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DATA COMMUNICATIONS AND SWITCHING
Information must be transformed into signals before it can be transported across communication media.
Encoding performance parameters Signal spectrum Signal synchronization capability Signal error detecting capability Signal interference and noise immunity Cost and complexity .
Non–return to zero (NRZ) codes .
it is difficult to determine where each bit ends and another begins..e. •The lack of synchronization capability. i. This prevents the use of ac coupling.Advantages of NRZ schemes •The NRZ is the easiest encoding scheme to be engineered. Limitations (disadvantages) of NRZ schemes •The presence of the dc component. . •It makes an efficient use of bandwidth.
. level zero ) and – a binary 1 is represented by a positive or negative pulse.e.The Multi level binary codes Bipolar-AMI approach – a binary 0 is represented by no signal (i. . The binary 1 pulses must alternate in polarity.
– . a low–to–high transition represents a 0. The encoding of a binary logic 1 is represented by the absence of a transition at the beginning of the bit period. – Differential Manchester Code The encoding of a binary logic bit 0 is represented by the presence of a transition at the beginning of the bit period.The bi-phase codes – – The Manchester Code a high–to–low transition represents a 1.
To overcome this problem. then eight zeros of the octet are encoded as (0 0 0 + .Scrambling techniques A coding scheme that is commonly used in North America and based on a bipolar-AMI is known as Bipolar with 8–Zeros substitution (B8ZS) displayed in Fig. 8 zeros) occurs and the last voltage pulse preceding this octet was positive. •If an octet of all zeros occurs and the last voltage pulse preceding this octet was negative. The drawback of AMI code is that a long string of zeros may result in loss of synchronization.e.. 2. the encoding is amended with the following rules: •If an octet of all zeros (i.+).0 .6. then the eight zeros of the octet are encoded as (0 0 0 + 0 + -). .
Digital-to-Analog Encoding .
Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) A1 cos 2f ct S (t ) A2 cos 2f ct for logic 1 for logic 0 .
Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) A cos 2f1t S (t ) A cos 2f 2t for logic 1 for logic 0 .
Phase Shift Keying (PSK) A cos 2f ct S (t ) A cos 2f ct for logic 1 for logic 0 .
Switching Techniques •Circuit switching •Message switching •Packet switching .
Circuit Switching .
•blocking may occur when all lines are busy. i.. •delay is encountered prior to data transfer (of the order of 10-20 sec. .) •simultaneous availability of the two parties is necessary. delays are constant and small. communication takes place in real time.Features of circuit switching •one line is exclusively and continuously used per connection during the whole duration of information exchange.e. •fully transparent. •interactive session is possible. delivering is guaranteed and sequential. once connection is made.
channel may be idle for a significant portion of time. .Disadvantages of circuit switching • Inefficient For burst data. • Relatively expensive Charge is based on time and distance not on data transmitted. yet remain unavailable to another users. • Slow Delay prior to data transfer of few seconds for only few micro seconds for data transmission.
Message switching .
the message is stored and forward. delay at each node en route to destination may occur for receiving. header information must be included with each message. queuing. no limit on message size .e. at each node. node is a general purpose minicomputer.Features of message switching • • • • • • • no dedicated physical path is necessary in advance between the two stations.. fully transactional. no simultaneous availability of the two stations is required. i.
no blocking is encountered but queuing delay may occur. efficiency is greater as channel is used only when transmitting data. speed and code conversion can be employed. . if error is discovered. capable to send the message to many destinations by appending addresses.Advantages of message switching • • • • • • • simultaneous availability of the two is not necessary. it is possible to request retransmission. providing priority to users is possible.
not suitable for interactive connections. long queuing delay with great variance may occur. Usage of message switching It is not used in LAN due to delay and storage limitations. It is used in governmental. military and business applications for legal and historical reasons. .Disadvantages of message switching • • • • • • large storage capacity must be available at each node.
Packet switching .
suitable for interactive traffic.Features of packet switching • • message is divided into fixed-length packets. each packet is hold temporary at each node and then forward to the next node after confirming successful reception. • .
• • • • . This simultaneous use of communication circuits yields considerable gains in efficiency and minimizing delay. Lower congestion As packets may be routed through the network independently. they are less likely subject to errors than complete messages. congestion may be minimized by taking different routes to their destinations.Advantages over message switching • • Pipelining Packet 1 is transmitted from node B to node C at the same time that packet 2 is transmitted from node A to B. Lower errors As packets are short. This leads to lower probability of retransmission.
. Preferred when short data stream is transmitted. Packets do not follow the same route and delivery is not guaranteed. Call set up phase is avoided.(a) Datagram packet switching • • • • • • • Each packet is treated independently with no prior route determination. Routing decision at each node is required. More flexible. Packets may arrive out of sequence or be lost or duplicated.
Routing decision is made only once for each connection. Good for long messages and for relieving stations of processing burdens. This does not mean that there is a dedicated path as in circuit switching. Logical connection is established (call request. Delivery of packets in proper sequence with no errors is guaranteed. . call accept.(b) Virtual circuit packet switching • • • • • • • An initial set-up phase is used to set up a fixed route for all packets exchanged during the session between users. clear request). It is similar to circuit switching in that sense of route set up prior to data transfer. Routing decision is not required at each node . a packet is still buffered and queued. It appears to the as a dedicated physical circuit between source and destination although the circuit is shared among multiple users .
Packet Format .
Error Control Codes •Parity checks •Vertical and longitudinal redundancy checks .
Error Control Codes •Cyclic Redundancy Checks .
Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) Schemes There are two ARQ Schemes. namely. stop and wait ARQ and continuous ARQ. The choice of the scheme is based on: •the channel propagation delay •the packet size •the bit error rate on the channel •the trade-off between channel utilization and nodal storage .
Stop–and-Wait ARQ .
Continuous ARQ Go–back–N ARQ In this approach. This ensures that the blocks at the receiver are in correct sequence. . The disadvantage of that approach is that it is inefficient with respect to channel utilization especially at high errors. 2. the transmitter must retransmit the block that was detected in error as well as all succeeding blocks as displayed in Fig.20(a).
.Continuous ARQ Selective repeat ARQ Only the block detected in error is retransmitted in this approach as shown in Fig. but more buffer space and more complex processing are required at the receiving node to store all the blocks received correctly and then reassemble them into the correct sequence after the block originally in error is properly retransmitted. It is much more efficient with respect to channel utilization. A further drawback to selective repeat is that multiple errors in different blocks can lead to very complex recovery sequences. 2.20(b).
Continuous ARQ .
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