broadband source level (underwater dB at 1 m) Source Broadband source level (underwater dB at 1 m) 171 dB 181 dB 186 dB Grey whale moans Bowhead whale tonals.174 dB © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 Photo source: www.org . and song Humpback whale song 142 .189 dB 144 .185 dB 128 . moans.
• Structure-borne noise induces vibrations that can damage machinery and marine structures. • Airborne noise is what causes stress and hearing loss. 37 . Both of these noise types vary in frequency and intensity.Noise transmission • Audible noise can be broken down into two categories: (1) airborne and (2) structure-borne. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
Materials used are based on the noise frequency. desired reduction. • Absorption: Minimizes noise with resonators and open-celled porous material. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • Isolation: Minimizes noise by reducing vibrations caused by machinery or equipment. the desired reduction.Noise Control • A ship designer must consider a number of different issues when designing to reduce and control noise. Vibration-absorbing materials are used such as rubber mounts. 38 . or limp mass materials. and desired degree of isolation. which converts sound energy to heat. resilient. or springs. Damping materials are selected by considering the thickness of the vibrating surface. • Damping: Minimizes noise by adding mass to the vibrating structure or by connecting it to a surface that does not want to vibrate. vibration frequency. pads. There are three locations where noise can be minimized and four basic methods of controlling it. and the environment. • Barriers: Minimizes noise by blocking sound transmission through the use of high mass. and environment. Using more mass increases the effect and barriers work better at higher frequencies. The type of material for an application is based on weight.
expensive. In order for barriers to be effective designers must use the proper absorption materials.Locations of barriers for noise transmission • In most applications. the use of barriers is the most effective means of reducing airborne noise. 39 . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. and take up critical space. Despite this. These materials can be heavy. specially enclosed workspaces can have as much as an eight to nine dBA reduction.
40 . • The effects of whole body vibration are well studied and documented. • The propagation of these vibrations along the decks and bulkheads subject the crew to whole body vibration and noise. • There are two types of effects short term and long term © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.HEALTH EFFECT OF VIBRATION • Vibrations resonate throughout the hull structure and the entire crew can be affected.
and • Fatigue • Long term effects:• • • • • hearing loss constant body agitation musculoskeletal injuries. 41 © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 . Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. and bone degeneration. back disorders.PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF VIBRATION • short term effects:• headaches. • Stress.
HEALTH EFFECT OF VIBRATION • Physiological: • Cardiac rhythm increases • Respiration rhythm increases • Blood circulation increases • Vasoconstriction • Endocrine secretions • Central nervous system affected • Comfort and Performance: • Pain • Nausea • Vision problems • Posture • Movement and coordination decline • Force • Perceptions altered © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 42 .
Vibration Exposure Criteria Vibration Exposure Criteria for the Longitudinal Directions with Respect to Body Axis © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 Vibration Exposure Criteria for the Transverse Directions with Respect to Body Axis No. 43 .
Limit exposure time • .Vibration Control • Listed below are the three effective ways: • Source Control • .Reduce vibration transmission (structural dampening) • .Avoid resonance • Path Control • .reduce contact area © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 44 .Reduce vibration intensity • .Use vibration isolators • Receiver Control • .adapt posture • .use vibration isolators • .
or any other measurable physical parameter. for both plus and minus increments however small.5: • “Response prominence is a general term denoting a resonance or other distinct maximum. with little or not outward manifestation at the vibration measurement point. and in some cases. such as voltage. A response prominence may occur in an internal part of the equipment. regardless of magnitude. current. Typically. Instructions on how to identify response prominences is provided in Appendix A”.MIL-STD-167-1A changes from previous version • Definition of response prominence • A resonance with transmissibility (output/input) greater than 1. which is the response prominence frequency. in a transmissibility function. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 45 . the response may be detected by observing some other type of output function of the equipment. in the frequency of excitation results in a decrease of the system response at the observing sensor registering the maximum. a response prominence is identified by the frequency of its maximum response. A response prominence of a system in forced oscillation exists when any change. including local maxima which may exist at the frequency endpoints of the transmissibility function.
its residual unbalance does not exceed the allowed tolerance. A rotor which operates above n resonances requires n+2 balance planes of correction. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 46 . rigid – A rotor is considered to be rigid when its unbalance can be corrected in any two arbitrary selected planes and it operates below its first resonance. at any speed up to the maximum service speed and when running under conditions which approximate closely to those of the final supporting system. for example. requires 2 + 2 balance planes of correction. Any value of unbalance assigned to a flexible rotor must be at a particular speed. relative to the shaft axis. A rotor which operates between the second and third resonances. The unbalance of a flexible rotor changes with speed. • Rotor. After correction. The balancing of flexible rotors requires correction in more than two planes.Balance Definitions • Rotor. flexible – A flexible rotor is one that does not meet the criteria for a rigid rotor and operates above its first resonance.
15 NOTE: ROUND ANSWER UP TO NEXT HIGHER INTEGRAL FREQUENCY © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 47 .MIL-STD-167-1A • 15 SECOND TEST/ ID RESPONSE PROMINANCES AND/OR RESONANCES • 5 MIN SCREENING TEST/ 40% OF CYCLES UNOFFICIAL ENDURANCE TEST • 2 HR ENDURANCE TEST • FOR ONE CLASS INSTALLATION. TEST UP TO AND INCLUDING: F = (DESIGN RPM/60) x (NUMBER OF PROPELLER BLADES) x 1.
Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 • IDENTIFY POTENTIAL SIGNS OF HIGH STRESS • TAILORING : TAILORING IS A FUNCTION OF THE QUALITY OF © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 48 . THE ALTERNATING THRUST IS HIGH FOR FLAT PROPELLERS AND DECREASES SIGNIFICANTLY FOR MODERN HIGHLY SKEWED PROPELLERS. AND AFTER TEST. THE COMBATANT‘S PROPELLERS.DRAFT MIL-STD-810G METHOD 528 • PRETEST • CHECK BOLTS AND WASHERS BEFORE. CONCENTRATION. DURING (WHEN CHANGING DIRECTION OF VIBRATION). ENSURE ALL BOLTS ARE PROPER GRIP LENGTH AND THAT THE WASHERS ARE NOT ROTATING. CONSIDER COMPOSITE AND CAST MATERIALS.
In most cases. However. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 49 . a waiver is required from SEA 05P1. however.Draft MIL-STD-810G. the random vibration test would be less severe than the sinusoidal test of MIL-STD-167-1A. at the centered frequency in g2/Hz. it may be more representative of the actual environment. METHOD 528 • Definitions – Random Vibration • Power Spectral Density – mean square value of the signal in the frequency interval ∆f.
METHOD 528 • BASIS OF USING RANDOM VIBRATION TESTING • Actual ship environmental data is available and indicates random vibration is the best representation of the environment.5 % of mean thrust. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 50 . • The Alternating Thrust of the propeller is below 1.Draft MIL-STD-810G.
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 51 . METHOD 528 • Vibration Environment • Validate the accelerometer's sensitivity before and after testing.Draft MIL-STD-810G.
ACCELEROMETER PROBLEMS © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 52 .
