Reporter: Jhermin Liza B.



Dispersion Limited
 For modern glass optical fiber, the maximum

transmission distance is limited not by direct material absorption but by several types of dispersion, or spreading of optical pulses as they travel along the fiber. Dispersion in optical fibers is caused by a variety of factors.

 Dispersion, expressed in terms of the symbol t, is defined as pulse spreading in an optical fiber. As a pulse of light propagates through a

fiber, elements such as numerical aperture, core diameter, refractive index profile, wavelength, and laser line width cause the pulse to broaden.

Pulse broadening caused by dispersion .


 Let the time takes for the zero order mode traveling along the central axis is given by: .

intermodal dispersion. intermodal distortion. modal distortion. and intermodal delay distortion. multimode dispersion.Dispersion Limited  Modal Dispersion  is a distortion mechanism occurring in multimode fibers and other waveguides. Other names for this phenomenon include multimode distortion. in which the signal is spread in time because the propagation velocity of the optical signal is not the same for all modes. .

Mode propagation in an optical fiber Modal dispersion is problematic in multimode fiber. . but it is not a problem in singlemode fiber where only one is allowed to propagate. causing bandwidth limitation.

Chromatic dispersion is the result of material dispersion. and the speed of light in fused silica (fiber) varies with the wavelength of the light. even within the same mode. waveguide dispersion. or profile dispersion. . dispersion.Dispersion Limited  Chromatic Dispersion  Chromatic dispersion represents the fact that different colors or wavelengths travel at different speeds.  Every laser has a range of optical wavelengths.

Chromatic Dispersion .

Refractive Index of Fused Silica .

practical fibers are not perfect. both polarization modes would propagate at exactly the same speed. If a were perfectly round and free from all stresses. resulting in zero PMD. However.Polarization Mode Dispersion  another complex optical effect that can occur in single-mode optical fibers. . the two perpendicular polarizations may travel at different speeds and. thus.  Single-mode fibers support two perpendicular polarizations of the original transmitted signal. consequently. arrive at the end of the fiber at different times.

Polarization Mode Dispersion .

Calculating Dispersion Computing PMD is quite difficult unless specific measurements are made on the particular fiber span of interest. .

a fiber with a 400-MHz-km bandwidth can transmit 400 MHz for a distance of 1 km or it can transmit 20 MHz of data for 20 km. . which results from modal and chromatic dispersion of the fiber. The primary limit on bandwidth is pulse broadening.System Bandwidth  Bandwidth measures the data-carrying capacity of an optical fiber and is expressed as the product of the data frequency and the distance traveled (MHz-km or GHz-km typically).  For example.

Typical values for different types of fiber .

1. Both methods provide much lower insertion loss compared to fiber connectors. Fiber optic cable fusion splicing – Insertion loss < 0.Splicing Technique Two optical fiber splicing methods are available for permanent joining of two optical fibers.Fiber mechanical splicing – Insertion loss < 0.5dB .1dB 2.

The fusion splicer performs optical fiber fusion splicing in two steps.Fiber optic cable fusion splicing  Fiber optic cable fusion splicing provides the lowest-loss connection. 1.Precisely align the two fibers 2. Special equipment called fusion splicer is used to perform the fiber fusion splicing.Generate a small electric arc to melt the fibers and weld them together .

Then carefully peel back the jacket and expose the insides. 2. Carefully clean all fibers in the loose tube of any filling gel with cable gel remover. Separate the fiber loose tubes and buffers by carefully cutting away any yarn or sheath. Strip fiber cable jacket. .Fiber optic cable splicing procedure 1. Leave enough of the strength member to properly secure the cable in the splice enclose. Strip back about 3 meters of fiber cable jacket to expose the fiber loose tubes or tight buffered fibers. Clean off all cable gel with cable gel remover. Cut off the excess jacket. 3. For a loose tube fiber cable. Strip fiber tubes. Clean cable gel. Use cable rip cord to cut through the fiber jacket. strip away about 2 meters of fiber tube using a buffer tube stripper and expose the individual fibers.

6. 5. . Put a fusion splice protection sleeve onto the fiber being spliced. and then remove the 5cm of 250um coating. Place the fusion splice protection sleeve. Secure the end of the loose tube to the splice tray and lay out cleaned and separated fibers on the table. Strip first splicing fiber. Strip and clean the other cable tube’s fiber that is to be spliced. For tight buffered fibers. and secure to the splice tray. Hold the first splicing fiber and remove the 250um fiber coating to expose 5cm of 125um bare fiber cladding with fiber coating stripper tool.Fiber optic cable splicing procedure Secure cable tubes. remove 5cm of 900um tight buffer first with a buffer stripping tool. 4.

Strip. Heat shrink the fusion splice protection sleeve. Fiber cleaving. Clean the bare fiber. and press the heat button. 10. cleave the fiber to a specified length according to your fusion splicer’s manual. 11. Fusion splicing. prevent the fiber from touching anything. 8. Place both fibers in the fusion splicer and do the fusion splice according to its manual. Carefully clean the stripped bare fiber with lint-free wipes soaked in isopropyl alcohol. clean and cleave the other fiber to be spliced. With a high precision fiber cleaver. Slide the fusion splice protection sleeve on the joint and put it into the heat shrink oven. 9.Fiber optic cable splicing procedure 7. After cleaning. Prepare second fiber being spliced. .

Close the splice tray. 13. Perform OTDR test. Close and mount the splice enclosure if all splices meet the specifications. Place splice into splice tray. 14. Mount the splice enclosure. . Bidirectional OTDR test (or power meter test). Carefully place the finished splice into the splice tray and loop excess fiber around its guides. After all fibers have been spliced. 16.Fiber optic cable splicing procedure 12. Perform a OTDR test of the splice and redo the splice if necessary. Ensure that the fiber’s minimum bending radius is not compromised. Test the splices with an OTDR or power meter from both directions. 15. carefully close the splice tray and place it into the splice enclosure.

 A mechanical splice is a small fiber connector that precisely aligns two bare fibers and then secures them mechanically.Fiber optic cable mechanical splices  Fiber optic cable mechanical splicing is an alternate splicing technique which does not require a fusion splicer. about 6cm long and 1cm in diameter that permanently joins the two optical fibers.  Mechanical splicing uses a small. mechanical splice. .

Their connection loss are usually less than 0. They are available in permanent and reenterable types.1dB fusion splice. are used to permanently fasten the splice. quite easy to use. and are very handy for either quick repairs or permanent installations.  Fiber optic cable mechanical splices are available for single mode or multimode fibers. or both.5dB which is much bigger than a 0.  .Fiber optic cable mechanical splices  A snap-type cover.  Fiber optic cable mechanical splices are small. an adhesive cover.


Splice tray .

OTDR test .

Bidirectional Power meter test .

Fusion splicing .

Fiber clever .

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