6).557/.05 = 5.6) (.075 = 4. Factor of 2: 3.0) For stern of combatant test levels are 7 times higher than shipboard measurements (⅓ (1.0 + 5. (Assuming Mag.45 =1.Vibration Standards (.297/.6 X 2 ≈ 7) © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 53 .2 + 4.2 test levels exceed ship environment) (.6) = 3.28/.
or distributed isolation material (DIM). MIL-M-19379. MIL-M-24476. testing shall be performed on isolation mounts or hard mounted to the testing machine.5 within the blade frequency range of 80% to 115% of design RPM. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 54 . Type I testing of a particular test item on isolation mounts is valid only for the isolation mount type and configuration used during testing. • The endurance test is for a total period of two hours at the frequency moist seriously affecting the equipment. MIL-M-21649. Ensure the transmissibility across the mounts does not exceed 1. the test is valid for either hard mounted or isolation mounted shipboard installations. If material is tested for Type I vibrations hard mounted to the test fixture throughout the duration of the test. MIL-M-17508.Isolation Mountings • For Type I testing of material to be installed shipboard on isolation mounts. provided the isolation mounts are Navy standard mounts contained in MIL-M-17191. or as specified. MIL-M-19863. One of the frequencies selected should be the isolation mount frequency if the test is to be performed on isolation mounts.
f= RPM/60 P ≈ (RPM) 3 ½ Power ≈ (1/2) ⅓ ≈ 0.8 Design RPM ½ Power ≈ 80% Design RPM Record Response Prominences • Output/input = 1.5 and greater © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 55 .Design Power Calculation • • • • • • • • IAI = ω2X F = ma = ω2Xm T(torque) = ω2X2m P(power) = T ω = ω3X3m P = (2Πf)3X2m.
between the mass centerline and the geometric centerline of a rotor. • G = ω е (eccentricity from balance in mm) • е = G/ ω (units of ω are rad/sec) • Note “е” is the distance between the shaft axis and rotor center of gravity. • G: balance quality grade in mm/sec. • Mass unbalance occurs when the center of mass of a rotor does not coincide with the rotor’s geometric center. е. Mass center Geometric center © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 е 56 .Balancing • A process of minimizing the distance.
the total balance quality grade shall not exceed G = 2. the maximum allowable residual unbalance is given by the following formula: • Given: • U = Wе and G = ω е = 2 Πf е • U is the maximum allowable residual unbalance • G is the total balance quality grade (mm/sec) as specified • W is weight of the rotor (lbs) • N is the maximum rotor rpm • е is the eccentricity limit (mm) • It can be shown that • U = 60GW / 2 Π N (lbs – mm) • or U = 6GW/N (oz – in) • For rigid rotors that operate below 1000 rpm.0 mm/s can be specified for all speeds. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 57 . a balance quality grade of G = 1.5 mm/s. For rigid rotors that require low noise. see ANSI S2.19. For rigid rotors that operate at 1000 rpm and above. the total balance quality grade shall not exceed G = 1. For guidance on balance quality grades of rigid rotors.Balance Limits for Rigid Rotors • When balanced as specified.0 mm/s.
Balance Quality Grades • Application of U = 6GW/N (U in oz/sec. • This is a more severe requirement. G. 6G = 4. N in RPM) • In MIL-STD-167-1. Since: • G(total) = ω е (e is ecentricity from balance in mm) • The distance “e” between the shaft axis and the rotor center of gravity has been reduced in MIL-STD-167-1A 58 © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 . U(per plane) = 4W/N • What is the balance quality grade. for this requirement ? • Set 6GW/N = 4W/N . G in mm/sec. G(total) has been reduced to 1 mm/sec for noise sensitive rotors. W in lbs. G = 2/3 per plane • G (total) = 2(2/3) = 4/3 mm/sec for two planes • In MIL-STD-167-1A.
5) 500/6000 = 1. U = 6GW/N = 6(1) 500/6000 = ½ oz-in total.5. the quieter the rigid rotor because of the small eccentricity.004 mm allowed eccentricity (ω = 2 Π f = 2 Π RPM/60) • For G = 4/3 mm/sec (Old 4W/N requirement) : U = 6GW/N = 6(4/3) 500/6000 = 2/3 oz-in total . G = ω е .25 oz-in total and G = ω е .0021 mm allowed eccentricity • For G = 1.Balance Quality Grades • Allowable Unbalance Example • What is the maximum allowable residual unbalance. 4/3 and 1. е = G/ ω = 2. е = G/ ω = 1. For a 500 lb Rotor which is to be balanced to balance quality grades of 2.0016 mm allowed eccentricity. For low noise rigid rotors G= ω е .0/(2 Π6000/60) = 0.0 mm/sec .0 mm/sec at 6000 RPM? • For G = 2.5 mm/sec : U = 6G(W/N) = 6(2. е.5/200 Π = 0. е = G/ ω = 4/3/(2 Π6000/60) = (4/3) 1/628 = 0.5/(2 Π 6000/60) = 2. U in oz-in. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 59 . • The lower the balance quality grade.
Approval Process for Vibration Testing Data Reports Disapprove Approve Certified Government Vibration Testing Approver NAVSEA Test from Certified Manufacturer Tester Test from Certified Contractor Tester Test from Certified Government Tester © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 60 .
• It may affect any group of components. Vibration may be resonant. and it may be rotational (torsional). or any one. It can occur at any frequency up to those which are more commonly called noise.VIBRATION DEFINATIONS • Vibration may be in any linear direction. • As ship design advances. there is a tendency for noise and vibration problems to become more pronounced. • Design practice should include elements of model testing. calculation and heuristic deduction from previous experience © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 61 . at one of its natural frequencies or forced. particularly with regard to structural optimization and high speeds to meet market demands.
Velocity being a good indication of the amount of wear taking place in a machine is used exclusively in monitoring systems. This parameter is often used when balancing. • The Vibration Velocity is the speed of movement of this point .being highest as the point passes through its at rest position. It gives good guide to the amount of energy being generated by the vibrating object.VIBRATION DEFINATIONS • The total vertical movement is called the Peak to Peak Displacement of the vibration. This energy usually results in wear and eventual failure. This is an indication of the amount of the amount of lateral movement of the machine and is good indication of the amount of out of balance in a machine when the value is compared to a standard for that machine. • The amount of energy is proportional to the square of the velocity of vibration. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 62 .
• For very low speed machines where the velocity is low the displacement may be used instead. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 63 .The shaft below is said to have a fundamental frequency equal to the shaft rotational velocity.s value is used.VIBRATION DEFINATIONS • For analysis purposes the r. • The Vibration Frequency is the time taken to complete one cycle .m.
will go on swinging. if excited. once set in motion in this way. about its equilibrium position forever. • An elastic system. and which is proportional to the displacement.SHAFT VIBRATION • Any elastically coupled shaft or other system will have one or more natural frequencies which. in the theoretical absence of any damping influence © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 64 . • ‗Elastic‘ in this sense means that a displacement or a twist from rest creates a force or torque tending to return the system to its position of rest. can build up to an amplitude which is perfectly capable of breaking crankshafts. or vibrating.
and • I is the moment of inertia of the attached mass in kg metres2. • q is the stiffness in newton-metres per radian. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 65 .FUNDAMENTAL OR NATURAL FREQUENCY • The frequency of torsional vibration of a single mass will be Where.
to achieve a frequency which does not coincide with any of the forcing frequencies.FUNDAMENTAL OR NATURAL FREQUENCY • For a transverse or axial vibration Where. • The essence of control is to adjust these two parameters. q and I (ors and m). © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 66 . • s is the stiffness in newtons per metre of deflection and m is the mass attached in kg.
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 67 . • In reality machines vibrate in a much more complex way with vibration occurring at several frequencies. • By analysis of the frequency at which each of the vibrations are occurring it is possible to ascertain whether they are being generated from within the system or externally. • By further analysis it is possible to locate the source of vibration within complex machinery.Vibration frequency • The equation is true only when the majority of the vibration occurs at one frequency.
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 68 .Vibration spectrum Vibration phase can be defined as the angular relationship between the positions of maximum vibrations and some fixed point on a rotating shaft at any instant.
Vibration effects and types © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 69 .
at any given frequency. one must consider all of them simultaneously when specifying or observing sine vibration. • The three parameters of acceleration. the relationship between acceleration. velocity and displacement is fixed and frequency dependent. velocity and displacement are all linear scalar quantities and in that respect. each has a constant. and for this reason. • It is not possible to vary any one of these three parameters without affecting another. proportional relationship with the other © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 70 .VIBRATION PARAMETERS • It is important to understand that with sinusoidal vibration.
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 71 . if the frequency is held constant. increasing or decreasing the amplitude of any one of the three parameters results in a corresponding proportional increase or decrease in both of the other two parameters.VIBRATION PARAMETERS • In other words. the constant of proportionality between the three parameters is frequency dependent and therefore not the same at different frequencies. • However.
however. • Acceleration is normally specified and measured in its peak sinusoidal value and is normally expressed in standardized and normalized dimensionless units of g‘s peak. In fact. • © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 72 . Velocity and Displacement • In general. a g is numerically equal to the acceleration of gravity under standard conditions. sinusoidal vibration testing uses the following conventions for measurement of vibration levels. most engineering calculations utilize the dimensionless unit of g‘s and convert to normal dimensioned units only when required.Acceleration.
Velocity is of interest when damping components or back EMF issues are important to the testing. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 73 . velocity is of primary concern to those interested in machinery condition monitoring. • Displacement is usually expressed in normal linear dimensions. Velocity and Displacement • Velocity is specified in peak amplitude as well. In other words. • The second is that velocity has a proportionally increasing (or decreasing) relationship with either displacement or acceleration. the velocity will increase (or decrease) in direct proportion to the frequency if either of the other parameters are held constant. it is measured over the total vibration excursion or peak to peak amplitude. Although not often used in vibration testing applications. The normal units of velocity are inches per second in the English system or millimeters per second in the metric system of units.Acceleration. The normal units of displacement are inches for English or millimeters for the metric system of units. however.
Knowing any one of the three parameter levels. inches per second. along with the frequency of operation. g‘s peak D= displacement. inches. peak f = frequency. Velocity and Displacement • As mentioned previously. is enough to completely predict the other two levels. peak to peak V= velocity. The sinusoidal equations of motion stated in normal vibration testing units are as follows: • where: g= acceleration. these quantities are not independent and are related to each other by the frequency of the vibration. Hz © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 74 .Acceleration.
Vibration characteristics © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 75 .
ACCELERATION MEASUREMENT © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 76 .
Vibration measurements units • There are three different ways of expressing vibration measurements • 1.M. Peak to peak • 2. Half peak • 3. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 77 . • R.S. Root mean Square • They are related as follows. = Peak to Peak / 2.83 • Half peak value = Peak to peak / 2 .
time capture.VIBRATION MEASUREMENT • Standard measurement groups include:• • • • • • • FFT. order tracking. octave. swept-sine. and time/histogram © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 78 . correlation.
while vector averaging minimizes noise from synchronous signals. the amplitude profile of specific orders in the map can be analyzed. RMS averaging reduces signal fluctuations. Peak hold averaging is also available. rpm is measured © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 79 .VIBRATION MEASUREMENT • Averaging • A wide selection of averaging techniques to improve your signal-to-noise ratio. or "order map" of your data as a function of time or rpm. the intensity of individual orders vs. In tracked order mode. Both linear and exponential averaging are provided for each mode • Order Tracking • Order tracking is used to evaluate the behavior of rotating machinery. Measurement data is displayed as a function of multiples of the shaft frequency (orders). Using the slice feature. Combined with a waterfall plot. rather than absolute frequency.
as well as A. are included. 1/3 and 1/12 octave analysis.VIBRATION MEASUREMENT • Octave Analysis • Real-time 1/1. Switchable analog A-weighting filters. type 1-D) and IEC 225-1966. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 80 . and equal confidence averaging.11-1986 (Order 3. Broadband sound level is measured and displayed as the last band in the octave graph. Octave analysis is fully compliant with ANSI S1. B and C weighting math functions. peak hold. linear time averaging. at frequencies up to 40 kHz (single channel) or 20 kHz (two channel). • Averaging choices include exponential time averaging.
for instance). signal amplitude is provided for accurate time domain signal characterization. A histogram of the time data vs. and number of bins can all be adjusted © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 81 . Gain is optimized at each point in the measurement. • Time/Histogram • The time/histogram measurement group is used to analyze time-domain data. number of samples. producing up to 145 dB of dynamic range. The sample rate. Statistical analysis capabilities include both probability density function (PDF) and cumulative density function (CDF). A frequency resolution of up to 2000 points is also provided.VIBRATION MEASUREMENT • Swept-Sine Measurements • Swept-sine mode is ideal for signal analysis that involves high dynamic range or wide frequency spans. Auto-ranging can be used with source auto-leveling to maintain a constant input or output level at the device under test (to test response at a specific amplitude.
The convenient Auto-Pan feature lets you display measurement results synchronously with the corresponding portion of the capture buffer to identify important features © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 82 . or about 9 hours of data at a 256 Hz sample rate. For example. any portion of the signal can be played back. Once captured. allowing to optimize sampling rate and storage for any application. 8 Msamples of memory will capture 32 seconds of time domain data at the maximum 262 kHz sample rate.VIBRATION MEASUREMENT • Time Capture • Analog waveforms can be captured at sampling rates of 262 kHz or any binary sub-multiple.
octave and order tracking measurements can be stored in waterfall buffer memory. Any z-axis slice or x-axis record can be saved to disk or displayed separately for analysis. While displaying waterfall plots. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 83 . Each successive measurement record is plotted along the z-axis making it easy to see trends in the data. For order tracking measurements. the storage interval is in seconds (as fast as every 4 ms). or change the baseline threshold to eliminate low-level clutter. new records can be acquired at a specific time interval or change in rpm. In octave measurements. All FFT. • Waterfall traces can be stored every n time records for FFT and order tracking measurements. you can adjust the skew angle to reveal important features.VIBRATION MEASUREMENT • Waterfall • Waterfall plots are a convenient way of viewing a time history of data.
VIBRATION MEASUREMENT PLOTS Order Tracking Waterfall © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 84 .
• • Frequency Ratio.FACTORS AFFECTING VIBRATION PARAMETERS • The four elements of importance in ship vibration are: • • Excitation. and • • Damping © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 85 . • • Stiffness.
F. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. It is not a recommended practice to reduce system stiffness in attempts to reduce vibration. stiffness is to be increased rather than decreased when variations in natural frequency are to be accomplished by variations in stiffness. K. Stiffness is defined as spring force per unit deflection. In propeller-induced ship vibration. 86 . the excitation may be reduced by changing the propeller unsteady hydrodynamics. • ii) Increase stiffness. This may involve lines or clearance changes to reduce the non-uniformity of the wake inflow or may involve geometric changes to the propeller itself. In general.REDUCING VIBRATION PARAMETERS • i) Reduce exciting force amplitude.
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. ωn is changed by changes in system mass and/or stiffness. in the case of propeller-induced vibration.REDUCING VIBRATION PARAMETERS • iii) Avoid values of frequency ratio near unity. the excitation is opposed only by damping. increasing stiffness is the usual and preferred approach. The spectrum of ω can be changed by changing the RPM of a relevant rotating machinery source. At resonance. ω/ωn = 1 is the resonant condition. Note that ω/ωn can be varied by varying either excitation frequency ω or natural frequency ωn. or. 87 . by changing the propeller RPM or its number of blades.
ζ << 1. Therefore. the least effective of the four parameters available to the designer for implementing changes in ship vibratory characteristics. the vibratory amplitude is approximately damping independent. ζ is. 88 . Damping of structural systems in general. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. Furthermore. and of ships in particular. is small. except very near resonance. in general. ζ. damping is difficult to increase significantly in systems such as ships.REDUCING VIBRATION PARAMETERS • iv) Increase damping.
Vibration mitigation on a naval vessel • It is important to prevent or counter vibrations as it ultimately becomes destructive.interrupting the path which vibration is transmitted from its source. • Otherwise . • Much vibration can be avoided by careful design and manufacture .the response of the structure to that vibration could be sensed and actively controlled using strategically placed transducers and cancellation techniques © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 89 . or by controlling the response of ship‘s structure by imposing a counter vibration on it.for example ensuring that rotating masses on machines are balanced. • Instead of attempting to isolate structure from source vibration . ‗ Important‘ becomes ‗imperative‘ on naval and other vessels that. • Impressing a counter vibration on the source such that the unwanted vibration is cancelled . for operational reasons .it can be dealt with by isolating the responsible machinery from its base support structure .must operate silently.
may grow to damaging proportions.Strategies of naval vibration minimization • Naval designers use finite element and impedance modeling to help designers achieve structures whose natural vibration frequencies are well separated from the excitation frequencies likely to be generated by the ship‘s propulsion and other machinery. • Failure to ensure this can lead to resonances in which structural oscillations . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 90 .fed with energy from in phase source of vibrations.
once the material of choice for absorbing vibration energy . This is called a passive machinery mount/vibration isolator © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 91 .vibration still develops . and a number of firms specialize in static and dynamic balancing. Natural rubber .has since been joined by a range of elastomer and other materials. • Classic ‗fix' now is to mount them to their base via anti vibration mounts incorporating resilient material. despite these precautions .Strategies of naval vibration minimization • If .it may be necessary to address the problem by judiciously adding balance weights.
. • to support and secure the machine in question ( propulsion engine. Most solid mounts comprise metal/elastomer combinations in which metal most of the stiffness required to support and locate the subject machine while the elastomer absorbs the vibration energy.passive mounts can substantially reduce medium or high frequency vibrations. as soft as possible.) and • to isolate vibration source (machine) from the receiver ( base structure) • The former requires the mount to be stiff as possible . • Nevertheless .Passive vibration isolator • A passive machinery mount/vibration isolator has two roles. for maximum effect. • This is a contradictory requirement.pump etc.– indeed.-typically by some 10dB. generator . while for the latter it needs to be highly resilient. so passive dampers tend to be a compromise and are least effective at low frequencies. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 92 .
Type of passive vibration isolators © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 93 .
Tuned vibration absorbers (TVAs) • Whilst passive dampers based on resilient materials are often cost effective . • Thus. engineers have devised fluidic/hydraulic.the performance of which is optimized for particular frequencies. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 94 . pneumatic and electro-magnetic systems. Also available are tuned vibration absorbers (TVAs) .their performance can sometimes be bettered by alternative source of resilience.
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 95 . is fed to a synchronizer module which ensures correct drive speed and phasing.electro-mechanical vibration compensators can be more effective. but anti phase to produce a canceling effect.Tuned vibration absorbers (TVAs) • For low speed engines . • A signal representing engine rev/min sensed by a tacho-graph. These utilize rotating masses electrically driven in synchronism with mechanical out of balance forces.
Electrically operated tuned vibration absorber © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 96 .
• The system can also be beneficial for certain propeller vibration modes .Location of the TVA • Units can be selected to counter vibration propagated transversely. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 97 . longitudinally or vertically.and in those cases it is usually mounted at the thrust block.to feed counter vibrations into the base structure. • Typically a pair would be mounted at specific points near main engine .
Active vibration isolator • Another approach shown to be effective with slow-turning engines is to supplement passive isolation with the element of active cancellation.the active means which is somewhat analogous to the now well-known ‗anti noise‘ cancellation technique.impose vibration on a machinery mount in such away that it cancels the unwanted source vibration .vibration passing to the base structure is minimized. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 98 . • In essence . As a result . -.
a central data acquisition /processor/control unit and a power supply. A tachograph fitted to the subject machine provides the necessary revolutions rate reference signal. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 99 . • The control loop can be closed by a feed back or feed forward ( anticipatory) term depending on the situation. • Sensor signals are digitized and analyzed by the processor . This is converted back to analogue and passed via a power amplifier to the actuator.which then generates an appropriate digital cancellation signal.Active vibration isolator system • System requires an electro-mechanical actuator to impose the anti-vibration oscillations. accelerometer sensors to sense the source of vibration .
including at the low frequencies that defeat passive isolators.Active vibration isolator control element • An active control element can be included as a part of the isolator itself . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 100 . • Smart Spring mount fail to a safe condition since. • The latter arrangement has the advantage that the active element does not have to bear the source machine‘s weight .but the inertial actuator has to be powerful enough to overcome the stiffness of the passive mount.they can still operate passively. should the active component or power fail . or it can be mounted alongside it so that the active and passive elements are in parallel. • State-of –the-art active control systems can provide as much as 20-30 dB attenuation.in which case it is in series (in line) with the passive resilient element.
Active vibration isolator (parallel config) © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 101 .
It is clear that if the vibration problems. may be avoided. involving great cost in correction efforts. where there has been no development of details. repeatedly identified by experience as the most important. ultimately serious problems. If as much as possible can be done in concept design with the simple tools and rules of thumb available at that level. are addressed at the earliest design stage. it will help to avoid major vibration problems. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 102 . • The focus is on planning for vibration early at the Concept Design stage.Concept Design Approach • Concept design is where the vibration avoidance process must begin.
acceptable results may consistently be achieved with reasonable effort by focusing attention in concept design on two of the four elements. 103 . acceptable results may consistently be achieved with reasonable effort by focusing attention in concept design on two of the four elements. • While quantification of all four elements is required in calculating the vibration response level.Concept Design Approach • While quantification of all four elements is required in calculating the vibration response level. The two of the four elements of importance are excitation and frequency ratio. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
104 . and • • Avoid resonances involving active participation of major subsystems in frequency ranges where the dominant excitations are strongest. stiffness. within the normal constraints imposed by other design variables. frequency ratio. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. damping) of importance are excitation and frequency ratio.Concept Design Approach • The two of the four elements (excitation. The achievement in design of two objectives with regard to these elements has resulted in many successful ships: • • Minimize dominant vibratory excitations.
etc. as the correction approach by local stiffening may be easily achievable © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. such as hand-rails. • ii) Main machinery/shafting system longitudinal vibration excited by the propeller. may be encountered on new vessel trials in addition to these three. • iii) Superstructure fore-and-aft vibration excited by hull girder vertical vibration and/or main propulsion machinery/shafting system longitudinal vibration. plating panels. • A myriad of local vibrations.. antennas.Attention to vibration design of ships • Experience has shown that attention to vibration in concept design of large ships can usually be paid to the following items: • i) Hull girder vertical vibration excited by the main engine. 105 . • But local problems usually involve local structural resonances and often considered as minor problems.
DESIGNING OUT VIBRATION © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 106 .
107 .Effect of engine vibrations © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
5. • Slamming phenomena. 4. • Cargo handling and mooring machinery. Gas turbines are 9. • Air conditioning systems. • Intakes and exhausts. generally considered to give less excitation than diesel engines. • Vortex shedding mechanisms The major sources are the low-speed diesel 8. 2. • Maneuvering devices such as transverse propulsion units 6. Typically these may include: 1. • Shaft-line dynamics 3. 7. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 108 .typically diesel engines. • Propeller radiated pressures and bearing forces. main engine and the propeller. • The prime movers .Sources of vibration excitation • There are a number of sources of vibration and noise present in a ship or marine vehicle.
• loose components • Bending or eccentricity of shafts. • Unequal thermal effects • Aerodynamic forces (turbocharger) • Hydraulic forces • Bad belt drives • Oil whirl • Reciprocating forces. 109 . The great majority of the above create a vibration at a multiple of the fundamental • © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • Damaged or worn bearings. U • Misalignment.Other causes of vibration form prime movers and auxiliaries • Typical causes could be • Š nbalance. • Electromagnetic effects. • Damaged or worn teeth • Resonance.
110 . with reference to a certain speed and power • 2) Secondary excitations. stemming from a forced vibratory response in a sub-structure.Excitation due to slow speed diesel engine • Excitations generated by the engine can be divided into two categories: • 1) Primary excitations. The vibration characteristics of substructures are almost independent of the remaining ship structure © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. and they can be calculated in advance and be stated as part of the engine specification. These are characteristics of the engine as such. which are forces and moments originating from the combustion pressure and the inertia forces of the rotating and reciprocating masses.
split up into four categories:• • External unbalanced moments :These can be classified as unbalanced 1st . which need to be considered only for certain cylinder numbers • • Guide force moments • • Axial vibrations in the shaft system • • Torsional vibrations in the shaft system. 111 .Vibration Aspects of Two-stroke Diesel Engines • The vibration characteristics of the twostroke low speed diesel engines can for practical purposes be. 2nd and may be 4th order external moments. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
External unbalanced moments and guide forces © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 112 .
e. The fluctuating gas pressure in the cylinder. The inertia forces.Diesel engine forces • Diesel engine force components are comprised of static loads (I. 3. 1. Rotating masses © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. loads arising from bolted assembly) and dynamic loads. 113 . • The dynamic loads are due to forces arising from two sources. 2.
to neutralize themselves. • This can be Mathematically. and then only for engines with a low number of cylinders. more or less. 114 . • On some large bore engines the 4th external order moment may also have to be examined. only the 1st order (one cycle per revolution) and the 2nd order (two cycles per revolution) need to be considered. • The inertia forces on engines with more than 6 cylinders tend.External unbalanced moments • The inertia forces originating from the unbalanced rotating and reciprocating masses of the engine create unbalanced external moments although the external forces are zero. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. expressed as follows:• Of these moments.
• Generally speaking.1st and 2nd order external moments • The external moments are known as the 1st . because they originate solely in the inertia forces on the reciprocating masses. however. • The 1st order moments acts with a frequency corresponding to the engine speed x 1. the 1st order moment causes no vibration problems. it is recommendable to evaluate the risk because in rare cases this cylinder configuration may cause vibration levels of a disturbing magnitude © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. For 4-cylinder engines. 115 .order moments (acting in both the vertical and horizontal directions) and 2nd order moments (acting in the vertical direction only.
where the 1st order moment may cause resonance with both the vertical and the horizontal hull vibration mode in the normal speed range of the engine. • This resonance can be calculated with reasonable accuracy.1st order resonance and solutions • Resonance with a 1st order moment may occur for hull vibrations with 2 and/or 3 nodes. • In rare cases. The 1st order vertical moment will decrease to about 30% of the value. and the calculation for the specific plant will show whether or not a compensator is necessary. depending on the position of the node. • With a 1st order moment compensator fitted aft. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. and a 1st order compensator fitted in the chain tightener wheel in order to neutralize the horizontal moment. 116 . • The adjustable counter-weights should be positioned so as to make the vertical moment harmless. the horizontal moment will decrease to between 0 and 30% of the value.
117 .1st order vertical & horizontal moment compensator © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
it is only relevant to compensate this moment on 4. • In order to control the resulting vibratory responses. • Owing to the magnitude of the 2nd order moment. 118 . • Resonance with 4 and 5 node vertical hull girder vibration modes can occur in the normal engine speed range.2nd order resonance • The 2nd order moment acts with a frequency corresponding to twice the engine speed. The 2nd order moment acts in the vertical direction only. a 2nd order compensator can be installed © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 5 and 8-cylinder engines.
synchronized to the correct phase relative to the free moment. if considered unnecessary on the basis of the natural frequency. completely eliminating the external 2nd order moments. are available to cope with the 2nd order vertical moment: • a) No compensators. nodal point and size of the 2nd order moment • b) A compensator mounted on the aft end of the engine driven by the main chain drive. • c) A compensator mounted on the front end. where deflections are largest and the compensator. will have the greatest effect. from which the most cost-efficient one can be chosen. 119 . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • This type of compensator needs preparations in the form of an extra seating. driven from the crank shaft through a separate chain drive • d) Compensators on both the aft and fore ends of the engine. prefer-able in the steering gear room. therefore.Solutions for 2nd order compensator • Several solutions. • e) An electrically driven compensator.
120 .2nd order moment compensators © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
121 .2nd order moment compensators © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
the size of which is found by multiplying the force by the distance to the node. • The counterweights on the chain wheel produce a centrifugal force which creates a moment.Action of 2nd order compensator • Compensation of an external moment by means of a compensating force is possible if there is an adequate distance from the position where the force is acting to the node of the vibration (i. the direction of the compensating moment will always be opposite to the direction of the external moment © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.e. an excitation force is inefficient when acting in a node). • Due to the positioning of these counter-weights. 122 .
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • When the piston is not exactly in its top or bottom position. Its resultant is acting on the guide shoe and. • In a multi-cylinder engine. will have a component acting on the crank-shaft perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. gas and inertia forces and their resultants form a system of guide force moments containing all orders. and by inertia forces.Guide force moments • The so-called guide force moments are caused by the gas force on the piston. 123 . they form a guide force moment. transferred through the connecting rod. the gas force. together.
tends to rock the engine top in the transverse direction.TYPES OF GUIDE FORCES. • The H-type guide force moment. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. and the main order is equal to half the number. • The X-type guide force moment is the dominating for engines with more than six cylinders. The main order of the H-moment is equal to the cylinder number. • Two kinds of guide force moments exist: • The so-called H and X-moments. which is dominating on engines with less than seven cylinders. The X-moment tends to twist the engine in an X-like shape. 124 .
• In order to counteract the possible impact on the hull from guide force moments. • The top bracing can either be mechanical with frictional connection or hydraulically adjustable © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.Guide forces and top bracings • For engines with odd numbers of cylinders. 125 . it is recommend the installation of a set of top bracings between the upper gallery of the main engine and the hull structure (casing side). the main orders are mostly the two orders closest to half the number of cylinders.
As the deflection shape for the H-type is equal for each cylinder the Nth order • H-type guide force moment for an N-cylinder engine with regular firing order is: N • MH(one cylinder). as the guide shoe reciprocates on the guide plane. • 2: Another force at level of the guide plane. 126 . • The position of the force changes over one revolution. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.H-type Guide Force Moment (MH) • Each cylinder unit produces a force couple consisting of: • 1: A force at level of crankshaft centre-line.
the length of the connecting rod). • As the interaction between engine and hull is at the engine seating and the top bracing positions. this force couple may alternatively be applied in those positions with a vertical distance of (LZ). 127 .H-type Guide Force Moment (MH) • The size of the forces in the force couple is: • Force = MH /L kN • where L is the distance between crankshaft level and the middle position of the guide plane (i.e. • Then the force can be calculated as: • ForceZ =MH /LZ kN © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
as the deflection shape is twisting the engine each cylinder unit does not contribute with equal amount.X-type Guide Force Moment (MX) • The X-type guide force moment is calculated based on the same force couple as described. however. • A so-called ‖Bi-moment‖ can be calculated • The X-type guide force moment is then defined as: © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 128 . • The centre units do not contribute very much whereas the units at each end contributes much.
129 .Alignment of guide forces © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
which allow adjustment to the loading conditions of the ship. 130 . • The mechanical top bracing comprises stiff connections (links) with friction plates and alternatively a hydraulic top bracing. be harmless. therefore. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.Action of the bracings • These bracings act as detunes of the system double bottom and main engine. which means that the natural frequency of the vibration system will be increased to such an extent that resonance occurs above the running range of engine speed and the guide force moments will.
Hydraulic and mechanical top bracings © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 131 .
132 . internal moments and forces would not be able to give excitations to the ship‘s structure. • If the engine frame could be assumed to be infinitely stiff. it is obvious that an infinitely stiff engine frame cannot be obtained and. it is the relative stiffness between the engine frame and the connected hull structure which has to be considered © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. How-ever. • therefore.Internal forces and moments • It is the responsibility of the engine de-signer to provide the engine frame with sufficient stiffness to cope with the internal forces and moments so that de-flections and corresponding stresses can be kept within acceptable limits.
133 .Internal & external forces and moments © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
134 . • There are two main types of these vibrations:• Axial vibrations and • torsional vibrations.Secondary forces • These excitation forces are not generated within the engine. • The vibration characteristics may be modified by the impressed effect on it by the remaining system. but are resultant of the interaction effect of the prime mover the propeller and the shafting system. • Performance of the system also depends on the response of the system to the oscillations imposed on to the system. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
• Torsional vibration causes extra stresses.e. which may be detrimental to the shaft system. 135 . It is these variations that cause the excitation of torsional vibration of the shaft system. i. • The stresses will show peak values at resonances. where the number of revolutions multiplied by the order of excitation corresponds to the natural frequency © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.Torsional vibrations • The varying gas pressure in the cylinders during the working cycle and the crankshaft/connecting rod mechanism create a varying torque in the crank-shaft.
136 .Mechanisms of torsional vibrations © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
. . . . . . stating the external moment relative to the engine power. . it is possible to give an estimate of the risk of hull vibrations for a specific engine. . . . . .Power Related Unbalance (PRU) • To evaluate if there is a risk that 1st and 2nd order external moments will excite disturbing hull vibrations. . . . . . . . Based on service experience from a greater number of large ships with engines of different types and cylinder numbers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the concept Power Related Unbalance can be used as a guidance. . . . . . . . . . . • With the PRU-value. . . . . . . . . not relevant • from 60 to 120 . . . unlikely • from 120 to 220 . . the PRU-values have been classified in four groups as follows:• from 0 to 60 . . . . . . likely • above 220 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . most likely © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 137 . . . . . . . .
• In general any kind of irregularity in the cylinder firings produces and enlarged vibratory stresses in the components of the propulsion plant.Power unbalance and torsional vibration • Designers tend to rely on reasonably correct balance among cylinders. expecting it to be small. • The absence of firing of one unit significantly changes the whole picture of the propulsion plant vibration behavior. may inadvertently be aggravating a summation of vectors which the designer. or one with a serious imbalance between cylinder loads or timings. • It is important to realize that an engine with one cylinder cut out for any reason. had allowed to remain near the running speed range. • Misfiring in any one cylinder gives rise to resonances that are small or even negligible during the normal operation of plant © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 138 .
• However. but significant orders of n-2. as in the case of torsional vibrations. 139 . If a harmonic angular velocity is superimposed upon the normal uniform rotation of the crank-throw. n+l and n+2 will also appear. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. this will cause harmonic forces and moments to occur. • Torsional vibration induced moments and forces due to connecting rod mechanism . the reaction forces will not solely be of the same order as the super-imposed torsional vibration.Coupling of variable torque. excite vibration in the hull through the coupling phenomena present in the connecting rod mechanism and in the propeller. angular momentum and variable propeller thrust • Torsional vibrations of the entire shaft system are mainly excited by the tangential force T. n-l. due to the connecting rod mechanism. • Torsional vibration can.
exciting torsional vibration in the system with different frequencies © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.Torsional vibration analysis • The reciprocating and rotating masses of the engine including the crankshaft. the thrust shaft. 140 . the propeller shaft and the propeller are for calculation purposes considered as a system of rotating masses (inertias) interconnected by torsional springs. the intermediate shaft(s). • The gas pressure of the engine acts through the connecting rod mechanism with a varying torque on each crank throw.
Torsional vibration analysis • Potentially the most damaging form of vibration is the torsional mode. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. affecting the crankshaft and propeller shafting (or generator shafting). the higher the corresponding natural frequency. • There will be as many ‗modes‘ in which the shaft can be induced to vibrate naturally as there are shaft elements. 141 . • A node is found where the deflection is zero and the amplitude changes sign. The more nodes that are present.
Torsional vibration solutions • In general. • The torsional vibration conditions may. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. is normally the vibration with order equal to the number of cylinders. causing the largest extra stresses in the shaft line. only torsional vibrations with one and two nodes need to be considered. for certain installations require a torsional vibration damper. 142 . • The main critical order. • This resonance is positioned at the engine speed corresponding to the natural torsional frequency divided by the number of cylinders.
while those between the two nodes swing anticlockwise. • The problem arises when the forcing frequencies of the externally applied. one of these natural frequencies. when those masses forward of the first node swing clockwise. vibration coincide with. and vice versa. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. or approach closely. when the masses forward of the node swing clockwise. those aft of it swing anticlockwise and vice versa. 143 . or input. so do those aft of the second node.MULTINODE SHAFTING OSCILLATION • In the one-node case. • In the two-node case.
144 .Single and double node shaft excitation © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
this need may arise for the following types of installation: • • Plants with controllable pitch propeller • • Plants with unusual shafting layout and for special owner/yard requirements • • Plants with 8.Torsional vibration solutions • Based on statistics. on a plant equipped with a controllable pitch propeller. 145 . • The application of the QPT has to be decided by the engine maker © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 11 or 12-cylinder engines • The so-called QPT (Quick Passage of a barred speed range Technique). The QPT could be implemented in the governor in order to limit the vibratory stresses during the passage of the barred speed range. is an alternative option to a torsional vibration damper.
Changing them would have the greatest effect on frequency. • The most vulnerable shaft sections are those whose combination of torque and diameter induce in them the greatest stress. • Changing the diameter of such a section of shaft will also have a greater effect on the frequency. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • The most significant shaft sections are those with the steepest change of amplitude on the elastic curve and therefore the highest torque. • These are usually near the nodes but this depends on the relative shaft diameter. 146 .Factors affecting amplitude and frequency • The most significant masses in any mode of vibration are those with the greatest amplitude on the corresponding elastic curve.
Torsional resonance or critical speeds © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 147 .
if on a shaft section with a high amplitude. to control all the possible critical speed. • This would set up in turn a lateral vibration of the piston and hence of the entablature. • Torsional vibrations can sometimes affect camshafts also © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. the torsional oscillation of the cranks with the biggest amplitude would cause a longitudinal vibration of the connecting rod. would also probably be distinctly noisy. • It is usually difficult. • Gearing. so that in a variable speed propulsion engine it is sometimes necessary to ‗bar‘ a range of speeds where vibration is considered too dangerous for continuous operation.Effect of running the engine at critical RPM • If an engine were run at or near a major critical speed it would sound rough because. at mid-stroke. 148 . and sometimes impossible.
the forcing impulses and the resultant stresses by adjusting shaft sizes. but the principles remain the same. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. introduce complications in solving them. number of propeller blades. of course. • By using viscous or other dampers. involving twin input or multiple output gearboxes. 149 . detuning couplings and so on. creates further complications—and possibilities.Control of stresses during the resonance • Designers can nowadays adjust the frequency of resonance. Branched systems. • Gearing. crankshaft balance weights and firing orders.
Stress limits and barred speed range
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010
Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012
Stress limits and barred speed range
• The classification societies prescribe two limits, Ʈ1, and Ʈ2, for the
torsional stress in the speed range up to 80 per cent of MCR :
• The lower Ʈ1,: • Determines a stress level which may only be exceeded for a short time, i.e.
not during continuous running, which means that the propulsion plant requires a barred speed range of revolutions.
• The upper limit Ʈ2 : • May not be exceeded at all,
• At engine speeds where the lower limit Ʈ1, is exceeded, it will be necessary
to introduce a ―barred speed range‖ in which continuous operation is prohibited.
Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 151
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010
Torsional vibration calculations
• Four, five and six-cylinder engines, require special attention. On
account of the heavy excitation, the natural frequency of the system with one-node vibration should be situated away from the normal operating speed range, to avoid its effect.
• This can be achieved by changing the masses and/or the stiffness of
the system so as to give a much higher, or much lower, natural frequency, called under-critical or overcritical running, respectively.
• Owing to the very large variety of possible shafting arrangements that
may be used in combination with a specific engine, only detailed torsional vibration calculations of the specific plant can determine whether or not a torsional vibration damper is necessary.
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 152
• Torsional dampers are placed behind the engine as vibrational dampers when the powertrain does not include a separating and starting clutch. 153 . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • The purpose of using a torsional damper is to keep engine torque peaks as well as operational irregularities away from the powertrain and connected units.TORSIONAL VIBRATION DAMPERS • There two type of dampers for torsional vibrations:• The spring mass type • The viscous type.
TORSIONAL VIBRATION DAMPERS
• A torsional damper ensures ―peace and quiet‖
• If the forces operating in the powertrain area were not
countered, the powertrain components would also show considerably higher levels of wear.
• A standard solution today for decoupling torsional
vibrations in powertrains is to use a bolt-on torsional damper that builds on the technology in clutch discs with torsional damping.
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 154
SPRING MASS TYPE DETUNERS
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010
Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012
The spring mass type
• The torsional damper consists of a set of coil springs
positioned in windows that allow a limited amount of rotary movement between the crankshaft and the transmission input shaft and a friction device.
• By selecting the right torsional damper size and spring set,
characteristic curves can be adjusted to meet the individual needs of specific applications.
• Vibrational decoupling can therefore be adapted in
optimum fashion, and ignition-related rotational irregularities can be reduced.
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 156
157 .VISCOUS TYPE DETUNERS © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
which consist of an inertia ring added to the crankshaft enclosed in a thin layer of highly viscous fluid like silicon. 158 . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • The inertia ring is free to rotate and applies a lagging torque on the crankshaft due to its lagging torsional motion.VISCOUS TYPE DETUNERS • The torsional damper is integrated into the respective installation space by a simple adjustment of the external bolt-on area and by selecting the corresponding spline profile to match the drive shaft. • The most famous type of torsional damper used on marine engine of a ship is Viscous type dampers.
Torsional vibration nodes © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 159 .
in the case of forced torsional vibrations. 160 . angular displacements of all masses. it is straightforward to determine vibration torques and stresses. • Equations of motion of the lumped mass system could be gathered in a common matrix equation: © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.Lumped mass system • The continuous shafting system needs to be divided in the so-called lumped mass system where. after applying equations of motion. accompanied mode shapes and. • After that. one evaluates natural frequencies.
velocity and displacement vectors. C is the symmetric damping matrix. θ and θ are the angular acceleration. K is the symmetric stiffness matrix. expressed with vibration excitation vector. By assuming harmonic excitation: © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. and θ. f denotes the applied load. • Forced damped torsional vibration response could be obtained in various ways. respectively. On the right hand side.Lumped mass equation • where J is the diagonal inertia matrix. 161 .
and Θ is the complex angular displacement amplitude.Lumped mass equation • and harmonic response in the form: • where F is the complex excitation torque amplitude. t is the time. the system of equations readily transforms into a system of linear algebraic equations with complex coefficients: • Vibration torque amplitudes between the adjacent masses could then be obtained from: © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 162 . Ω is the excitation frequency.
Estimation of vibration stresses
• where kt is the shaft stiffness, (θi+1– θi) is the
amplitude of the shaft element twist, and m is the number of shaft elements. Afterwards, the vibration stresses could be easily determined from
• where d is the shaft element diameter.
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010
Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012
• When the crank throw is loaded by the gas pressure
through the connecting rod mechanism, the arms of the crank throw deflect in the axial direction of the crankshaft, exciting axial vibrations.
• Through the thrust bearing, the system is connected to
the ship`s hull. Generally, only zero-node axial vibrations are of interest. Thus the effect of the additional bending stresses in the crankshaft and possible vibrations of the ship`s structure due to the reaction force in the thrust bearing are to be considered.
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010
Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012
• An axial damper is fitted as standard to all MC engines minimizing
the effects of the axial vibrations.
• For an extremely long shaft line in certain large size container
vessels, a second axial vibration damper positioned on the intermediate shaft, designed to control the on-node axial vibrations can be applied.
• Alternating thrust, the excitation for longitudinal vibration of the
shafting/main machinery system, occurs at blade rate frequency (Propeller RPM × Blade number N) and its multiples.
• The fundamental is usually much larger than any of its harmonics,
however. Alternating thrust is produced by the blade number circumferential harmonic of the hull wake.
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 165
Axial longitudinal vibrations © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 166 .
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. exciting axial vibrations which.Axial vibration frequency and mode • When the crank-throw is loaded by the gas force through the connecting rod mechanism. For engines with more than six cylinders. • The dominating order of the axial vibration is equivalent to the number of cylinders for engines with less than seven cylinders. may be transferred to the ship‘s hull. through the thrust bearing. 167 . the dominating order is equal to half the numbers of cylinders. • For engines with odd numbers of cylinders. the dominating orders are mostly the two orders closest to half the cylinder number. the arms of the crank throw deflect in the axial direction of the crank-shaft.
and reduces the vibration level in the deck house to below the IS0 recommended values. 168 . and the superstructure. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • The axial vibration damper alone actually eliminates the problems. the engine frame.Axial vibration damper • These influenced the vibration behavior of the crankshaft.
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. They give alarm if one side oil pressure drops more than the set value as a result of low LO supply. This oil provides the damping effect.e. oscillation of the shaft in forward and aft directions. inside a cylindrical casing.Axial vibration damper • The Axial damper is fitted on the crankshaft of the engine to dampen the shaft generated axial vibration i. sealing ring failure etc. parallel to the shaft horizontal line. • When the crankshaft vibrates axially. the oil in the sides of damping flange circulates inside the casing through a throttling valve provided from one side of the flange to the other. • The casing is provided with high temperature alarm and pressure monitoring alarms located on both sides of damping flanges. which gives a damping effect. The casing is filled with system oil on both side of flanges supplied via small orifice. 169 . • It consists of a damping flange integrated to the crankshaft and placed near the last main bearing girder.
170 .AXIAL VIBRATIONS AND DAMPERS • The torsional deformation causes changes in the length of the crankshaft which is seen as axial vibration at the free end of the crankshaft. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. which in turn gives a varying thrust. • The varying thrust excites the propulsion shafting axially. • The torsional vibration also causes the propeller to rotate with varying speed. which also causes axial vibration to be seen at the free end of the crankshaft.
• The excitation can be reduced by modifying wake field and propeller design. 171 . Propeller excitations due to non-uniform wake field • The forces and moments should also be considered when calculating the torsional. and lateral vibrations of the shaft system.• Excitations due to the propeller working in the non-uniform wake field will be transmitted to the hull either through the shaft system as forces and moments or through the water as pressure fluctuations acting on the hull surface. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. axial.
the natural frequency is so high that no dynamic amplification of this mode will occur © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. Especially the stiffness of the thrust bearing and its support is very decisive. • For engines more than 6 cylinders main critical resonance with O-node vibration mode below MCR speed.Axial vibration nodes • Axial vibrations are longitudinal shafting vibrations. The 1 -node vibration mode is normally of less importance. 172 . Its natural frequency is determined by the mass and stiffness of the entire shafting system. The masselastic system is used for axial vibration calculations and the mode shapes of the two lowest modes which are of relevance. Normally.
as manifest in the non-uniform wake in which the propeller must operate. propeller excitation is far more difficult to quantify than the excitation from internal machinery sources. • Propeller-induced vibration problems in general start with unfavorable hull lines in the stern aperture region. Unfortunately.Hull Wake • Hull wake is one of the most critical aspects in avoidance of unacceptable ship vibration. 173 . • This is because of the complexity of the unsteady hydrodynamics of the propeller operating in the nonuniform hull wake © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
it is unfortunate that it is also the most important part. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • Propeller-induced vibration would not be a consideration in ship design if the propeller disk inflow were circumferentially uniform.Non-uniform hull wake • In fact. the non-uniform hull wake is the most complicated part. Any treatment of propeller excitation must begin with a consideration of the hull wake. 174 .
for steady operation. that wake is time invariant in a ship-fixed coordinate system. • The position angle. U. looking forward. θ.Wake field analysis. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. but assume. the basic concepts allow for the circumferential non-uniformity of hull wakes. is taken as positive counterclockwise. 175 . and x is positive aft. • Nominal wake data from model scale measurements in towing tanks are presented either as contour plots or as curves of velocity versus angular position at different radii in the propeller disc. • For engineering simplification. The axial wake velocity vX and tangential wake velocity vT are dimensionless on ship forward speed.
exist with twinscrew ships © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • This is a characteristic of single screw ships due to the transverse symmetry of the hull relative to the propeller disk. 176 . such symmetry in the wake does not. of course.Nominal wake distribution • the axial velocity is symmetric in θ about top-dead-center (even function) and the tangential velocity is asymmetric (odd function).
• This defect is the shadow of the skeg immediately forward. 177 . The flow components along the steep buttock lines forward of the propeller disk are small. being the combination of the component of the upward flow toward the free surface and any disk inclination relative to the baseline. • The dominant axial velocity field of the resultant wake has a substantial defect running vertically through the disk along its vertical centerline.Wake asymmetry • The streamlines are more or less horizontal along the skeg and into the propeller disk. The tangential flow in the propeller disk. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. at all radii. is much smaller.
• The area around 0 deg in Fig 1 is called the wake peak.Propeller cavitation and vibration • Each of the blades will be lightly loaded in position 90 – 135 deg ( high axial velocity ). while in position 0 degree it will be heavily loaded. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • When the blade moves out of the wake peak . • In such a wake peak .the loading will decrease and the cavitation gradually disappears.the blade loading will increase as the blade continues through it and cavitation will occur at the back of the blade( suction side cavitation) . • This variation in cavity volume per unit time makes the largest contribution to propeller-induced vibration of the hull. 178 .
179 . modified by the self induced component of pressure generation arising from the vibration of the ship structure at the point of interest. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. the hydrodynamic excitation process is a time domain event whose physical processes can better understood through the pressure time series.Propeller Radiated Signatures • The basis of the development of the propeller induced hull pressure signature is the acceleration of the cavity volumes with respect to time on the propeller blades. • As such.
the flow field. and the blade to blade geometric variations due to the manufacturing tolerances of the propeller blades. • © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. this being the sum of the steady inflow field and the seaway induced velocities. • These changes are random in nature and result from the interaction of the temporal changes in the flow.Propeller Radiated Signatures • There are blade surface pressure changes which vary from blade to blade in a single revolution and changes from one revolution to the next. 180 .
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 181 . Joint Time-frequency analysis. wavelet techniques and a double integral analysis of the underlying pressure signature.Propeller Radiated Signatures • These changes influence both the general form of the cavity volume variation and the higher frequencies and noise generated from the random perturbations of the topological form of the underlying cavity structure. • A number of candidate approaches offer themselves and among these are Short Form Fourier Transforms.
Highly Skewed Propellers • According to one manufacturer . 182 . The highly skewed design is characterized by a remarkable backward sweep of the edge in relation to the direction of rotation.the highly –skewed blade design offers perhaps the most beneficial type of propeller by reducing hull vibration and improving fuel consumption on most types of vessel. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. but their application on controllable pitch propellers has been fairly limited. • Highly skewed blades have been used for decades on fixed pitch propellers.
183 . • A skewed propeller will also reduce the dynamic forces absorbed through the propeller shaft.This reduces the rate of variation of cavitation with time and therefore vibration.Highly Skewed Propellers • On a propeller with sufficient skew on the blades . • There has been no full scale measurements but it has been experienced that a reduction in propeller induced vibration level of about 50 per cent. where it has been possible to compare conventional with highly skewed blades.the duration of the cavitation will be lengthened compared to conventional propeller . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
which commonly manifest themselves in local structural resonant behavior.Vortex Shedding Mechanisms • Vibration induced from the flow over structural discontinuities such as sea chest openings has been a troublesome feature in some ships and has prevented the meeting of localized comfort criteria. • Such vibrations. they are related to vortex shedding over the sea chest hull opening grills and. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. are clearly not directly related to machinery rotational speeds. • Rather. 184 . are Strouhal and Froude number dependent based on ship speed. therefore.
Vortex Shedding Mechanisms • These have included A-brackets. • The characteristics of these problems were high vibration levels in the ship structure or failure of the structural elements. extended centre-line skegs and fin appendages fitted to ships to improve course keeping stability. • Vortex shedding occurs when the fluid flow around the after part of an appendage is separated from the structure at a given Reynolds number and the oscillating pressures cause the elastic structure to vibrate. 185 . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
2. 186 . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. may increase the structural excitation. in turn.Vortex Shedding Mechanisms • The shedding frequency is given in terms of Strouhal number and for bodies with rough surfaces at ship scale it is frequently acceptable for estimation purposes to use a value for the Strouhal number of 0. • When structures vibrate in the transverse direction with a frequency at or near the vortex shedding frequency they tend to increase the strength of the shed vorticity which.
© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. the structural natural frequencies and damping and the interaction between the fluid flow and structural vibrations. Then once the vortex shedding frequency is synchronized with the frequency of the structure it will often tend to remain at that frequency even when the flow speed changes over a limited range. • The dynamic behavior of structures subjected to vortex shedding excitation depends upon the ship speed.Vortex Shedding Mechanisms • Furthermore. the structural profile and its trailing edge shape. 187 . if the vortex shedding frequency is close to the natural frequency of the structure it will move to the frequency of the structure.
Vortex Shedding Avoidance • Reduction of the vibration amplitudes of the structure caused by vortex shedding may be achieved by: • • Avoidance of resonance between the vortex-induced excitations and the structural natural frequency. • Resonance can be avoided by modifying either the vortex excitation frequency or the structural natural frequency. • • Lowering the vortex excitation levels. 188 . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • • Reducing response of the structure.
In all cases it is necessary to evaluate the structural natural frequencies and ensure that they are not coincident with the vortex shedding and propeller excitations © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • Other solutions can be to increase the vortex shedding excitation frequency by changing the structure‘s trailing edge shape. 189 .Vortex Shedding Avoidance • Ordinarily the structural natural frequency should be increased sufficiently to avoid resonances with vortex shedding mechanisms. That may be achieved by increasing the structure‘s stiffness or changing the aspect ratio.
• In particular after-body slamming can excite resonant conditions in the ship structure . frequently reduces with increasing ship speed. 190 . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. these events can be disturbing to passengers. in contrast to fore-body slamming. most typically the 2-node vertical mode. • The incidence of after-body slamming. This is because the ship‘s entrained wave system increases at higher speed and gives a measure of protection to the hull after-body from the otherwise uninterrupted incidence of the environmental wave system.After-body Slamming • Shock impacts such as slamming also need consideration since as well as generating structural tertiary stresses in the ship structure.
After-body Slamming • The incidence of after-body slamming. 191 . in contrast to forebody slamming. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • This is because the ship‘s entrained wave system increases at higher speed and gives a measure of protection to the hull after-body from the otherwise uninterrupted incidence of the environmental wave system. frequently reduces with increasing ship speed.
• Furthermore. recognizing that the resultant sea state comprises both underlying swell and wind induced wave components which strongly influence the directional slamming threshold. the slamming threshold speed is also dependent on the sea state. a common characteristic possessed by ships that suffer from after-body slamming is a relatively flat after-body design coupled with relatively small immersion.After-body Slamming • In addition to being a function of reducing ship speed. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 192 .
• Consequently. the exploration at an early design stage of hull forms that avoid this problem in association with the predicted sea and ship motions is of particular importance © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.After-body Slamming • after-body slamming has been known to occur in sea conditions with wave heights less than 1m. 193 .
194 .Thank you for your attention! © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.
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